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J :  


















YoL. X.— SU-Z. 




*, n"' 

I h n 
/'■ '• 


Sabselliam..... Pago 

Amxu Dei on the Sacdnctoriom.. 

Wasbiuj; before or after a Meal. .. 

A Pnrty at Dinner or Snpper 


Arab Repa«t 

Antique Repreeentatlona of Susan- 

Figure of Svanterit 

The Swift 

Pnrple Qal linale 

Coins struck to Commemorate 

Laracor Charch 

Ancient Egyptian Pigs. 

Ancient Persian Swords and Dag- 

Ancient Egyptian Daggers. 

Ancient Aosyriau Sword 

Clatk^ical Swordtt and Daggers .... 

Modern Oriental Swords and Dag- 

Sword Brother 

Blaclc Mulberry-tree 

BIftck Mulberry Fruit, Leaf, and 

Sycamore near Axhkelon 

Sycimore Fig aud Leaf 

P'rob.ible Reprertentation of an An- 
ci#*ijL Synagogne 

Pl^tn of Ruined Synngogue at Tell 

Jewifth Synagogue in Amsterdam. 

PIau f*t Syracuse aud its Environs. 

CiyIu of Syracuse 

Map of Syria. 

Cartain-wall of Tabernacle Court. 

Curtain-wall of Bntrauce to Taber- 
nacle Court 

Plan of T>ibf}mac1e aud Court 

Sockets of the Tabernacle Court. . 

Bottom of the Coruer Planks of 

Plank^' on their Baees 

Fastenings for Top of Boards of 

Corner Board of Tabernacle (ac- 
cording to Riggenbach) 

Comer Board (according to Mur- 

Top and Bottom Parts of Comer 

View t»f the Wooden Walls of the 

Tabernacle as restored by Fergiis- 

Tabernacle as restored by Paine.. 

Rear of the Tabernacle 

Copper Tache in the Taberaade 

Inner Curtains 

Face and Section of Boards 

Corner Board and Sockets 

Comer Board showing one Ring.. 

Candelabrum of the Tiibernacle. .. 

Stone Tabernacle at Kintore 

Modem Oriental Table aud Tray.. 

Ancient Egypt iau Table 

Ancient Aerfyrian Table 

Table of Shew-bread 

Mount Tabor 

M«Klern Oriental Instraments 

Tamlx»urine Players 

Tabula Pacis. 

Natural Type of the *• Tache" 

Curtains of the Tabemacle 

Plan of the Ruins of Palmyra 

View of the Ruins of Palmyra. .... 

Tomb at Palmyra 

Figure of Talmai • 

Altar Taper 

Bearded ihuneL 

4lMap of the Coast of Tarsus. . . Page 
TiVlew of Tarsus 

89'Coins of Tarsus 

89iMartyr*8 Stone at Iladleigh 

SSTemple at Denderah 

84 Solomon's Temule 

Elevation of Solomon's Temple. . . 

89 Enclosure of Solomon's Temple. . . 

48.Qround-plan of Solomon's Temple 

40 Stractures of Solomon's Temple. . . 

44 Views of Solomon's Temple 

Herod's Temple 

49 Stone of the Wall of the Uaram at 

60 Jerusalem 

06 Angle of Temple Wall 

Restoration or Herod's Temple.... 

09 Ce les t i ul C i ty 

601 Assyrian Tents 

60Tent-pin and MuUeU 

60: Arab Tents 

I Ancient Assyrian Teraphim 

60.' Ancient Fiiriires 

61 Branch of Terebinth 

61 tlstaekia terebinthiut 


61 lUnminaiion of an Ancient TVxtus. 
68 A Theatine 

62 Plan of a Greek Tbeatre 

Ruins of the Theatre at Ephesus.. 

73 Map of the Plain of Thebes 

Plan of Temple at Knrnak 

TSjOreat Hall ai Karnak 

74 The Memnoninui at Thebes 

94 Coin of Theodosius I 

9» St. Theresa. 

96 View of The?)salouica. 

131, Coins «»f Thefsalonica. 

I Plan of Theosalouica 

131 Trinmphnl Arch at The^salonica.. 

131 'Arabian Tliirttle 

132 ZizifphitM Spina Chriati 

LifciHtn Enrnpcemn 

139 AeanthuA ttphu^Ha 

132 Centanrea ealcitrapa 

Oiionin Hpinoaa 

182 Aoicia and Brier Bush 

f*nlvirnn actdeattm 

188 Buicher's-broom 

Tribultu terresths 

188 The iVt/fc*, or />A<>m 

Figure of Thoth 

133 Oriental Threshing-floor 

Oriental Plain Threshing-sledge... 

133 Wheeled Threshing-sledges. 

lAHsytiau Chair of State 

184 Ancient Egyptian Throne 

134 Ecclesiastical Throne 






180; Pope's Tiara. 

137 " 



Herodlan Coin of Tiberias 

Town and I^ke of Tiberias 

Coin of Antioch 

144j Ancient Bricks 

I08j Assyrian Clay Tablet. 



103 Roman Tiles in Wheatley 

160 Tile in Westlelgh 

167 Tile in Canterbury Cathedral 

167 Tile Pavement of St. Paol's in 

108 Worms 

108 Tiles in Thame Church, Oxford- 
lOS shire 

160 Tile In Woodperry 

161 Ancient Oriental Tambourine 

162 Modem Egyptian Tambouriue.... 
166 Appendage to Modern Egyptian 

200 llead-dresB. 

201 Coin of Titus. 

220 Tablet on Arch of Tltns at Rome 
221; Page 448 

221 Roman Coffin, York. 4B» 

!*80 Tomb in Waterperry 46» 

204 Altar-tomb in St. Marv's, Thame .. 460 

2S6:Oravestonc in Great Jlilton 460 

206 Tombstone in Bredon 461 

866 Tombstone in llaudborough 461 

206 Ancient Roman Torches 49» 

207 Modern Oriental Torches 495 

207 , (JrimuMtix fthinijien 49T 

2081 Water-tortoltK* of Palestine 48R 

iSolitary Tower in the East fi08 

209 Ancient Aspyrians Attacking Mural 

209| Tower»« 008 

263|Roman M ilit a rv Towers 604 

264 Tower of Little Saxham Church .. 004 

278T.)werof Middleton Stoney 006 

278 Tower of Brookthorpe 606 

278 Tower of BrlHliugton 006 

283 Coin of EpbeHUS OOT 

2x3 Trajan's < -olurau in Rome 018 

284 Coiu of Traian 019 

2S4 Itaphael's Kepreiientation of the 

2JHJ Transflguration 084 

297Tnippist Monk and Nun ... 088 

302 Ancient As^vriam* Cutting down 

303 PalniH *. 081 

808 Assyrian Tartan 04S 

SOeiSpanish Trinitarian Monk. 060 

807 Trinitarian Nun 601 

808 Coins of Tri polls 007 

308Triptych OOT 

322 Triumphal Procession of Rame^es 

8481 IH 

30r Ancient Assyrian King in Proces- 

302 ; sion after Victories 

803| Assyrian King Placing the Foot on 

804; the Neck of an Enemy 

S64. Roman Triumph 


880 1 Ruins of the GymnaMum atTroas. 06t 

881 Plan of the Remains of Troas 061 

881 Plan of Trogyllium 06ft 

382 Ancient Egyptian Trumpets 06? 

883 VariouM Forms of Trumpets. OCT 

883iCoiuofTryphon OTO 

884iTudor Style 07* 

884|Map of Turkey in Europe 060 

SS6 I^titacia UrelniUhns 006 

887iTurret at Beck ley, Oxfordshire.... 099 

890 Turret of St. Mary's, Beverley O0» 

890 Turtur jfCgjjptiaeitH 600 

391 Columba Turtur 601 

801 , Tympanum of Doorway, Essendlne 607 

89'i Ancient Ini'ular Tyra 61» 

892 Map of Tyre 618 

SMEariy Coin of Tyre 614 

Syo.Mtxlern Tyre 6l» 

397 (3reek C«iiii of Tyre 619 

3i»7 Kninx ofTvre on the Mainland.... 620 

3l»8 Figure of feali 680 

3H8 Greek Uncials 681 

3i«*,Latin Uncials 681 

400lwild Bull 689 

40S|Unicom 689 

40&I House with an Aliyah 668 

406 Front View of the Balcony of a 

4001 •♦ Chamber on the Wall" 668 

406 Plan of Mngheir Ruins 670 

4n6 Ruins of Temple at Mngheir 671 

406 Ancient Kgyntinn Standing Fig- 
i ures t»f the Gt>d(le8.'* of Truth aud 

406' JuKiice 678 

lAncienl Egyptian Sitting Figure 

407 of the Goddess of Truth and Jus- 

407i tice 678 

410;F{gureH on Egyptian Breastplates. 678 
410iSt. I' r!»nla 681 

lUrsuline of Trois Rividres, Canada 682 

428Coiu of Valens 69T 

442,Coin of Valentinian I 






'Coin of Valentinlan 11 Page «0S, 

Coiu of Valeutiuian III 698| 

Colu of Valerian 700i 

Vane at Stauton HarcoarL 710 

Plan of Vatican Palace at Rome... 730 
specimen of the Codex VcUicanue. . 732' 

Oyllndrical Vault 738 

-Qnilued Vault 733 

Vault in Weatmiusler Abbey 733 

Vanltiug-Mhafl, Netley Abbey 734 

OrienlulOut-door VcIIb 737 

OrienUl lu-door Veils. :.... 738 

All Egyptian Woman Veiled 738 

A Syrian Veiled Woman 739 

Fignren of the Astiyrian Venus. . .  747 

Temple of the Paphian Venus 748 

St. Veronica 766 

Portrait of Christ on St. Veronica's 

Handkerchief 766 

Vesica Piscis, Ely Cathedral 706 

Ctiin of Vespasian 766 

Flgn re of Vesta 766 

Vexlllnm 709 

Antique Figare of Victory. 775 

Wine-cupe 776 

Anciento Reclining at Table. 776 

Vignette 781 

Angnstinian Hospital Sister of St. 

Thomas ofVilleneuve 785 

Da Vinci's First Sketch of Head of 

Chri«t 790 

Vine of Palestine 791 

Watch-tower in Vineyard 792 

Egyptian Vineyard and Wine-press 79B 
F&nrative Hieroglyphic Signifying 

Vineyard T96 

Ancient Egyptian Vineyard, with 

a large tank of water Page 

Frightening Away Birds with a 

sTing : 

Common Viper 

Oriental Viper 

Figure of Vishnu 

Habit of the Order of the Visitation 
of St. Mary 

Coin of Vitellius 

Vitruviau Scroll 



Antique Head of Vulcan 

Specimens of MSS. of the Vulgate. 

Egyptlun Vulture 

Griffon Vulture 

Ancient Assyrian Wagon. 

Turkish Arabah 

Robbers' Cave 

Kurdi.Hh Liersin Walt 

Walking-sticks found at Thebes. . . 

Priests and other Persons of Rank 
Walking with Sticks 

Specimens of Ancient Walls 

wall-painting, Ringstead 

A Watered Garden 

Pareuioxurtu typuB 

Polecat • 

Ancient Egyptian Women Weav- 

An £g3rptian Loom 

Modern Egyptian Shawl-weaver . . 

Ancient Egyptian Scales 

Assyrian Weights 

Ancient Egyptian Kabbdneh 

Ancient Egyptian Death Judg- 
796' ment Page 90« 

Well at Beersheba 904 

796 Ancient Egyptian Machine for 

79S, Raising Water 905 

798 Westminster Abbey 'MA 

802 Egyptian Wheat 916 

A nc en t Egyptian Chariot-wheel. 977 

804 Ancient Egyptian Whips 979 

806 Whip Suspended from the Wri!«t. 979 

806.Salix Aig:jvtiaea 10<i3 

813| Weeping Willow 10<»3 

816 Branch of the Weeping Willow. . . 1(»04 
824 Oriental Out-door Veils for Ladies 100S 
834 Oriental In-door Veils for Ladies. UMti 

840 Egyptian Wolf 1028 

840 Specimen of the Codex Guelpher- 

848 bytantis a 1029 

849 Common Wormwood 1067 

861 Artemitia Judaiea 1037 

861 Portrait of Wycllffe. . . .• 1042 

869 Library of the Young Men's Chris- 

> tian Association, New York City 1062 

869 Ruins at Surafend 1062 

806 Map of the Tribe of Zebnlnn 1066 

869.PassofSufA 1064 

885 Ruined Town of Sebalta 1065 

894 Modern Zidon 1092 

SMGreekCoinofZidon 1094 

Map of the Buvlrons of Zidon. . . . 1095 

895 View of Mount Zion 1100 

896 Map of the Original Surface of Je- 

896 rusalem 1101 

900TellZIf 1102 

900. Ain Jidy and the Cliff of Zix 1103 

901iZoan (now San) 1106 





Snada, the Roman personification of persuasion; 
the Greek Peitko, 

SuadSla, the diminutive of Su ada (q. v.). 

Su'ih (Heb. niO, Su'achySweepiftg [Geacn.], or rtcA- 
^s [FUrst] ; Sept. Sdve)? first named of the eleven " sons" 
of Zophah an Asherite (1 Chron. vii, 36). B.C. appar- 
ently cir. 1020. 

Snarda (or Saarea)) Josrph Marik, a French 
preUte and antiquarian, was bom July 5, 1599, at Avi- 
^on, and educated at his native place. Having em- 
braced the ecclesiastical state, he became the coadju- 
tor of his uncle Francisco Suarez (q. v.) as provost of 
the cathedral, and afterwards went to Rome, where car- 
dinal Barberini gave him charge of his library. Hav- 
ing received several additional honors, he was at length 
promoted by Urban VIII, in 1633, to the bishopric of 
VaixKon. in which capacity he attacked Calvinism ; but 
he tinally resigned in favor of his brother Charles, and 
retired to Rome, where he died, Dec 7, 1677. His an- 
tiqaarian writings are enumerated in Hoefer, Nouv, 
Biftg, GhuraUj s. v. 

His brother Charles Joseph, bom at Avignon in 
1618. became priest in 1641, succeeded to the bishopric 
of Vaison in 1666, and died there Nov. 7, 1670. 

A nephew of both the preceding, Louis Alphoksk, 
bom June 6, 1&12, at Avignon, studied theology at the 
Seminary of St. Sulpice, succeeded his uncle as bishop 
of Vaison in 1671, held a synod there in 1673, and died 
March 13, 1685, near Sorgues, in Vaucluse. 

A nephew of the last preceding, Louis MariRi was 
bUhop of Acqs (now Dax) in 1736, and died April 17, 

Suarez, Francisco, a Spanish Jesuit, bora at Gra- 
nada, Jan. 5, 1548, was a professor of reputation at Al- 
«ala, at Salamanca, and at Rome. He was afterwards 
invited to Coimbra, Portugal, where* he became the 
principal professor of divinity. He died at Lisbon, 
Sept. 25, 1617. He was an author of the most volu- 
minous kind, and the Jesuits consider him the greatest 
aind best scholastic divine that their order has produced. 
See his writings in Hoefer, Nouv, Biog, GhUrale^ s. v. 
He is the principal author oi the system of congmism, 
-which is at bottom only that of Molina. Father No^l, 
m French Jesuit, made an abridgment of the works 
of this commentator (Geneva, 1732, fol.). There is a 
Life of him by Antony Deschamps (Perpignan, 1671, 

Saayambhu, in Hindii mythology, was the son of 
Bramah and ancestor of the human race. His daugh- 
ter Devagdhi was married to Kartama, one of the great 
progenitors, and bore nine daughters, who became the 
wives of the nine remaining progenitors. By Satarupa, 
the daughter of Bramah, Suayambhu became the fa- 
ther of five other children, whose offspring contributed 
towards the extension of the human family. — Vollmer, 
Wih-t€rlK d MjfthoL a. v. 

X.— A 

Su'ba (Xovfidc V. r. Sa/3i4), a name given only In 
the Apocrypha (1 Esdr. v, 84) among the sons of Solo- 
mon's servants who returned with Zembbabel from the 
Captivity; but not found in the parallel Hebrew lists 
(Ezra ii, 35-87 ; Neh. vii, 37-39). 

Su'bai (£t;/3ai)> a Gnecized form (1 Esdr. v, 30) of 
the Shalmai (q. v.) of the Hebrew lists (Ezra ii,46; 
Neh. vii, 48). 

Subarrhation, a term denoting the delivery by 
the bridegroom to the bride of the ring and other gifts 
at the time, and during the act, of marriage. 

Subcanon, an inferior or minor canon (q. v.). 

SubchanceUor, or Scribe. The notary of Itat> 
ian cathedrals is the chancellor's vicar, called also reg- 
istrar or matricular, and at St. Paul's, in 1280, designateid 
as scriptor librorum. He acted as assistant secretary, 
librarian, lecturer in theology and law, and teacher of 

Subohanter, or Saccentor, the deputy of the 
precentor, the principal among the vicars in choir. 
The precentor sat on the right-hand side of the choir,, 
and the succentor on the left. His office was usually 
the gift of the chapter ; occasionally, however, he was 
nominated by the precentor. There were two kinds of 
subchanters: 1. The succentor of canons, or succentor- 
major (first mentioned in the Uth century), at York, 
Bayeux, Paris, Amiens, Glasgow, Chalons, Girgenti, 
Wells, and Salisbury, acted as precentor's deputy with 
regard to the canons; he ranks after the subdean, and 
the office was given by the diocesan. At Amiens he in- 
stalls canons in the lower stalls ; at Rouen he holds a 
prebend and regulates processions; he is often called 
precharUre in distinction from the grand chantre, 2. 
A vicar, deputy, and assistant precentor. At Seville 
and Placcntia and in England he tabled the ministers 
for scr\'ice; at Chichester and Hereford he chastised 
the boys, and ordinarily his duties were confined to or- 
dering processions, delating offenders, and general su- 
pervision of the lower choir: he could not correct a 
canon. His office appears at Chichester and St. Da- 
vid's in the I3th ccntur}- ; he corresponds to the pre- 
centor of the new foundations. At Lichfield and St. 
David's the subchanter is head of the Vicar's Col- 

Subdeacon. The ancient Christian Church had 
but two classes of officers, the presidents^ Trpotara/ievoi, 
irot/icvcc* tfyovfifvoif also iviaKovot^ irpiaj^vripoi, and 
the servants, StaKovoi ; the former being charged with 
functions within the field of worship, while the latter 
were employed in administering the charities of the 
Church. In time, the episcopacy was developed out of 
the presbyterate, and the subdiaconate from the diac- 
onate. The latter was always regarded by the Church 
as of human invention, and as having been introduced 
" utilitatis causa" (see Morinus, Comm, de S, Eccles, Or- 
dincU, Exercitai, xi, 1 ). Its introduction was, more- 


fver, gradual, and not uniA>rm throughout the Church, ding -night, whose office it was to render the newly 
Some churches were without subdcacons as late as the married maidens favorably disposed towards their hus- 
middle of the 0th century ; and, before the hierarchy bands. 

- ^ ,. , . ^ _, , . ^ . . ^ ,^ period in the Church, and in consequence ascetics in- 
ter of iwpe Cornelius to bishop Jabnis of Antioch (Eu- ^ent^ the plan of remaining unmarrietl and Uking into 
seb. Hut. Eccles. vi, 43 ; c«)mp. Jaffe, Ktffejtt. Poniif, No. spiritual union with themselves voung virgins (d^i\4^a,\ 
8); in Spain as early as A.D. 305, in ch. 30 of the ^ro^es, sisters). The relation 'is alreadv hinted at in 
Synod of Elvira; m Afnca about the middle of the Hennas, but becomes more frequent in the 3d century-, 
8d century, m different letters of Cypnan (2, 3, 29, 30, ^hen Cyprian condemns it. Its spiritual character wis 
etc); and in the East by the middle of the 4th cen- gjjeedily lost, and it soon became necessarj- to legislate 
tury, as appears from determinations of the Synod of against the abuses to which it gave rise. The question 
Uodicea in 361 (Dist. xxiii, 21-23), and a letter of ^^^s discussed at the trial of Paul of Samosata. at Aiiti- 
Athanasius (.4 d Holitar. A.D. 330). ^^^1, in 269 (see Eusebius). In 305 the Council of Ele- 

The subdeacons were reckoned among the class of ^^^8 forbade the olcrgv to have "sisters" living with 

Ordines Mimns, and their functions were of inferior th^,^. ^„^i ^^,3^ ,,f ^ncvra in 314. and of Nice in 326, 

dignity. They were permitted to touch the sacred ves- prohibited ai»sociation with all females whose relation 

sels if empty, m this having a pre-eminence over oth- ^ ^^c clergvman did not obviate all suspicion (mother, 

er Mwores ; but, in general, their duties were simply the gj^t^,^ ^tc).' Subsequent legislation on t he part of both 

receiving of oblations (hence Oblatum<iru), the care of Church and State was in the same direction ; e. g. of 

the tombs of martyred saintis the guarding of church- ^j,^ ^^ird (>)uncil of Carthage in 897 (C4in. 17, 27) and 

doors during the administration of the sacrament, etc. ^.^ ^^ ^^„-^, ^f ckricis i, 3, 19 oMIonorius and i'heo- 

In course of time the reading of the lesson from the ^^i^,^ 420 ; Novella cxxiii, 29; cxxxvii, 1, in >*-, of 

epistles was added and became their leading function. Justinian. 

The importance of the subdiaconat* was enhanced when 'I'^e practice of keeping subintrodud^. or ertraw^g, de- 

(iregorj- the Great included it under the operation of the ^eloped into wimplete concubinage, and became so gen- 

law of celibacy (Dist. xxxi, 1), and yet more when its ^.^al that constiintlv repeated prohibitions became neces- 

members were made eligible to the episcopal office by ^^,^ u„der penalty of degradation. Upon the wh<.le 

the CouncU of Benevento in the pontiticate of Urban II, subject, see l\run^' Cawmes ApostoL, etc In the 1 1 th 

1091. The question now arose whether the subdiaco- ce^ury the torm focarifE began to be applied to this dis- 

nate must not be countetl among the Orduies Majore*, reputable class (»*mcrctrices foco as8identes"\ and the 

which was finally determined by Innocent HI in favor p^egts were termed focarist^r, i. e. concvbinani, fortiira- 

of such promotion. Subdeacons thereby acquired the f^res. See Du Fresne, (ihuufar, s. v.; Gieseler, Kirckn^ 

rights of the superior orders as respects |)ersonal in- ^^^ 4^^ ^d. voL i-iii, passim ; Gerh, Magni (d. 1384) 

dependence, etc They assume a title at ordination, g^rmo de FocaristU et Notoriis Foniicttt. (i)resd. 1859) ; 

take vows of celibacy, etc, and are f<.rbiddcn to return Trident. Cone Sess. xxv, 14, De RfJhrm.-Uenog, Jieal^ 

to secular life. Their ordination is, however, peculiar, jjincyklop, s. v. See Agai'kt.«. 
in that the candidates are not presented to the fonse- * * 

craUng bishop by the archdeacon, the laying -on of Subjectivism is thedoctnne of Kant that all hu- 

hands and questioning of the |>cople are not used, and ™*" knowledge is merely relative, or, rather, that we 

the consecration is perfi)rme«l instead bv "traditio in- ^anno' Pf?^®!^ *f be absolute. According to him, we 

Btrumentorumetvestium." The beginning of the t wen- cannot objectt/y the subjective ; that is, we cannot prove 

ty-second vear was (ixeti bv the Council of Trent (Sess. ^^^^ ^^^^ appears true to us must appear true to aU 

xxiii, 12,i>e Reform.) as the proper age for entering «»telligent beings; or that, with different faculties, whmt 

on this office, and a vear is recjuired to intervene before ""^ appears true to us might not apiiear untrue. But to 

ordination to the diiconate mav follow, bishops, how- *^ our knowledge relative is merely caUing it human, 

ever, may depart fn)m this rule when needful (Sess. or proportioned to the faculties of a man; just as the 

xxiii, 1 1 , Kichter, A7rcA«»/•erA^ § 1 13). At the pres- knowledge of angels may be called angelic Ourknowl- 

ent time, the subdiac«>nate exists^imply as a stage on «*«« ^^Y ^ a^iniitted to be r«Utive to our faculties of 

the way to higher stations, and its functions are gen- apprehending it ; but that does not make it less cer. 

erally performed by Uymen and presbyters. The term ^»n- See Fleming, Vocab. of Philosoph. Science, s. v. 
is sometimes used' in Protestant churches, but without Sublapaariaua, or Imfralapsakians, is the name 

denoting any distinction of order. given by the orthodox Reformed theologians to those 

See Morinus, De Sacris Ordinatiombus^ pt, iii,exercit. who consider th« divine decree of election as dependent 

12, Thomassinus, Vet. et Nov, Eccl. Discipl. tlx^ dO sq., upon that which permitted the introduction of evil. 

Seitz, Beckt des Pfarramtes, II, i, 415 sq.; Richter, Kir- The supralapsarianSj on the contrarj-, consider the de- 

chenrecht, § 91, 103, 113 ^ Coleman, Ancient Chiist, Ex- cree of election, or of predestination to eternal salvation 

emplijied, viii, 11 ; Herzog, Real-Etuyklop. s. v.; Wal- or damnation, as the original decree upon which all oth- 

cott, iiacred ArchteoL s. v. ers, including that permitting the introduction of evil, 

Subdean. There were three kinds of subdeans: ^^^P*"^- 'f *><^ question consequently refers to the order 

1. The vice-dean. 2. The dean's vicar, his subofficer, »n which these two decrees were promulgated, or, which 

assbtant when present, and deputv when a.sent, vice- amounUi to the same, to a nearer appreciation of the oh- 

gerent in choir, as at Lichfield: both had a simiUr of- )^^^ "^ predestination, i.e. whether Cod in issuing his 

fice,that of supplying the duties of the dean in his ab- '^^^^ «f elw^V''" ^^""^^"^ ?"" ^*"** the angels) aa 

eence. 8. The capitular subdean; the perpetual sub- ?11««^' ««- fimply as subjects whose etenial fate was to 

dean, who is said to hold a place which is a quasi-dig- ^ *iecide«l apart from the consideration of 8111, although, 

nitv in the gift of a bishop. He has a stall, and cor- of course, knowing what would be their conduct. Both 

resiMHids to the foreign archpnest having parochial "P"»""» »'«^e been permitted to exist side by side id 

charge of the close. The office was founded in Salis- the Church even in times of the greatest intolerance, 

bury in 1021. For a full account of his duties in the «-S »» '^^«»»^>'' '^»? question does m no way affect the 

•everal cathedrals, see Walcott, Sacred A rchcoL s. v. ^'/^m^' ^^ predestination. Both systems hold to the fun- 

damental principles that election is absolute, not moti- 

SubdiaconiBBa, a terra applied, in the early ^,^^^^ 1,^ ^^y cause outside of God's will, unchangeably 

Church, to the wife of a subdeacon. settled since' the beginning of the world, and infallible 

BMigOB, a Roman divinity, the god of the wed- in its action. Yet the Synod of Dort, in 1618-19, en- 


doned the niblapaariAn theory, Gomarus alone uphold- | cred in the plan of creation as having occurre<l, or even 
ing sapnUapurianism, without, however, ceasing to be that the entrance of sin into the world might have oc- 
considered orthodoiL. The synod had recognised that curred in a different manner than in that which (iud 
both systems preserved the same fundamental doctrine, I freely appointed in his scheme of creation. Sec Hagen- 
aud only preferred subla{>sarianism as presenting that bach, Dogmengesch.iiCi e<i. p. 689; Schweizer, Rt-f. Jhpff- 
<k»ctriue in a form less objectionable to other churches. ; matikj ii, 123 sq.; the same, Gt»ch, d, rtf, Cfmtrul'lUtf/- 
This question had no connection whatever with Armin- i men^ ii, 43, 55, 181. 
ianism, for not even the slightest appearance of a con- Subleyras, Piekrf:, a French painter and engrav- 

ceasiun to those views would have been tolerated. In 
1675, at the drawing -up of the Formula Cowetuus^ 
the Swim refused expressly to endorse sublapsarianism 

er, was boni at Uz^s in 1(399, and was the mn of Mat- 
thieu Subleyras, a painter of considerable merit.. Pierre, 
at the age of fourteen, went to Toulouse in order to 

for fear of appeanng thereby to cast blame on^the su- receive lessons from Antoine Kivalx. In 17'24 he went 

rraUpsanans. The most emnient theologians, such as ^ p^rfs, took the course in the Academv. and in I72i; 

Beza,Piscalor,VoeUus,bomarus, etc, upheld the strict- gained the Krst prize. He went to Rome in 1728 as 

er system. It is only in raoaem times that sublapsa- ^oval pensioner, and die<l there, Mav 28, 1749. He 

nanism has come to be considereii as a real diminishing ^^^^^ ^..^^al sacred and ecclesiastical scenes which 

of the difficulties of the orthodox Reformed <loctrines; have been greatlv admired. See Hoefer, Xohv. Jiiin,. 

but the ancients, who appreciated it more correctly, General*' s. v. ' 
did not look upon it as such, and consequentlv did not ga i^x \ k 

«pp»jee it. The general principles of the system were „ ^'^H^?™?,*;^^'^ ,".'^'' *" ^"^^ ^^^ *" '^^ '^»&" ""^ 

an follows: The world, and man at first, answered ex- "«"'y ^ "^» >" 1534, which makes royal license neces- 

actly to the divine phin : man was created in primitive «*^ ^" ***« ^'**»^".^ "^ *^'^*"» "^^ "^ convocation, 
purity, fell by his own voluntary act, and thus became SUBMISSION to God implies an entire giving- 

subject to retribution, and this infallibly; and although up of our understanding, will, and affections to him; 

all ar« bad alike, yet some are redeemed by grace and ««•. as Dr. Owen observes, it consists in — I. An acqui- 

made bkasedfbut the others remain unredeemed, and— escence in his right and sovereignly ; 2. An acknowl- 

ma all, even those who are saved, deser\'e— are damned, edgment of his righteousness and wisilom ; 3. A sense 

AU this happens exactly as it was originally decided in of his love and care ; 4. A diligent application of oiir- 

t he organization of the' world, and because' it was thus selves to his mind and will; 6. Keeping our soul^ 

decided. The decrees were all equally promulgated by by faith and patience, from weariness and despon- 

iiod from all eternity without one having precedence dency ; 6. A full resignation to his will See Rksio- 

over the other. Yet we are obliged to distinguish the kation. 

different decrees according to their reUtion to each oth- Subprebendary, a prebendan' in inferior orders, 
er as the final decree in«lu.les necessarily the means by Subprecentor. an assistant to and substitute for 

which Its object IS to be atuined; and these decrees con- ^,,^ pre<intor of a church or cathedral, whose dutv it is 

cemmg the means even precede the decree on the final ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^,^j ij^ j,,^ ^i„ i i„ ^^^ absence of the 

rei4Ut, yet only in causality, not m time, since there is jv^pcentor 

no time with God. The supralapsarian svstem, on the ^,' «,... ,.» ., 

other band, holds that the final object of creation, in- Subprlor. an official m a priory, who is the priors 

dependent from any other, is the reveUtion, the self- »^eputy, and is ordinarily second in rank to the pnor. 
manifestation of God, ami that in his two great attri- Subramanya Mahaskna, in Hindd mythology, 

botes of mercy and justice — mercy on those he saves, meaning the f/reat If (tdtr of armies, is a suniame o( Kur- 

joatice on those he leaves to the punishment they de- tikeyaj the son of Siva and the sisters (Jonya and Uma. 
serve. All other decrees serve but as means for this Subnincin&tor, a Roman divinity who presided 

l^reat object of the creation ; in this view God created over the wee<Ung and grubbing of gardens. 

men, then permitted the introduction of sin, thus mak- o,,i».«^^.«. «„ — :^»-«* ♦/» ^, a^^.,*,, «f tu^ «• 
', \'. ^ ^ t_. , . r u« 1 BUDsacrlSt, an assistant to, or deputv of, the or- 

ing them objects of h« M^;at««n or of his condemna- ^. ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^J^^ ' ,y^^^^ ^^.^^ 

tion which were decided beforehand. In consequence ^ /^ ^^ ^^^^ ^,^^^^ ^„^ ^^^. church -cleaners, 
ofth«e %news, that school asserts that in issuing the be,i'.ri„gers, etc At' Lincoln thev were caUed stall- 
decree of elej^ion God looked on man merely as man, j^^ *^ ^^ york, clerks of the ves'tibule ; and at Can- 
"f*J!!T"^ *?' hence, also, (^maros names as objects ^^^ vesturers. 
of toe decree of predestination the " creatune rationa- -, i. , 

Inles, servabiles, damnabiles, creabiles, labUes, et repara- SubsacrlBtan. See Sibsacriht. 
biles," L e. creatures considered yet as without any de- Subscription, Ci^ricai^ Subscription to arti- 

termined properties. The sublapsarians arranged the cles of religion is required of the clergy of every cstab- 

plan of creation in such a manner that God, from mo- lished Church, and of some churches not established. 

tives of his own, decreed to create man, and to allow 
btm to sin. knowing that he would infallibly do so; and 
from these decrees they make the other decree de|)end — 
whereby some are saved, though no better than the 
others, and the others damned, though no worse ; and this 
manifestaUon of mercy to some and of justice to others 

"The most stringent and elaborate subscription prob- 
ably ever enforced," says Dr. Stanley, " was that in the 
duchy of Brunswick, when duke Julius reijuired from 
all clergA', from all professors, from all magistrates, a 
subscription to all and everything contained in the 
Oinfession of Augsburg, in the Apologj' for the Confes- 

coiMtitutes the justification of the whole. This is their ; sion, in the Smalcaldic Articles, in all the works of 
wh<^ difference. The two methods uphold the same > Luther, and in all the works of Chemnitz" {/j'tter on 

divctrine of absolute predestination, only the supralapsa- 
rians present it in a stricter, more imperious manner, 
without, however, lessening the guilt of roan or making 
God the originator of evil ; the sublapsarian method is 
more cautious in its expression, although it upholds 
predestination as firmly, and the guilt of man in the 
Fall ; for what God allowed in his plan is not permitted 
because God foresees what will happen, but only be- 
cause be wills it. The siipralapsariaiis, uideed, say ttiat 
the Fall itself was predestined, but mean only that it 

State of Subscription^ p. 37). The Churcli of England 
only requires this kind of assent to the Thirty-nine Ar- 
ticles and the Book of Common I^raver. But it has 
been a matter of dispute whether it answers any valu- 
able purpose as to religion, however necessary as a test 
to loyalty. All language is more or less ambiguous, so 
that it is difficult always to understand the exact sense, 
or the animus itnponentisj especially when creeds have 
been long established. It is said that the clergy of the 
churches of Kngland and Scotland seldom consider them- 

was iofalliUy to come ; while, on the other side, the | selves as fettered by the Thirty-nine Articles or the Con- 
sablapMiians do not in any way mean that the Fall fession of Faith, when compi)sing instructions for their 
might not have happened, that it could only be consid- . parishes or the public at large. It is to be feared, in- 


deed, that nuui}' subscribe merely for the uke or emol- 
ument; uid tboogh it be proreuedlf ex oniina, it is 
well known Ihit it is not so in reslity; for wbeii any 
one appears la entertain conscientiDua scruples on the 
subject, lie is told it is a Ihiug or no consequence, but 

■of tun 

in favor of 

ttUnley presenta thefiillowing argi 
repeal: I. Tbe flret is, that there are signs of a grow- 
ing reluctance, due in some part to the stringency of 
present subscriptions, on the part of thoughtful young 
men, to enter the ministry of the Church. 2. There is 
some recentcTiilcnce, especially at the universities, tbst 
the abolition of subscription has not tended ui the inju- 
ry of the Church or to any increased disbelief of her 
doctrines. 3. But, more especially, there is a growing 
Jisposition tn interpret adtiesioii to futroularies more 
narrowly than iu former times. See Paley, J/or. Fhil. 
i, 218; Dyer, 0» SubKriplioa ; Doddridge, Ltd. lect. 
70 i ConyljeBre, Sfrnion on Hubteriptum ; Free and Ctm^ 
did IHtquUilvrntnUitinglolht Church of Kutfimd; Tht 
CaafitiiaHat; Duncan and Miller, On Crtedi; Stanley, 
A Uatr to the Lord Hithop of London on tie Slate of 
Subteriptim in Iht Chni'ch of ErK/land and m Iht Uni- 
rertily of Oxford, 

Snbaellium, a term given in the early Church to 
the footstool pruvided for persons of distinction. U[wn 
Chrialian monuments Uod is represented as using the 
subaclUuni while receiving the offerings of Cain and 
Abel; our Lord, when leaching his disci|iles; ami the 
Holy Vinfin, in the adoration of the magi. The epis- 
copal chairs were also provideil with them, ami, to show 
their submisaion to bishopH, persons were accustomeil tu 
seat themselves thereupon. They were also called (ru- 
brilntn, mbpogitoiiam, tupptdiinetint. 

Siibselliiim was likewise a name for the seats of the 
presbyters, in the ancient Cliurch, on each side of the 
bishop's throne, in the upper ^urt of the chsnceL called 
the aptu. Also the two lower steps in a sedilia, i. e. 

BnbBextou. See Subsacrista:<. 

Sabstance (Lat. lub, under, ito or ttmu, to stand) 
is literally that which subsists by itself. In Greek. 
substance is denoted by oiaia i hence, lial tnhtch truly 
it, or tumor, seems to be the proper meaning of suth- 
stance. It is opposed to aceidml; of which Aristotle 
baa said that you can scarcely predicate of it that it is 


anything. Our flnt idea of mhtkmce is probably de- 
rived from the consciousness of self— tbe conviction that, 
while our sensations, thoughts, and purposes are chang- 
ing, ice con ^nue the same. We see bodies, also, remain- 
ing the same as toqnantity or extension, while their col- 
or and figure, their stsle of motion or of rest, may M 
changed. .Subsiances are either primary, that is, un- 
gular, individual substances^ or terondary, that is, gen- 
era and species of labttana. Sabslancea have also been 
divided into tompttte and iacomplrlt,faiitt and injftnW. 
But these are rather dirisiona of «i^. Substance may, 
howev^, l>e properly divided into matter and spirit, or 
that which is extended and that which thinks. Sub- 
stance is given by Aristotle as one of the four principles 

rorm or essence, moving or efficient cause, and end. He 
say^ further, that tbe individual alone has labilaBlial 
existence, and dcflnes ovaia, in the sense of the individ- 
ual substance, as that which cannot be predicat«d of 
anything else, but of which anything else may be pred- 
icated. Johannes Philoponus of Alexsndria, by ex- 
tending the Aristotelian doctrine, that substantial exist- 
ence is to be predicated in the fullest sense only of in- 
dividuals, Ifl the dogma of the Trinity, thereby in- 
curred tbe accusation of tritbelsm. John Scotus r^ 
garded the Deity as the substjince of all things, and 
could not, therefore, regard individual, concrete things 
as substances, of which the general may be predicated 
and in which the accidental is contained. lie views 
all things, rather, as contained in the divine substance, 
Berengarius of Tours (Dt Sacra Cma) dispute.i the 
theory of a change of mbttanrr, claimed by the advo- 
cates of Iransubslanliation, without a corresponding 
change in the accidents, i. e. a^hange in the bread and 
wine apparent to the senses. Roscellinus teaches that 

pnrl is, as such, nut a substance, but the result of that 
subjective separation of the substance into parts which 
we make in [thought and in] discourse, (iilbertus thus 
speaks: The intellect collects the universal, which ex- 
ists, but not as a substance (eti, ttd mm tuMal), from 
the particular things which nut merely are {lunl), but 
also (as subjects of accidents) have substantial exist- 
ence, by considering only their substantial similarity 
or conformity. Descartes defines mis^unes as follows; 
"By mbitiinM we can only understand that which so 

encei" and adds that, " indeed, only one substance can 
be conceivcil as plainly needing nothing else in order to 
its existence, namely, God; for we jdainly perceive 
that all others cannot exist without (lod's assistance." 

itself. Slid is to be conceived by itself. There is only 
one substance, and that is God. This substance has 
two fundamental qualities or attributes cognizable by 
us, namely, thuught and extension; there is noexteiul- 
ed substance as distinct from thinking substance." 
" There are not two substances equal to each other, 
since such substances would limit each other. One 
substaiice cannot produce or be proiluced by another 
substance. Kvery substance which is in Goil's infinite 
understanding is also really in nature. In nnlure there 
are not different substances; nature is one in essence, 
and identical with GikI." Locke says, " The mind, be- 
ing furnished with a great number of simple ideas, con- 
veyed to it by sensation and reflection, remarks that • 
certain number of them always go together; and «nce 
we cannot imagine that which is represented by them 
as subsisting by itself, we accustom ourselves to suppoae 
a substratum in which it subsists, and from which it 
arises; this substratum we call a lubilai'v. The ide* 
of tnbila»ce contains nothing but the suppoulion of an 
unknown something serving as a support for qualiries." 
Leibnitz gives the name monad to simple, tinex tended 
lubMana; that is, a substance which has the power of 
action i active force (like the force of the strained bow) 
is the essence of substance. He held that the divisibil- 




as all the *^ original eye-witnesses and ministers of the 
Word" had deceased. See Apostle. 

b. The " sign" of an apostle was the power of confer- 
ring miraculous endowments upon others by the imposi- 
tion of hands. This is often referred to in the Acts and 
Epistles as a distinguishing mark between them and 
oniinary Christians. All believers during the primi- 
tive period of the Church enjoyed these preternatural 
gifts, which were first imparted on the day of Pente- 
cost (Acts ii, 4) ; but the apostles alone were empow- 
ered to communicate the same to subsequent accessions 
(viii, 19). Hence when the original apostles died, these 
miraculous manifestations soon ceased, and have never 
been renewed. The Roman Catholic Church claims, 
indeed, a like power of miracle-working for eminent 
saints of later times, but it has never had the hardi- 
)ioo<l to aver that its ^'apostolical succession" is invari- 
ably accompanied with this peculiar gift. How pre- 
posterous, then, for sober Christians to set up a preten- 
sion that legitimately involves such impossibilities! 
See Gifts, Spikituai* 

2. Even the claim of an uninterrupted clerical wc- 
eession is incapable of proof. All the modern churches 
of Europe and this country, which set up this claim, 
trace their lineage ultimately through the Roman pon- 
tiffs. But the records of the early popes are irrecover- 
ably lost. It is not certain that Peter (q. v.) ever was 
in Rome, much less that he ever acted as bishop there. 
All efforts to make out the asserted succession thus fail 
at this initial point. Many other links in the chain 
are historically wanting. 'I'he lineage is a myth, or at 
best a mere eking -out of probabilities by vague and 
late traditions. This is now candidly admitted by the 
best and most careful Protestant scholars. The title is 
indefensible. See Pope. " I am fully satisfied," says 
bishop Hoadly, '* that till a consummate stupidity can 
be happily establuihed, and universally spread over the 
land, there is nothing that tends so much txt destroy all 
due respect to the clergy as the demand of more than can 
be due to them ; and nothing has so effectually thrown 
contempt upon a regular succession of the ministry as 
the calling no succession regular but what was unin- 
terrupted; and the making the eternal salvation of 
Christians to depend upon that uninterrupted succes- 
sion, of which the most learned must have the least 
assurance, and the unlearned can have no notion but 
through ignorance and credulity." (See below.) 

3. The claim is offensive and tends to biffotry and eX' 
dusivettess. In the Roman Catholic, Greek, and An- 
glican churches, this tendency and result are notorious, 
and in the High-Church party of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church they arc almost equally obvious. In fact, 
'*a good churchman," as he is styled, is compelled by 
this fact to hold himself aloof from other communions, 
and such a rule is avowed, more or less distinctly, in 
the canons and regulations of all the bodies last named. 
This single circum.ttancc is to-day one of the greatest 
scandals of Christendom. No principle can be just 
which leads to such unchristian lack of brotherlv kind- 
ness. See Charity. 

4. The asstrfion is unnecessary^ unwise^ and based 
ujMH a wrong view of ttx'lesi*tstical polity. The true 
evi<lences of an evangelical Church are the conversion, 
sanctiHcation, and salvation of souls ; the propagation 
of a spiritual Gospel, and the amelioration of the state 
of society. But the **churchly" claim referred to turns 
the attention of its adherents too earnestly upon their 
own organization and technical order, and thus leads 
them away from a broad and catholic spirit, and from 
a wholesome personal experience, as well as from the 
highest forms of individual and collective usefulness. 
The <)ue8tion with them habitually inclines to be, not 
what will best promote the welfare of Christendom at 
large, and most effectually promote personal holiness ; 
but what must be done to subserve party pur})oses, and 
keep up the pretensions of a select circle. The Church 
i:i too often put in the place both of Christ and man. 

This, alas, is no ideal picture ; it is but the record of sad, 
solemn fact. Ecclesiasticism and its fellow formalism 
have ever been the greatest banes to genuine piety, 
and the direst foes to the real kingdom of God. Big- 
otry was excusable in Judaism ; but sectarianism, of 
which the fable of *' apostolical succession" has been 
the most fruitful source, is a crime under Christianity. 
It is both a libel on its name (John xvii, 2H) and trca- 
; son to its first law (1 John ii, 7; iii, 11). Wherever 
j this assumption has been prevalent and active, religious 
bodies have held points of order and esprit du corps 
among their members in higher esteem than historical 
truth in profession or vital godliness in practice. Per- 
secution has been more fiercely waged against secession 
than even against "heresy. Zealots for orthodoxy have 
gathered many a fagot for the martyr, but sticklers for 
legitimacy have been foremost in kindling the pyre. 
Even nonconformity has at times caught the passion 
for its own established system, and Puritans have act- 
ually maltreated others — if not burned them at the 
stake — for refusing the ordinances of the so-called 
Church. The prelatist smiles at such pseudo-ecclesi- 
asticism, and the Romanist looks with equal contempt 
upon the Anglican mimicry of *' the mother Church ;" 
while the Great Head of all weeps at this petty rivalry 
as to who shall be esteemed first and greatest in the 
brotherhood of saints. In this competition all that ia 
more valuable in religion has been lost sight of. Lax- 
ity of morals has been winkcil aU while an infringement 
of canonical rules has been severely punished. It is 
the old story over again ; making void the law of God 
by the tradition of men, tithing herbs and neglecting 
judgment, mercy, and faith. We need ever t<» revert 
from the symbols of Christianity to its essentials, or we 
shall find ourselves holding its form, but denying its 
power. See Prelacy. 

Literature, — This may well be exhibited in brief by 
the following extract from Eadie's Kecks, Cyclop,^ which 
shows how writers in the Episcopal Church are dis- 
agreed on the main elements of the question : 

I. On the Ofliee of the Apostles^ and whether they had 
any Sitceesaors.—VwxW Christ's death the apostles were 
presbvters, and Christ alone was bit<hop. 1. Thin is nf- 
flrmed by Slillingfleet, Irenieum^ ii, 218; Spanheim, Op. 
Theol. \, 496; in Ayton, ConstU. n/ the Ch. p. 18; Hiini- 
mond, Workt^ iv, 781, who mnkcs them deacons; Brett, 
Divine Right Episetip. lect. viii, p. 17. 2. This is contra- 
dicted, and the aponiles made bishops dnring the s:ime 
time, by Taylor [Jeremy], Mpiscnp. Antterted; Id. HWAw, 
vil, 7, etc., who contradk-ts him!«elf in ibid, xlii, ll* j»q. ; 
Scott, in Christian Life, 111,888; Monro, Inquinj into the 
New Opinitms^ p. 96; Rhiud, A}Kd. p. 60, etc.; Willet, Sy- 
lu/paia /Vivtmiit, p. 286 ; archbishop of Spniato, hi Ayton, 
OnuttiL of the Ch.t app. p. 7. Archbishop Land is very 
positive in afBrming that Chrint chor<e the twelve, and 
made them bishops over the pret(byter!< (hit. and Episcttp. 
p. 195), and bishop Beverid^e is as confident that Chri^t 
chose these same twelve as presbytcn*, and not bishops 
(ITorfct, n, 112). A^nin, Land asserts very |H>i»lllvely that 

I Christ ordained tbero, since the word n^ed by Mark !;» 
I i^oiiKTe— He made them {Lit. ami Episfop. y. TM). Bcv- 
eridge, on the contrary, declaretn that Chrir<t did not ordain 
any of them dnring his life, nnd adduces in proof the nse 
of this very term iwoirtoe dwitica (Wiirht, ii, 112). 8. Othen*, 
acain, nffirm that the apostles were not commissioned till 
after Christ's resurrection. Sage, onoted in Ayton, Ctrn- 
stit. of thf Ch. app. p. 5, 6; Saravin's Prienthhod^ Span- 
heim, Op. Theol. 1. 436: StilHn^eet, Irenicnm, i, 117, US, 
and ii, 218; Whitby, Annot. Lnke x, 1 ; Hammond, in 
ibid. ; Beilurminc, De Pontiff. lib. iv, c. 26 ; Ileber [Bp.], in. 
Life of Jeremy Tatflor^ WnrJcSf i, 195. 

II. The apostles Vfere extraordinary/ officers^ and couhi 
hate no successors. 1. This is affirmed by Penrson, On 
the Creeds p. 16, "who are contlnned to us* only in their 
writinjrt*;'' Whitby, in Cotmnent. t*ref. fo Titus; Hoadly 
[Bp.], Works, fol. ii, 827; Harrow, in Works, fol. i, 698; 
Wlllel, in Synopsis Pupismi, p. 164. 166; Fell [Bp.J, On 
Ephes. v, 9 : Hooker, KceL Pol. vol. iii, bk. vll. $ Iv, p. 1S7. 
keble'H edition ; Chillingworth ; Hinds, Uiatory €f Rite 
and I*rotrress of Christ, if, 7^-87; On Inspiration, p. 117; 
Llf^'htfoot, Works, xiii, 26. 27, 30, 70, 9S, etc., and in oth- 
er works: Palmer, On the Ch. \. 169, 170; Bowers, llisf. 
of the I*»pes, i, 5, 6 ; Potter, On Ch. Chvernment, p. 121, 117, 
Amer. ed. ; Steele, Phil, of the Evid. of Christ, p. 102, Uift, 
106, 107 ; Dodwell, Parenes, nd. ext, p. 63 (comp. 11, M. 55, 
62, apud Ayton); Daveniint [Bp.], ^MTof.v*)!. : Brett, 
Mv. tiight of EpiseojK lect xii, p. 26, apud Ayton ; Stilling- 


venU iU being identified with the Succoth of the Bible, MythoL i, 124). The rtbbins (see Kimchi and Jarchl^ 

but it is just possible that the name may have been ad ioc,) fable that it was a goddess under the form of a 

transferred to a spot on the other ^side (see Ritter, ui hen and chickens; which Kircher {(Ed, ^fCg. i, 354) re- 

8up, ii, 446), or it may have been a crusaiders' site (see gards as an astronomical emblem of the Babylonians* 

Conder, Tent Work in Palest, ii, 62). See Selden, Be Diis JSyriis, ii, 7, 808 sq.; Voss, TkeoL 

Until the position of Succoth is more exactly ascer- Gent, ii, 22 ; Creusius, De Succoth Benothj in Ugolino,. 

tained, it is impossible to say what was the valley of Thesaur, xxiii. 

Succoth mentioned in Psa.lx,6 and cviii,7. The same Su'chathite (Heb. only in the plur. Sukathim\ 

word is employed (Josh, xiii, 27) m specifying the po- ^.^^^^ ^ patronymic of unknown origin; Sept. 2:<u- 

Bition of the group of towns among which Succoth oc- ^ ', Vr T . . i. n , . 

cnrs, in describing the allotment of Gad ; so that it evi- *.'^"'i* ;J"»g- ^ tabemacults oommorantes), a designa- 

dently denotes some marked feature of the countrv. It 'T ^^ the last-named of the three families of « scnbe* 

is not probable, however, that the main valley if the ^^»*^]^ ^^^^J *^ ^^^^ (1 ^hron. ii, 66) ; apparently de. 

Jordan, the Ghor, is intended, that being always desig- "cendanta of some person named Suchah, a Judahite of 

nated in the Bible by the name of " the Arabah." "^^ '*™"y «' ^^^^ 

2. The first camping-place of the Israelites when Suckow, Carl Adolf, a German theologian, was 

they left Egypt (Exod. xii, 87 ; xiii, 20 ; Numb, xxxiii, bom in 1802 at MUnsterburg, in Silesia. He studied 

5, 6). This place was apparently reached at the close theology and philosophy at Breslau, was appointed in 

of the first day's march. Ramese8,the starting-place, we 1884 professor of theology and director of the homilet- 

have shown was probably near the western end of the ical seminary at Breslau, and died there in 1847. He 

Wady et-TumeyUt, We have supposed the distance wrote, De Protevcmgelio Jacobi, Pars /, De A rtjumento^ 

traversed in each day's journey to have been about «c /ndwfc Pro/«ra«<^n (Vratislaviie, 1830) : — Gedenkiage 

thirty miles; and as Succoth was not in the Arabian des chistl, Kirchenjakres in einer Ifeihe von Predif/ten 

desert, the next station, Etham, being "in the edge of (Breslau, 1838): — A, B, C, evanpelischer KirchenverfaS" 

the wilderness" (Exod. xiii, 20 ; Numb, xxxiii, 6), it must sung (ibid. 1846). See Regensburtfer Conversations- I.,ex' 

have been along the present pilgrim route called Dub ikon, s. v. ; Zuchold, BibL TheoL ii, 1292 sq. (R P.) 

el-Ban, about half-way between the easternmost branch Q^a (jo/'^ v. r. [in No. 2] ^vSd, l^vtra, etc.). the 

of the NUe and the castle of Ajrftd. It was probably, name of a stream and of a person in the Apocrvpha. 

to judge from its name, a resting-place of caravans, or ^ ^ river in the immediate neighborhood of Babv 

a military station, or a town named from one of the i^^^ on the banks of which Jewish exiles liveil (Bar.'i, 

two. We find similar names in Scen« Mandrae (//in. 4). ^o such river is known to geographers; but if we 

Not, Digiu), See, for all these places, Parthey, Zur Erd- 

kunde des alten Aegyptens, p. 636. It is, however, evi- ^ase the name would represent, not the town of Sora, as- 

dent that such a nime would be easily lost, and, even if suggested by Bochart (Phaleg, 1, 8), but the nver Eu- 

Ionian and Carian mercenaries, calleil rd SrparoTrc^a °^5^ '.' ^ . 1- . ^ , 

(Herod, ii, 164). See Exodk ; Rkd Sea, Passage of. 2. A corrupt Gnecism (1 Esdr. v, 29) of the name Si a 

or SiAiiA (q. V.) in the Hebrew lists (Ezra li, 44 ; Neh.. 

Sac'COth-Be''noth (Heb. Sukkoth' - Benoth' , vii,47). 

n'l^-risO, booths of daughters ; Sept. IL^kx^^ Be- Sudaili. Stephen Bar, a Monophysite monk, who, 

vi^ V. r. SoKxw^ [a"d even Poicx^^] Btvt^ei ; Vulg. according to the Candelabrum Sanctorum of Abul-fara^ 

Sochoth'bemtK) occurs only in 2 Kings xvii, 30, as the (q. v.), in Assemani, Bibl. Orient, ii, 291, lived about 

name of some deity whose worship the Babylonian set- A.D. 500, at first in Edessa and afterwards in Jerusalem, 

tiers in Samaria are said to have set up on their arrival He is credited with the authorship of a work which cir- 

in that countrj\ It has generally been supposed that culated under the name of Hierotheus, the teacher and 

this term is pure Hebrew, and as such roost interpreters predecessor of Pseudo-Dionysius, in which a limitation 

explain it to mean •* the booths in which the ilaughters of the duration of hell is taught on the authority of a 

of the Babylonians prostituted themselves in honor of pantheistic interpretation of 1 Cor. xv, 28. Neander 

their idol" (i. e. Mylitta, see Herod, i, 199 ; Strabo, xvi, regarded the ascription of this work to Sudaili as rest- 

745); others "small tabernacles in which were con- ing upon a mere assumption on the part of Abul-fara> 

tained images of female deities" (corap. Calmet, Com- {Gesch, d, christl, Rel, v. Kirche, i, 727), but without 

mentaire LUthal, ii, 897). It is in objection to both having sufficient warrant for hi.s view, 
these explanations that Suceoth-benoth, which in the Particulars respecting the raystico-pantheistic theol- 

pasiwige in Kings occurs in the same construction with ogy of Sudaili are furnished by Xenajas or Philoxeiuis 

Nergal and various other gods, is thus not a deity (q. v.) of Mabug in a letter addressed to the presbyters 

at all, nor, strictly speaking, an object of worship. It Abraham and Orestes of Edessa, which earnestly warns, 

should be noted, however, that the expression "made" them against the influence of that learneil and subtle 

(V^Ur) does not necessarily require such an interpreta- monk who formerly sojourned in their city (see extract* 

tion.' Sir H. Rawlinson thinks that Suceoth-benoth «" Assemani, w< w/>. p. 30-33). As there represented, 

represents the Chalda«n goddess Zir-hanit, the wife of ^"?*"\ taught the essential unity of the Father, Son, 

Merudach, who was especially worshipped at Babvlon, «"^] Spirit, of the divme and human nature of Christ, 

in conjunction with her husband, and who is called the *V** ""^^ ""^ ^f"^ ^""^ *"„ ^''^*^^.^ existences, basing hi» 

« queen" of the place. Succoth he supposes to be either ^'»<^^« ,"" } ^f- ^^^^8, iva y o Bfuc ra -rraiTa Iv Tra- 

« a Ilaraitic term eciuivalent to Zir^ or possibly a She- ""!!: ^^ ^»*^* m^cnbed on the wall of his cell the word* 

mitic mistranslation of the torm-ZtVa/, " supreme," be- ''Oninis natura Divinitati consubstantialis est," and he 

ing confounded with Zarat, «tent«" (see the Essay of continued to elaborate the same idea in his writings 

Sir H. Uawlinson in Rawlinson's Herod.>1tu^, i, 630). f^ter public opinion had compelled the erasure of the 

„ . , . M 1. .u J- . .L^L Li«^ inscnption in his cell. It is also charged bv Philox- 

Gesenius arbitrarily alters the reading to m^3 nsO, ^,,^3 ^,,^, s^^^j^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^,^p,J3^ ^^^^ j,* ^ ^^^^^^ 

booths of the high-places (Thesaur, s,y,); and Movers Hst are suf)erfluous, that he denied the infliction of 

(Phonic, i, 596) understands "involucra or secreta mu- punishment for sin at the last judgment, and that he 

liei'umy' having reference to phallus- worship (so Nork, promise<1 to pagans and Jews the same heavenly felici- 


terorum graduum inferiorura, si forte episcoporum no- The term was also used to designate — 1. The public 

men, qui aliquando vestne civitati subjecti eraut, adde- worship — the united voice and consent of the people in 

re debemus" ((^/^7'<i, p. 1160). The term is also used the petitions offered. "See now. then, both learned and 

as synonymous with ricarius (see Du Fresne, Glossiwi" unlearned, how prayeni and all other «i/j^cfj)^« are in e:/m- 

urn, s. v.). It is given more especially to bishops, how- mon to this spiritual Church'* (Lantern of Light, A.D. 

ever, and in respect to them with a twofold reference. 1400). 2. A short form of petition, as in the Litany. 

A mffragan bishop is an episcopus in partibus injidelium Thus, in the Order for the Consecration of Bishops M'e 

employed as the vicar and assistant of a regular dio- read that in the Litany as then used, after the words 

cesan bishop; but the name is given to the latter also "that it may please thee to illuminate all bishops," 

in view of the relation he sustains, if not exempt [see etc, " the proper aujfrage. shall be," etc. 8. The 

Exemption], to his metropolitan. The relation sus- versicles tSUr the Creed in Morning and Evening 

tained bv all the suffragans of a province {comprorinci- Prayer. 
«fc,) together with their metrop«li..n and the_rightB g^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^^.,,.^ phil<«opher8 in PersU, which 

ri"'^ vi^- ?' K '"'/!^""'' l" the '»'ff'-«««n» wa. foai,de,l in the Sth «..t«rv bv Abul Khir. It 

.Dd their subordinates, have been exactly detennined, ^^ contained among it. membe.»"manv of the most 

and are stated m Gratian, Causa lu, qu. 6, and Causa .jwu jui-_ i *'ou i*i> 

„ ,- . ... 1 • ^u J » 1 noted Mohammedan scholars and poets. Schamyl, the 

.X qu 8. Various decisions occur also in the decretals, cit^assUn leader, is said \o have belong to 

1 ',? J'"'*^? ^'i I Tr"^T "f • "'''"H'U'n M^ «„,, „„, to have given to it a semi-political char- 
.hall be performed by all his suffragans. The nghts ^.^ .^ especiallv against the Aggressions of 

of metropolitans over their sunragans are limited. See ^. „ • m. * V ? a ' ^ r..*, 

T } WIT ' i« r. nja;- t i' ' -n j- •• • ihc Russiaus. They are to be fouud in ever>' part of the 

3l~rzo^ Zi-lw&Trv tTA™"op': «"»''*' >'»^« their^cknowledged head atSWr... and 

31.-Herzog, ««it-fciioj,*top.s.v. See Archbishop, thei, chief men in all the principal cities. Mr.Martvn, 

1 Vl .1... • .1 .V i-u missionary to that countrv, calls them " mysUc latitu- 

It thus appea« that ancienUy suffragan bishops were di„„i,„ J. For the teneiiC »ee SChsm. 
all the city bishops of any province under a metro- ^ 

politan, who were called his suffragans because they Siifism, or Sooflbiin ( Arabic, /n{/) piir«, ^eise), a 
met at his command to give their suffrage, counsel, or certain mystic system of philosophical theology within 
advice in a provincial synod. In this sense the word Islam. Its tenets are, that nothing exists ai)solutely 
was used in England at the time when Lin wood wrote but <f<Hl; that the human soul is an emanation from 
his Provinciate (in 1430): '^They were called suffra- his essence; that every man is an incarnation of Deity ; 
gans because they were bound to give their suffrage and, though divided for a time from this heavenly source, 
and assistance to the archbishop, being summoned to willbefinally reunited with him; that the highest possi- 
take part in his care, though not in the plenitude of his ble happiness will arise from that reunion ; and that the 
power.'* The suffragans were not the same as Chore- chief good of mankind consists in as |)erfect a union with 
ri8cx>ri (q. v.),or rural bishops. Thus it was also in the Eternal Spirit as the encumbrances of a mortal frame 
other churches. The seventy bishops who were imme- will allow ; that, for this purpose, they should break all 
diately subject to the bishop of Rome, as their primate connection with extrinsic objecu*. and pass through life 
or metropolitan, were calleil his suffragans, because they without attachments, as a swimmer in the ocean strikes 
were frequently called to his synods. These bishops freely without the impediments of clothes; that if mere 
were called by the peculiar technical term /i6r<f, which earthly charms have power to influence the soul, the 
stooil for seventy. Their elections were regulated by idea of celestial beauty must overwhelm it in ecstatic 
the metropolitan, who either ordained them himself, or light. It maintains also that, for want of apt words to 
authorized their ordination. They were summoned by express the divine perfection and the ardor of our de- 
him to attend the provincial syno<ls, and could not dis- votion, we must borrow such expressions as approach 
obey such summons under pain of suspension, or some the nearest to our ideas, and speak of beauty and love 
such canonical censure, which was left to the discretion in a transcendent and mystical sense; that, like a reeil 
of the metropolitan and the council. From the 13th to torn from its native bank — like wax separated from it^ 
the 16th century there were in the English Church a delicious honey — the soul of roan bewails its disunion 
class of bishops (1) holding nominal sees, titulars or with melanclmly music, and sheds buniing tears; like 
in partibus infidelimny in Hungary, Greece, anti Asia; the lighted taper, waiting passionately for%hc moment 
(2) exiles, temporary or permanent, from bishoprics in of its extinction, as a disengagement from earthly tram- 
Ireland or Scotland, who were called suffragans. mels, and the means of returning to its only beloved. 

Bishops who had no metropolitan power first began SAtism teaches four principal degrees of human perfec- 
to have suffragans under them in the 10th century, tion or sanctity. 1. iShariat^ or the lowest, is the de- 
These were styled vicar-generals, vicegerents, vict-epis" gree of strict obedience to all the ritual laws of Mohani- 
copi, etc. Suffragan bishops were appointed in Germa- metlanism — such as prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, almtt- 
ny for the ordination of in ferioi' officers and the conse- giving, ablntions, etc.— and the ethical precepts of hon- 
cration and l)enediction of churches, altars, baptismal esty, love of truth, and the like. 2. Tarikat, This de- 
waters, etc. Some attempt was made in England, at gree is attainable by those who, while strictly adhering 
the beginning of the Reformation, to restore the chor- to the outward or ceremonial injunctions of religion, rise 
episcopi, under the name of suffragan bishops. Act 2G, to an inward perception of the mental power and virtue 
Henry VIII, lo34, appointed several towns for suffra- necessary for the nearer approach to the Divinity, the 
gansees. One suffragan bishop was consecrated for Not- necessity of and the yearning for which they feel. 3. 
cingham, and another as bishop of Dover in 1H70. A Hnkikal (truth) is the degree of those who, by contin- 
permissive act for bishops suffragan in Ireland was passed uous contemplation and inner devotion, have risen to 
in the early part of the present century, and others have the true perception of the nature of the visible and in- 
recently been consecrated in the colonies. See Bing- visible — who, in fact, have recognised the GtKihead, and 
ham, Christ, Antiq. bk. ii. ch. xv, § 13-15 ; cli. xvi, § 12, through this knowledge of it have succeeded in estab- 
17; Coleman, /I wn>«/ Christinnity^p, 139. lishing an ecstatic relation to it. 4. MaaHfal is the 

Suffrage. In the early Church, one of the ways degree in whiirh man communicates directly with the 

of designating [lorMons to the ministry was by the ordi- Deity, and is admitted into a mysterious union with 

narj* course o( sujfragtf and election of the Church. It him. Thus it will be seen that the highest aim of the 

was also customary for the clergy or presbytery (or the SAti is to attain self-annihilntion by l(»sing his humani- 

retiring bishop or presbyter) to nominate a persjin to till ty in Deity. This is to l>e acconiplished by abstracting 

the vacant office, which nomination was followed by the his mind from all worldly ttbjerts. and devoting himself 

suffrages of the people — suffrages not merely testimonial, to divine contemplation. Acconiingly the SAtis neglect 

but judicial and elective. See Riddle, Christ, A ntiq, p. 32i^. and despise all outward worship as useless and unncces- 


which rrapeclively occur once with the Vae conjunc- 
tive «nil once withoDt it, u yai ■\-<S (Joth. xix, 7) 
■lid lITjn l^Sl (XV, 82) 1 l^ial ^SajB^ (Eiod. i, 8) 
■nd 1^1311 -ISDWI (Gen. ijtxv, 23). Without in- 
cremsing the number the rc»der is referrej to Fren»dorff 
(.iCuMo™ Magna, p. BBS hj.), where, under the he«iUng 
yiVi, these pain ire given ii; alphabetical order. A 
complete list or the Bbove-quoled inBtancee is given by 
Frensdorff in his OcA^tv-OcA/a, p. 14, 62, § 4! ; p. 14, 62 
Bq., S 46; p. 133, S 382', p. 138, § 260 ; p. 138, § 2S1 ; and 
in Levita, Maaorttk Hammatonth (ed, Ginab,), p. 178, 
207,212,228,229. (R P.) 

Btiicer, Johamn Cahpar, the author of the Thr- 
taarui Etxtmiatliau, waa bom June 26, 1620, He was 
educated in Zurich, Hontauban, and Saumur. Ill 164S 
he relurneil to Zurich, and became pastor in the Thur- 
gau, but was recalled in LG44 to the schools of the for- 
mer city. In 1646 he became iiupecior of the alumnate 
and profenor of Hebrew, ten yean afterwards professor 
oftireek and Latin in the Cu2fr^ in //uniontfaru.and in 
1660 professor of Ureelt and canon in the superior col- 
lege (CarolmUfii). He remained in Ihia positioa until 
1G83, and died Dec 29, 1684, 

Suicer reiideral valnatile service to theology by his 
thorough philological labors. lib earliest works were 
text-books for students : Sylloge Vocum A'ori TrU. (Tig. 
1648, and 1639 with appended compend of Greek pros- 
ody] republished in 1744 by Hageiibach): — HfiUattoi 
Giiretr,ete. {[ebl) -.—'lifiirvpii'iuiTa Euai^iiai,qaudua 
ChrifHtilomi el dut BatUii M. /iomiUt C'oBtmmfur, etc. 
(1668 and 1681 ) : — Joh. Frisii Tigurini Diet. Laliao- Germ,- Lot. (1661 sq.):— ComBiatu VMibvL 
S^olamn Utui/eikiiu AKDmmodaiuai, etc. (1666) :— 
Anally, the celebrated Thrtaunu Jiixbt. (Amst. 1682. 2 
vols. fuL 1 two enlarged cds, 1728 and 1821, with supple- 
ment«) : — Lmcon ( lMl,-tirai:iim(_iS^y.— 
and, after Snieer's death, the SgiiAaL .\ieino-Corul, rl a 
AiUiquilalr A'fcfcs, lauitnihua (Traj. ad Rh. 1718, 4to). 
Various other writings were left in manuicript, and tlie 
Leritim tlrrrc. ilajai and Ajpoiifio SymboL H Apcul. el 
AlJuiMuiani are lost. Juicer's learning in these workt, 
particularly the TAtsaurui, U so evident that Charles 
I'atin, in his Trarelt. observes that Suicer undentuod 
more <ireek than all the Creeks taken together. 

Snicet look but little part in the doctrinal contro- 
versies of his day. He regretted tbeir existence, and 
asMSted his friend Heidegger in securing a modifica- 
tion of the f'lirmuta Condeiitui, — Herzog. flfo^-t'nfyit/'jp. 


Suicld« (Ut. lai, one's self, and eitdrre, to kill) is 
defined as the killing of one's self with malice afore- 
thought, and while in the possession of a sound mind. . 
It is known in the law as J'rio lU te, and is considered . 
felony. In the early Church suicides were called ^lo- 
Sii^nroi (buliauali), from offering violence to thcn>- 
selres. Recauae suicide was a crime that could have 
no penance imposed upon it, the Church denied the sui- 
cide the honor and solenmily of a Christian burial, and ' 
allowed him lo lie excommuntcalcd and <1eprived of all 
memorial in her prayers after death. In England this 
crime was punished not only with forfeiture of gowia 
and chattels, like other felonies, but the boily nfihe sui- 
dde was buried in the night at the crossings of twr 
highways will) a stake driven through the body. Thi! 
ancient rule was regiealed by Statute 4 (ieorge IV, c. 61 , 
rials lake place in a churchyard, but be- 

to 21,000. Id 


a P.M. 

Suicide is now generally considered a symptom of 
some form ofinsanitj-.permancntortemporatj', in which 
the emotions and paieuons are excileil or perverted. 
The following statistics respecting suicides are from 
Viamberi'i JCnryelirpadid, t. y.: "In the kingdom of 
Sweden there is calculated to be 1 suicide to everv 
92,37o inhabitants; in Saxony, I to 8446; in Russia, 'l 
lo 34,246; in the I'niied Stales, 1 to l.^OOO; in Parin, 1 


to 2700 ; in St. Petersburg and 

all England the proportion ol 

100,000 people." See Winslow, .4ita[an$ of Saieide ; 

Bri^rrede haamoat, D« Suicide et de la Folit Suicide r 

Bertnind, Traili du Saidde/ Radcliffe, Ehgltih Saidde 

fitldi; Medial Critic, 1862. 

SnkkalL See TAtJicn. 

Sukldim (Heb. SuHtiyim-, D'^SD, booth-dwe^rt 
[Gesen.} or iiAabilatiti o/Sdk [FUrst ] ;' Sept. TpwyXo- 
lirai; Vulg. TrOf^sIa; XV. " Sukkiims"), a nation 
mentioned (2 Chron. xil, S) with the Lubim anil 
Cushim as supplying part of the army which came 
with Shishak out of E^pt when he invaded Judah. 
If the name be Hebrew, it may perhaps be better to 
suppose them to have been an Arab tribe like the 
SceniUr than Ethiopians. If it is borne in mind that 
Zenh was apparently allied with the Araba south of 
Palestine [see ZERAi<],whom we know Shishak ti> 
have subdued [see SHiHHAK],our conjecture does not 
seem to be im|»Dbsble. The Sukkiim may correspond 
to some one of the shepherd or wandering races men- 
tioned on the Egyptian monuments, but we have not 
found any name in hieiof^yphies resembling their name- 
in the Kble,and this somewhat favors the opinion tljat 
it is a Sheraitic appellation.— Smith. The Sept. anA 
Vulg. render TrogloA/ret, apparently meaning the Ethi- 
opians by tliat iiante, who lived on the western shore of 
the Arabian Gulf (Strabo, xvii, 786), who might have 

the l-:g}'ptians (Heliod. ^li. viii, 16). Pliny (vi, 34) 
mentions a Troglodvtic city in this direction called 
Sa/^ (sec Bochan, P»alt$, iv, 2>)). See ETKioriA. 

BnteriW, a kind of wood-goddesses among the an- 
cient (iauls, who are known to us onli- from an inscrip- 
tion in bas-relief found near Lsuxaune, which in- 
cludes three female figures wliose hands are Dlled witb 

Sullivan, Daniel H.V., a minisur of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Chureh, South, wa,i licensed as a local 
preacher in Alabama in ISSO. In 1838 he removal to 
Texas, and engageil in leaching. Id 1810 he was re- 
ceived on trial into the Texas Conference, and aerved 
the Chureh as pastor and presiding elder until his death, 
at Houston, Feb. 20, 1847. He was a minister of a high 
order of talellt^ and es|iecislly eminent for his ability in 
defining and defending the doctrtnes uf the Bible. See 
.Vinula of .4 aaal Conferences of Ike if. K. Charrh, 
A'oufA, 1847, p.96. 

Sullivan, IiOtt Biimpna, aCoiigregational min- 
ister, was born at Wareham, Mass.. June 27, 1790, and 
WHS a graduate of Ilrown University in the class of 
IHI4. For some time after leavii>g college he had 
charge of the Academy in Wrentham, Uass., at the 
same time reading theology with the Kev. Otis Thomp- 
son of Kehobolh, Mass. Having completed his theolog- 
ical studies, he went to Uhio, and was ordained pastor 
of the Congregational Chureh in the town lA Lyme in 
that stale. Here he remuned about six yean. .Sub- 
sequently he resided for len years and more in West- 
ern New York as a missionary in the scn'ice of the 
American Home Missionary Society, and perfurmeil a 
most acceptable work in preaching to aevetal cburchea 

sparsely settled sections of New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont. For several years he resided at Shutesbury, 
Mass., preaching as opportunity presented, tie died 
St Kali River, Mass.. March l,'l86l. See the Cong. 
(imrterig, 1861, p. 210. (J. C S.) 

SnlUvsn, Samuel B., a minister of the Method- 
ist Kpiscopal Church, was born Jan. 27. 1825, and waa 
converted at the age nf eleven. In IS46 lie was licensed 
to preach, and at the next session of the Erie Conference 
was received on triaL His minisirA-, though marlied 
nilh many conveniions. was short, for he died April 9, 
1853. lie waa a man of more than ordinary powers of 


united in 1554 a profesaorship of theology. In 1563 he ' shut himdelf up in his room and study intently for six* 
acquired the theological docu>rate; and he filled, in ad- teen hours out of the twenty-four with insufficient nour- 
dition, the position of supcruitendent of Rotehi under ishroenL This, together with the terrible remorse he 
the margrave Charles of Baden. | suffered, seriously and permanently injured his consti- 

Sulzer entertained the bold project of inducing the , tution. Established in the coal trade by his father, he 
Church of Basle to subscribe to the Form of Concord^ was so discontented and neglectful that he brought 

and to refuse the acceptance of the second Helvetic 
Confession of 1566. See Helvetic Confession. He 
succeeded in causing the omission of explanatory notes 
from future publications of the first Helvetic Confession 
(of 1534), and in limiting its influence. Sulzer's views 
on the sacrament are given in the confesnon which he 
instigated the burgomaster of BrUnn to issue in 1578 
(see Hagenbach, Gesch, <L ersten Easier Conftssion), He 
was also successful in persuading the authorities to per- 
mit the use of the organ in the churches and on holi- 
davs. and the ringing of the so-called "pope's bell" (a gift 
from Felix V). He died June 22, 1585. The archives 
of the Church of Basle and Sulzer*s family papers fell 

poverty and distress upon his father's family, and was- 
himself thrown into the Marshalsea of Dublin. Here 
he employed himself in drawing up the necessary me* 
morials of his fellow - prisoners, and was so successful 
that he continued in this business for some time after 
his release. In 1817, in great distress and almost de- 
spair, he was led by a ))lain Methodist mechanic to ser- 
vices, and the same night found pe^ice. He became the 
principal of a " praying association" which exercised in 
public, and in April, 1818, took his place among the local 
preachers. He was received on trial in the Methodist 
Conference of Ireland in 1819, emigrated to America in 
March, 1821, and was receiveil on trial in the New York 

into the hands of his heirs, and were partially lost. His , Conference. His first appearance in public after hi» 
successor, J. J. Grynieus, promoted the Reformed the- . arrival in New York was at the anniversary of the 
ology, but Sulzer's arrangements ¥rith regard to oi^an ! American Bible Society, and his speech on that occa* 
and bell still continue in force. ! sion produced a wonderful effect, and was regarded as 

See Herzog, Athen, Raur, p. 26, where a catalogue of one of the very highest efforts of platform eloquence. 
Sulzer's writings may be found ; Hundeshagen, Conjlikie The following June he was admitted into the Troy Con- 
des ZuntiffiumismtMj Lutherthums u, CcUvimsmus (Benie, ' ference. He entered on his labors in New York city, 
1842), p. 105 sq.; Kirchhofer,£^^/A.//a//pr (Basle, 1827); | where the churches could not contain the audiences 
Hagenbach, IHe theoioff, SchuU BaseTf, etc. (I860); ' that desired lo hear him. Persons of all professions 
Tholuck, in Gesch, d. akadem, Ijebena im 11 ten JaJirh, and classes of society were attracted by the fame of his 
p. 821 sq. — Herzog, Real-Encykhp, s. v. eloquence, and expressed their admiration of the pow- 

Sumeni (or Mem), the north pole, a monnUin of '■ er with which he enchained them to the words that 
gold and precious stones on which dweU the genii and dropped from his lips. He continued to preach to large 
gods, audiences until early in June, 1822, when his ministra- 

^ _ „ , ,, .. • •. i^v tions were suspended bv the failure of his health. De- 

Summanaa. an Etruscan and Roman divinity, the ^.^ ^ ^^.^J^ ^j.^^^^; ^^ ^^ appointed delegate from 
god of the nightly sky, the Ughtning-darter of the nigh^t, ^^^ l^erican Bible Soiiety to the ProtesUnt Bible So- 
as Jupiter was of the day. His temple stood near the .^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^. ^ ., jg 

Circus Maximus, and a representatioii of him in clay ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 1^, ^^^. ^,,^ 

wa^ given in the pediment of the Capitohne temrje. ^^ appointed bv the Mi^onar^' Board of the Phila- 
Whenever a tree was struck by I'ghtning in the night, delphia Conference to travel in Pennsvlvania and New 
the A^al brothers would offer a black ram ^f Summa- j^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ collecuons. He united with min- 
nus (Pliny, //. A. 11, 53; August. De Ctv^ ^.^'V / isters of other denominations in forming the American 

^ ."JT' ^^^'*'^- ^n"''/j. '^-^ l:!""'' '5''''"' ' ^'''' • Tract Societv, and his last public act was an eloquent 
vi, 731 ; Cicero, De iHv, i, 10, etc.). ^^^^ ^^ .'^ organization. He died June 13, 1825. 

Summer is the invariable rendering in the A. V. Mr. Summerfield was very famous as a pulpit orator; 

of the Heb. y^l^, kdyits (Chald. IS^l?* ^oy*'* I^a"* "» 85; naturally eloquent, deeply devoted to the cause of (iod,. 

New Test, bkpo^, heat), which properly signifies harvest possessed of great command of language and of a rich 

of fruits (not of grain, which U l-^Xp), strictlv the cm<- s^^c^ ©^ t*»e most useful knowledge, whenever he spoke 

/r f»u f '^ /f • n T ••• c%i\ *i ••• Qo\ in the name of God he poiiretl forth from a heart 
/iw-o#ofthe fruit (Isa. XVI, 9; Jer.viii,20; xlviii,82); « . ..i. .u ,  JV^ * r i- * r 
sneciallv Ho^harvest which in Palestine Ukes oUce in overflowing with the kindliest feelings a stream of 
8peciaiiy^^/kairfj.r,wnicti m Palestine takes place m evangelical truth which melted hU audiences. A "god- 
August, although the early figs (O-'nJiSa) npen at the ,y gj^^^^rity" was evidently the per%ading principle of 
summer solstice (Isa, xxviii,4; Micvii, 1); hence the ^i^ j^gart, and a tone of simplicity characterized his 
harvest-time of figs, i. e, summer, especially midsummer, g^yle of preaching. James Montgomerj', the poet, said 
the hottest season (Psa. xxxii,4; the droughts of sum- ^f \^\^ discourses that "the sermons arc less calculated 
mer, Prov. vi, 8; x, 5; xxvi, 1 , xxx,35; the summer- f^y^ instantaneous effect than for abiding usefulness.'* 
house, Amos iii, 15): also fruit, specially/^*, as harvest- His onlv publication was, ^ Discourse on Behalf of the 
ed (viii, 1, 2; corap. Jer. xxiv, 1 sq.). See Aoricult- ^Vw York Institution for the Irutructim of the fJeaf 
ure: Fio; Harvi.:st; Palestine: Season. ^^ />,,^ (1822). After his death appeared, Sermons^ 
Summerfield, John, a distinguished divine and and Sketches of Sermons, by Rev. John Snm$nerJieJd, A, 
minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was bom M.,trith an Introduction by Rev, Thomas E, Bond, M.IK' 
at Preston, Kngland, Jan. 31, 17S)8. His father was (N.Y.1842,8vo). i^Uo\lan(},Memoir of Summer field^s 
a local preacher in the Wesleyan Methodist connec- Life and Ministry (1829, 8vo; 2d ed. 1830, 8vo; N. Y. 
tion in England, and he educated his son in those re- 8vo; reviewed by L. Bacon in the A mer. Quar. Rev. vii^ 
ligious principles which governed his own heart and 141; Christ. Quar. Spec, ii, 118); his Life by liev. Will- 
life. At a suiuble age he was put under the tuition of iara M. Willett (Phila. 8vo) ; Sprague, A finals of the 
the Moravian Academy at Fairfield, near Manchester, Amer. Pulpit, vii, 639-654; Fish, Puljnt Eloquence 
where he gave eariy indications of that precocious gen- (1857), ii, 539 ; Waterburj', Sketches of Eloquent Preach^ 
ius for which he was afterwards so eminently distin- ers (1864, 12mo) ; Allibone, IHct. of Brit, afui A mer. A u- 
guished. In 1810 he taught a night-school in order to thors, s. v. ; Bangs, Hist, of the M. E. Church, iii, 824- 
aid his father, who had become embarrassed. Before 329; Minutes of Annual Coi ference^, i, 508; Simpson, 
he was fifteen he became clerk in a mercantile house in Cyclop, of Methodism, s. v. (J. L. S.) 
Liverpool, conducting the French correspondence. He Summer-house Silver, a payment made in the 
now, through moral weakness, fell into evil habits and mediaeval ages by certain tenants of abbeys to the ab- 
company, and had also an intense passion for listening bot or prior, in lieu of providing a temporary summer 
to eloquent speakers, whether in the pulpit, the senate- habitation for him when he came from a distance to 
house, at the bar, or on the stage. He would at times inspect the property. — Lee, Gloss, of Liturg. Terms, s. v. 




Sommers, William, a miDister of the Methodist ! 
Episcopal Church, was born in Fairfax County, Va., ; 
in September, 1796. He joined the Church in Lees- { 
burgli, 0^ and in 1882 was admitted on trial in the j 
Kusborgh Conference. In 18^ he was ordained dea- 
con,iiMl in 1843 received a 8uiiemunaerar>' relation; but 
his health improving, he was made effective at the 
next conference. In 18a3 he was again placed on the 
supemomerary list^ and that relation continued until 
termioited by death, which came to him in Martinville, 
0., March 29, 1855. He was kind, courteous, and hon- 
orable in his deportment, calm and firm in hb purpose, 
steadfast in his friendship, and faithful and successful 
as a miniftter. See Minutes of A tmual Conference*, 1855, 

Sommeryille, John, a Methodist Episcopal min- 
ister, was bom in the County of Tyrone, Ireland, March 
1, 1782. He enjoyetl early religious training, was re- 
ceived on trial in the Baltimore Conference in 1812, 
and filled the following appointments: Trumbull, Tus- 
carawas Hinkstone, Oxford, Shenango, liCtart Falls, 
Mansfield, Cliautauqua, Kidgeway, Paint Creek, Krie, 
YoungMown. Deertield, Lisbon, Canton, Hartford, Butler, 
Mercer, Centreville, Kittanning, Elizabeth, Waynesburg, 
snd Birmingham. In 1836 he was made a superannu- 
«te. He died Oct. 6, 1850. See Minutes of A tmual 
Cvn/atnws, iv, 602. 

Snmmis Desiderantes Affkctibi's is the title 
pf the bull issued by pope Innocent VIII wherein he 
wformeil the <iermans that their country was overrun 
^ witches, and appointing two iuqtdsitors, Henry 
^fiUner and Jacob Sprenger, for their destruction. See 
^urti, Ckutrh IJift. i, § 1 15, 2. 

Summists, or SutnmistaB, a name given to 

^^<*fie schoUstic divines of the Middle Ages who pro- 

P*^ihled their dogmas in works called Sumtnce Theo' 

''f/ur. This name was first adopted from the Summa 

^'*»itena Tht^>ltiif%a of Alexander Hales, whose renown 

^*9 eclipsed by that of Albertns Magnus. He was, in 

^**rr, surpassed by his disciple Thomas Aquinas, who 

published his famous work on divinity ander the title 

^^ J^ttmma Totius Theoloffitr, and thereby greatly low- 

^■><1 the estimation in which the Book of Sentences^ 

^•'•^tten by Peter Uimbard, was held. See Van Oosier- 

, Christ. Dof/mat. i, 32. 

Swrniimii SacerdoB (Lat. for chief f)riest), a name 
V'en to bishops when it had become the fashion, in the 
^* century, to deduce the institution of the ecclesiasti- 
^^=^1 hierarchy from the priests and services of the Tem- 
ple of Jerusalem. Komish writers apply the title ex- 
^l^aavely to the pope of Rome. 

Stunner, John Bird, an English prelate, was the 

*Meat son of the Kev. R. Sumner, A.M., many years 

^icar of Kenilworth and Stoneley, in the County of 

^"^arwick, and was bom at his father's parsonage house 

^ Kenilworth in 1780. He was sent at an early age to 

^toD, where be was nominated to a king's scholarship, 

*pd, baring spent several years on that royal founda- 

^^ he pained in the usual course to King's College, 

^^tttbridge, of which he became successively scholar 

^ fellow. Not long after having complete<l his aca- 

^ical course, Mr. Sumner was invited to return as 

■"wtant master lo Eton, where he remained for sever- 

*^ y^n. During this time he was ordained deacon 

^ priest. He was preferred, about 1820, to the rec- 

^of Maple-Darham, a pleasant and retired village on 

1^ banks of the Thames, a few miles above Reading. 

"^ 1820 Mr. Sumner was promoted by the ministry of 

'^ etrl of Liverpool to a canonry in the Cathedral of 

lyhaiD, which he held for many years, together with 

^ rectory of Maple-Durham. In 1828 the see of Ches- 

(*f became vacant, and canon Sumner, having just re- 

ccired bis DS>. from Cambridge, was consecrated bish- 

^ in doe form. The bishopric being then but poorly 

*^wed, he was allowed to retain the' canonry of Dur- 

ham, but his views would not allow liim to retain the 
rectory of Maple-Durham. While Dr. Sumner held the 
bishopric of Chester, the Oxford movement commenced 
and came to a head. From the time that the war crv 
of Anglo-Catholicism was tirst sounded in 1833 down to 
his death, bishop Sumner has ever been among the tirst 
and the foremost to denounce the dishonest v of the 
Tractarian Si^hool of theolog>'. In his charges, in nd- 
dresses, in sermons, he ever and again denounced the 
Tractarian doctrines and ritual. In the early part i>f 
1848 lord John Russell, who held the post of premier 
at the time, offered the archbishopric of Canterhurj' ti> 
Dr. Sumner. The offer was accepted, and, much to the 
satisfaction of the evangelical ]H>rtion of the KHtablihh- 
ed Church, he was tranitlated from Chester to CanKT- 
bur\'. In 1850 occurred the memorable event called 
the "Papal Aggression." To that measure of the po|>o. 
by which England was portioned out into Roman Cath- 
olic dioceses with prelates set over each, archbiMhop 
Sumner offered that opiXMiiion which was to have U'en 
expected, and he denounced the measure in tenn.H of 
more than usual energy. His grace, as we leant from 
the ** Peerage," was ** primate o( sll England and met- 
ropolitan, one of the lords of her majesty's privy coun- 
cil, a governor of the Charterh(»use, and visitt>r of Mer- 
ton and All -Souls' colleges at Oxford, as well as of 
King's College, l>ondon, of Dulwieh College, and of St. 
Augustine's College, Canterbury*," and he enjoyed the 
patronage of no less than one hundred and sixty-nine 
livings. He was also most discreet an<l blameless in 
the distribution of his clerical patronage, bestowing his 
best livings on the most exemplars* and painstaking of 
his clergj'. He died Sept. 6, 1862. His works are, Kitsot/ 
OH the Prophecies^ etc. (Lond. 1802, Svo) :—Aposfoii<al 
Preaching (1815, 8vo; 9th ed. Lond. 1850, 8vo):— /j'<'r- 
ords of Creatvm, et<!. (1816, 1817, 1818, 1825, 1833. 1838, 
2 vols. 8vo; 7th ed. 1850, 8vo): — Kvuiences of Chris- 
tumity Deriveti from its Satiire, etc. (Lond. 1824, 8vo; 
N. Y. 1825, 12mo) i—Sennons and Lectures (1827-59). 

Sumner, Joseph, D.D., a Congregational divine, 
was born at Pomfret, Conn., Jan. 19, 1740. He gradu- 
ated at Yale College in 1759, was ordained pastor of 
the Church at Shrewsbury, Mass., June 23, 1762, and 
died Dec 9, 1824. During a perio<i of sixty-two years, 
he was never al»sent from the stated communion of hia 
Church. He published, A JSemum at the Oniinatum of 
Samuel Sumner (1 791 ') : — A Thanksgivintj Sermon (1799) : 
—A Jlalft^ttury Sermon (1812). See Allibone, IHct. 
of Brit, ami A nwr. Authors, s. v.; Sprague, Annals of 
the Amer, Puljiit, iv, 630, note; Cong, Quarterly, 1859, 
p. 42. 

Sumption, Thomas, a minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, was bom in Ocil County, Md., Dec. 
5, 1H02. He was converted in 1819, licensed as n local 
preai*her in 1828, and in 1838 was received on trial into 
the Philadelphia Conference. He received a 8ii|)eran- 
nuated relation in 1874, and died in Halifax, Dauphin 
Co., Pa., May 9, 1874. See Minutes of Annual Cotfer- 
etwees, 1875, p. 40. 

Sumptuary Laws. At an early period Chris- 
tianity controlled domestic habits in a great variety of 
ways both in food and dress. Excesnes were condemn- 
etL Thus Clement of Alexandria says, "Other men, 
like the unreasoning animals, may live to eat; we have 
l>een taught to eat that we may live. For the nour- 
ishment of the IkxIv is not the work M-e have to do, nor 
is sensual pleasure the object of our pursuit, but rather 
the entrance into those mansions of tiicorruption whith- 
er the divine wisdom is guiding us. We shall there- 
fore eat simple food, as becomes children, and merely 
study to preserve life, not to obtain luxury. Great va- 
rieties of cookery are to be avoided. Antiphanes, the 
Deliaii physician, considers variety and research in 
cookery to be a main cause of disease ; yet many have 
no taste for simplicity, and, in the vainglory of a fine 
table, make it their chief anxiety to have choice tish- 




es from beyond sea." They might "use a Utde wine 
for the stomach's sake/' as the apostle exhorted Tim- 
othy ; " for it is good to bring the help of an astrin- 
gent to a languid constitution ; but in small quantity, 
lest, instead of benefiting, it should be found to produce 
a fulness which would render other remedies needful; 
since the natural drink of a thirsty man is water, and 
this simple beverage alone was supplied from the cleft 
rock by the Lord for the use of the Hebrews of old. . . . 
Water is the medicine of a wise temperance. Young 
men and maidens should, for the most part, forego wine 
altogether ; for to drink wine during the boiling season 
of youth is adding fire to fire. . . . Those who require a 
mid-day meal may eat bread altogether without wine, 
and, if thirsty, let them satisfy themselves with water 
only. In the evening at supper, when our studies are 
over and the air is cooler, wine may be used without 
harm perhaps, for it will but restore the lost warmth ; 
but even then it should be taken very sparingly, until 
the chills of age have made it a useful medicine ; and 
it is for the most part best to mix it with water, in 
which state it conduces most to health." '* Precious 
vases, rare to be acquired and difficult to be kept, are 
to be put away from among us," says the same writer 
that we have been quoting. " Silver sofas, silver ba- 
sins and saucers, plates and dishes; beds of choice 
woods decorated with tortoise-shell and gold, with cov- 
erlcU of purple and costly stuffs, are to be relinquished 
in like manner. The Lord ate from a humble dish, and 
reclined with his disciples on the grass, and washed 
their feet, girded with a toweL Our food, our utensils, 
and whatever else belongs to our domestic economy 
should be conformable to the Christian institutio^is." 
*' It is proper that both the woman and the man should 
come into the church decently drcsseil, with no studied 
steps, in silence, and with a mind trained to real benev- 
olence; chaste in body, chaste in heart, fitted to pray 
to God. Furthermore, it is right that the woman 
should be veiled, save when she is at home ; for this is 
respectable and avoids offence." " It is enough to have 
the disposition which t)^comes Christian women," says 
TertuUian. '• God looks on the heart. The outward ap- 
pearance is nothing. Why make a display of the change 
that has been wrought in us? Rather are we bound 
to furnish the heathen no occasion of blaspheming the 
Christian name, and accusing Christianity of being ir- 
reconcilable with national customs." Yet he adds, 
"What reasons can you have for going about in gay 
apparel when you arc removed from all with whom 
this is required? Y'ou do not go the round of the tem- 
ples; you ask for no public shows; you have nothing 
to do with pagan festivals. You have no other than 
serious reasons for appearing abroad. It is to visit a 
sick brother, to be present at the communion or a ser- 
mon ; and if offices of courtesy or friendship call you 
among the pagans, why not appear in your own pecul- 
iar armor, that so the difference may be seen between 
the servants of (xod and of Satan ?" Sumptuary laws 
have been passed by the State and Church, generally, 
however, to be disregarded. Roman laws prohibited 
certain luxuries in dress and food, but they were all 
habitually transgressed in the later times of the Repub- 
lic. Such laws were in great favor in the legislation 
of England from the time of Edward III down to the 
Reformation (see statute 10 Edward III, c 3, act 37 
Edward III). In France they were as old as Charle- 
magne, but the first attempt to restrict extravagance in 
dress was under Philip IV. Scotland had also a simi- 
lar class of statutes. In all these countries, however, 
these laws seem to have never been practically ob- 
served. Most of the English sumptuary laws were re- 
pealed by 1 James I, c. 25, but a few remained on the 
statute-book as late as 1856. 

Sun (prop. t'OV, shemesh ; i)\ioQ), In the his- 
tory of the creation the sun is described as the " great- 
er light," in contradistinction to the moon, or " lesser 

light," in conjunction with which it was to serve "for 
signs, and for seasons, and for days, and for years," 
while its special office was " to rule the day" (Gen. i, 
14-16). The "signs" referred to were probably such 
. extraordinary phenomena as eclipses, which were re- 
' garded as conveying premonitions of coming events 
(Jer. X, 2^ Matt, xxiv, 29, with Luke xxi, 25). The 
joint infiuence assigned to the sun and moon in de- 
ciding the "seasons," both for agricultural operations 
and for religious festivals, and also in regulating the 
length and subdivisions of the "years," correctly de- 
scribes the combination of the lunar and solar year, 
which prevailed, at all events, subsequently to the Mo- 
saic period — the moon being the measurer (irar' i^o- 
xfiv) of the lapse of time by the subdivisions of months 
and weeks, while the sun was the ultimate regulator 
of the length of the year by means of the recurrence 
of the feast of Pentecost at a fixed agricultural season, 
viz. when the com became ripe. The sun " ruled the 
day" alone, sharing the dominion of the skies with the 
moon, the brilliancy and utility of which for journeys 
and other purposes enhances its value in Eastern coun- 
tries. It "ruled the day," not only in reference to its 
powerful influences, but also as deciding the length of 
the day and supplying the means of calculating its 
progress. Sunrise and sunset are the only defined 
points of time, in the absence of artificial contrivances 
for telling the hour of the day; and, as these points are 
less variable in the latitude of Palestine than in manv 


countries, they served the purpose of marking the com- 
mencement and conclusion of the working-<lay. Be- 
tween these two points the Jews recognised three pe- 
riods, viz. when the sun became hot, about 9 A.M. (I 
Sam. xi, 9 , Neh. vii, 3) ; the double light, or noon (Gen. 
xliii, 16 ; 2 Sam. iv, 6) ; and " the cool of the day," short- 
ly before sunset (Gen. iii, 8). The sun also served to 
fix the quarters of the hemisphere — east, west, north, 
and south — which were represented respectively by the 
rising sun, the setting sun (Isa. xlv, 6; Psa. 1, 1), the 
dark quarter (Gen. xiii, 14; Joel ii, 20), and the brill- 
iant quarter (Deut. xxxiii, 23; Job xxxvii, 17; Ezek. 
xl, 24) ; or otherwise by their position relative to a per- 
son facing the rising sun— before, behind, on the left 
hand, and oh the right hand (Job xxiii, 8, 9). . The 
apparent moti(m of the sun is frequently referred to in 
terms that would imply its reality (Josh, x, 13; 2 Kings 
XX, 11; Psa. xix, 6; Eccles. i, 5; llab. iii, 11). The 
ordinary name for the sun, shemesh^ is supposed to refer 
to the extreme brilliancy of its rays, producing stupor 
or astonishment in the mind of the beholder ; the poeti- 
i cal names H^n, chammdh (Job xxx, 28 ; Cant, vi, 10 ; 
Isa. xxx, 26), and CIH, cheres (Judg. xiv, 18; Job ix, 
7) have reference to its heat, the beneficial effects of 
which are duly commemorated (Deut. xxxiii, 14 ; Psa. 
xix, 6) as well as its baneful infiuence when in excess 
(Psa. cxxi, 6; Isa. xlix, 10; Jonah iv, 8; Ecclus. xliii, 
8, 4). The vigor with which the sun traverses the 
heavens is compared to that of a " bridegroom coming 
out of his chamber," and of a "giant rejoicing to run 
his course" (Psa. xix, 5). The speed with which the 
beams of the rising sun dart across the sky is expressed 
in the term "wings" applied to them ()Psa. cxxxix, 9 ; 
Mai. iv, 2). 

The worship of the sun as the most prominent and 
powerfid agent in the kingdom of nature was widely 
diffused throughout the countries adjacent to Palestine. 
The Arabians appear to have paid direct worship to it 
without the intervention of any statue or symbol (Job 
xxxi, 26, 27 ; Strabo, xvi, 784), and this simple style of 
worship was probably familiar to the ancestors of the 
Jews in Chaldsea and Mesopotamia. In Egypt the sun 
was worshipped under the title of R(^ or Ra, and not, as 
was supposed by ancient writers, under the form of Osi- 
ris (Diod. Sic. i, 1 1 ; see Wilkinson, A nc. Egtfpl. iv, 289). 
The name came conspicuously forward as the title of 
the kings — Phartioh, or rather Phra, meaning " the sun" 


casioned by the form in which the matter pre«entB itself, day was considered one of jovfulnem because of oar 

Propose to yourself to learn a language which represents lord's resurrection. Yet this 'rule was not so strictly 

itself to you as a sea in miniature, with all conceivable i • .• > ^ ^t. ^ v - \ 

motioJSofswelling and floating objects. At one moment binding but that when a necessary occasion required, 

yon see something, the next it disapuears a^rnin ; at one and there was no suspicion of heretical per\'er8eue88 or 

moment yon think you have got hold of 8«.methiiig,and contempt, men might fast upon thia day (Jerome, An. 

[h'aTyou all mistikeS"'''' ' "*''' ^""^ ^ 28, ad Lucinium Bceticum), 

"The study of the Sundanese is, for the greatest part. It may here be remarked that another custom waa 

made more difficult bv the childishness which character- to prav standing on the Lord^s day, in memon' of our 

i't;.i''Jt.^*llWn"5M.J!?th«I\°«ovT;i"^^ Ix)rd's' resurrection. The great care and concern of 
a composition of laws that a novice experiences an anx- . •••/-«.•• /• . «. . . 
ions feeling on first making acquaintance with it— anx- the primitive Chnstians for the rehgious observance 
iocs, namely, whether he will penetrate with pleasure into of Sunday is seen in their ready and constant attend- 
that childish form of thinking and speaking. The fear ^^ce upon all the offices and solemnities of pubUc wor- 
which at this point I entertained begins gradually to van- . • j ^u- * • ^« e • a. 
i8h,and I hope soon to be able to speak and write the »hip, and this, too, even in times of persecution; from 

Sundanese well, if Ood will but blesa and prosper my an- their studious observance of the vigils, or nocturnal as- 

der taking. _ . „ ^ . . , . . , ^. , semblies preceding the Lord's day ; from their attend- 

**By-aud-by I shall master the vocabulary: bat in this • , \ • j . . 

I by no means hurry myself, because othei^se I might »nce, in many places, upon sermons twice a day, and at 

easily take things for granted which, by a closer insight evening prayers; and from the censures iniiicted upon 

intomattersandslgniflcatlons, I should be obliged to nn- those who violated the laws conceniing the religions 

learn. To anlearn takes time, and Is very anprofltable -.Ka««»on/»^ #.f *\^o. .Uv tii^ ^^x^Kw-^^^i^^ ^f ♦!,« a.w.k. 

for the freshness of mind which is a first r^ulsfte for the obserA-ance of the day. The celebration of the eucha- 

study of the Sundanese langaage." nst was a standing part of divme service every Lord's 

In 1870 the British and Foreign Bible Society's Report «\fy' *°^ every communicant was expected to paruke 

shows the publication of the Gospel of Su Luke inThe ^^^^^l' ^ ^*?^*!.'"» ^*'^'- ^ "'•^- ^^' xx, ch. ii, § 9- 

Sundanese, and this seems to be the onlv part printed !-«; DK«3tvi,ch.ix,§ 2. . ^^ . . 

bv the British and Foreign Bible Soci*etv, while the , ^Jje «iode in which the early Chnstians spent the 

liutch Bible Society has printed the New Test., trans- ^'^» ^"^ 'f J!^"*, **«?=r*^ -^-"^ Dr. Jamieson in his 

Uted by Mr. Coolsma, who has also translated the Old ^""'^ «^ ^'"^^ ''/'^ PnmUive Ch-uiums: 
Test. From the lAth (1878) Annual Report of the " Viewing the Lord's day as a spiritual festivity, a sea- 

n.^»:oi. -r.^ i?^*«:»« ii:ki« o^Uf.r «,a S^ *i,«* «.k« ^^ 1° which their souU were specially to magnify the 

British and Foreign Bible Society we sec that the lo^^ ^^^ t^eir spirits to rejoicTiu Gbd thelTSaviour. 

Netherlands Missionary Union have requested the Lon- they introduced the (j^ervices of the day with psalmody^ 

don committee to underUke the publication of Mr. which was followed bv select portions of the prophets, 

noftUmii'ji traimUtion of the Old T^t. »nd that thi» ^^^ gospels, and the epistles, the intervals between which 

U)0i8roa8 transution oi tne um i est,, ana tnat the were occupied by the faith fhl in private devotions. The 

committee have resolved to pnnt the book of Genesis plan of (service, in short, resembled what was followed in 

on receiving satisfactory reports as to the reception of that of the vigiln, though there were si»me important dif- 

Mr. Coolsma's New-Test, translation, (a P.) 'Tu ^S**- '^}^^^\ ^if **^" ^a'Z describe. The men praved 

A«i. v^v ouM» oAcn- ^ o « v*^*v ^tjh ||,gj|. heads bare, and the women were veiled, as be- 

Annrlair T Nnm^ nnd Chnnnp nfDnu <^iinf1flv in *^^°*« **>® modesty of their sex, both standing— a potiitltm 

OUnaay. l. ^ame ana LtMnge of />^fly.— sunda\ is deemed the most decent, and suited to their exalted iio- 

the name of the first day of the week, adopted by the tions of the weekly solemnity— with their eyes lifted up 

first Christians from the Roman calendar (Lat. Die* to heaven and their hands extended In the form of a 

Solis\ Day of the Sun, so called because it was dedi- cn>ss. the better to keen them in remembrance of Him 

j\ ..^ . . 7^, rni. riu • »• whose death had o|>ened up the way of access to the di- 

caied to the worship of the sun. The Chnstians rein- vine presence. The reading of the sacred volume consti- 

terpreted the heathen name as implying the Sun of tuted an important and indi^ipensable part of the observ- 

Kighteousness with reference to his "'arising" (Mai. iv, n;"ce; and, effectually to impress it on the memorie.* of 

o\ I* »..<> -io« ««iu^ /»,•«- i>^.»% rn^». ^r n^l,.A\ k« the audience, the lessons were always short and of fre- 

2). It was also called Dies Panu {Day of Bread), be- qn^„t recurrence. Besides the Scriptures, they were ac- 

cause it was an early custom to break bread on that customed to read aloud several other books for the edifl- 

day. It is called, also, the Lord's day, its sacred observ- cation and interest of the people — such as treatises on 

nno^A heirnr P«tnprifl11v in his honor The AnosflPf) thnm- ^® illustration of Christian morals by some pastor of em- 
ances Deing especiaiij m ms nonor. i ne apostles tnera- j„g„^ reputation and piety, or letters from foreign church- 
selves introduced the religious observance of Sunday, ea containing an account of the state and progress of the 
meeting for divine service (Acts xx, 7; 1 Cor. xvi, 2), Gospel. Thin part of the service — most neccswiry and 

.nd the opposition in the Chn,.i» Church to .Iud.i.m ;;:i^»?^„7UriTn«*cnr,HiS,'j!l'^HriLr™^^^^^ 

early led to the substitution of Sunday for the Sabbath; ed at first by the presiding minister, but was afterwarda 

and in the epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians it is devolved on an officer appointed for that object, who. 

presupposed that even the Jews who had come over to :^^«" proceeding to the discharge of his duty, if it related 

r<u*:<.l:...:»., ..i^r.f».i *k« o-«« ».»».v»« g^ c*.« . to any part of the history of Jesus, exclaimed aloud to 

Christianity adopted the same custom. See Syna- the people, ^ Stand up : the gospels are about to be read ;• 

GOOUK. and then always commenced with 'Thus saith the Lord.* 

Sunday began, in 1064, at nones (8 P.M.) on Sat- They assumed this attitude, not only from a conviction 

nnliiv And U^tod until MoMiUv In QQA niir;«jhmnAr«i ^^^^ " ^^'^^ ***® ™'^^^ rcHoectful posture in which to lislen 

uniay anti lasted until Monaa>. in yy4 parishioners ^^ j^e counsels of the King of kings, but with a view to 

were required to attend even-stmg and noctunis on Sat- keep alive the attention of the people— an object which, 

urdav. In 6% the I>ord's dav was reckoned from even- i" «*»rae churches, was sought to be gained by the minis- 

ing -to eveninR, but in 958 'from Saturday none, till Kl^'^^il'^ P* TJ^Ifc^^' a^'-tSe^X^SS^e^^ 

light on Monday morning. Islips Constitutions and founded for the most part on the la»»t portion of Scripture 

the Councils of Atx (789), Frejus (791), and Frankfort that was read, were short, plain, and extemporary exhor- 

(794) assign as the cause that vesr)ers are the first of- tftt'»n»^' designed chiefly to stir up the miuds of the brer h- 

A r .u 'PI 1- 1.. !•*• *!. . ren by way of remembrance, and always prefaced by the 

fice of the morrow. The medineval tradition was that salutation,  l»eace be unto you.' As they were very /hori, 

our Lord was Inirn on Sunday, baptized on Tuesday, sometimes not extending to more than eight or ten ntiu- 

and began his fast on Wednesday. "^««' duration, several of them were delivered at a di«t, 

n J? .^y^o.- .-/,•««/ /i;.-^«.r...^ ..>/*« n^,. tk«. «^.,--> ""^ ^*»<* preacher was usually the pastor of the place, 

. Lcclesuisttcal Observance of the Day.-The conse- though he sometimes, at his flincrctVon, invited a Avanl 

cratton of Sunday m a special manner to religious em- ger, or one of hi» brethren known to possess the talent 

ployments and the abstaining from all worldly busi- "f public npeaking, to adtlrew the assembly. The close 

ness was esUblished bv a synovial law (canon 29, Conn- fl'ljiH'YTn'i tft'J,w.l^^^'£S '^Ztolr^^t}^\]^o^^^ 

., ^- ,. . .^,_ ; • . • /■ 11 ^. . • tne bencH. was the signal for the public pravers to com- 

cil of Laodicea) with this restriction, that all Chnstians nience. Previous to this solemn part of the sei-vice. h.>w- 

should abstain from worldly business if thev were able, ever, a crier commanded intidels of any description that 

In the religious 8er\'ices of'Sundav we note the follow- ""^'"'^ ^^^/Tf^" ^*' withdraw, and, the doors being clos^^l 

,, tP ,. u-i •. 1 ' *u * J ana guarded, the pastor proceeded to pronounce a prayer, 

mg: all fasting was prohibited on that day, even m ti,e burden of which was made to bear a special reference 

Lent; Tertullian {De Coron. Mil. c. 3) declaring that to the circumstances of the variom* clashes who, in tlie 

it was accounted a crime to fast on the Lord's day, and primitive Church, were not adnaitted to a ftill parUcipa- 

^, ..!.•»• 11 • ^u • 1 • tioti In the privilegei* of the faithfhl. First of all. he 

other authonties were equally severe m their denunci- prayed, in the name of the whole company of believ^S^ 

ations. The reason Cor this observance was that the for the catechumens — ^young persons, or recent couverta 


at midnight between Saturday and Sunday and ends System, — It was not till near the dose of the 18th 

with the next midnight. tuiy that the modem system of Sunday-school instruo 

In Francei during the Revolution, when the Chris- tion took its rise. Although in numerous instances pre* 
tian calendar was abolished and the decade substituted viuusly catechization had been practiced on the Lord's 
for the week, every tenth day was made a rest-day, day, and in several cases individuals remote from each 
and its observance was enforced by a law (17 Therroi- other in time and locality had assembled children for 
dor, an. vi) which required the public offices, schools, instruction on that day, yet nothing like a general sys* 
workshops, stores, etc, to be closed, and prohibited sales tem of teaching the young on Sundays, whether in seo- 
except of eatables and medicines, and public labor ex- ular or religious learning, was known prior to 17801. 
cept in the country during seed-time and harvest. The system that then arose was purely philanthropic 
When the Gregorian calendar was restored, Sunday was in its design, and in its origin contemplated only local 
recognised in the Code Napoleon (art. 25, 260). The results. From an early period in the 17th century, pin- 
law of Nov. 18, 1814, prohibiting ordinary labor, traffic, making had been an important industry in the old city 
etc., and declared by the courts in 1838 and 1845 to be of Gloucester, £ngland. This manufacture employed 
still in force, is, practically, a dead letter. great numbers of small children, not only residents of 

In Switzerland recent legislation has granted to rail- the place, but gathered in from surrounding regions, 

way employes and all government office-holders at least Vast numbers of these children were wholly uneducated, 

one Sunday in every three ; and still further restriction and, being without parental restraint or moral supervis* 

of Sunday labor is being sought in some of the cantons, ion, they naturally fell into gross disorder and immond- 

The question is agitated in Belgium and Germany of ity, especially on Sundays, when the factories were not 

better protection by law of Sunday rest for operatives, in operation. The first person who undertook to rem- 

See Cox, Literature of JSab. Question (Edinb. 1865); edy this distressing state of things was Mr. Robert 

Amer.Law Rev. voL ii; Prot, Episcopal Quar, Rev, voL Raikes (q. v.), a printer residing in Gloucester, and a 

vii; Hopkins, Sabbath and Free [nstUuiions, in doc 29 member of the Church of England. He found four per* 

of N. Y. Sabbath Committee; Judge W. Allen, opinion sons who had been accustomed to instruct children in 

in Lindenmiiller vs. The People, 33 Barbour, 548 ; Hes- reading, and engaged their services to receive and in- 

scy, Bampton lectures (1860); Schaff, Anglo^Atntr, struct such children as he should send to them every 

Sabbath (1863). See Sabbath. Sunday. The children were to go soon after ten in the 

-, , - -,. - ___ _^ . morning, and stay till twelve. They were then to go 

Sunday. Jons, or Shah-Wun-DaJs. was a na- ^ ^„j „^„„^ ,^ ,„j after reading a 1cm,S^ 

.ve Indian, born in New \ork State ■">'!'"«>• "e be- ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ conducted to Church. A(ter Chureh 

onged to the M.».»a«ga section of the Ojibway na- ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^ enaploved in repeating the catechism 

tion, and when a voung man he served in the British ^.,,v ,r iv « i *u * u j- • ^ '^u 

• .. .u IT •. J »:i. . TT * J • till half after five, and then to be dismissed with an m- 

army airainst the United States. He was converted in . ^. . ^ •*!. i. i • • i u 

,o»/ , u .1 r» ' .. A 11 junction to go home without making a noise, and by 

1826, and shortlv after was appointed a leader among ^ ^ *» , • *u *-^ *. rru- ..x^ i 

.1- _. J 11*11 Ml 1 J- Ti ..u !• . no means to plav m the streeL This was the general 

the converted Uellev.Uc Indiana He was the earliest ^,,^,.^^ ^^ ^^ riguUtions a. suted hv Mi; Raikes, in 

evangeh,^ pioneer U. the tr.b« on the north watera hu celebrated let^r of June 6, 1784. which concliisircly 

of Lakes Huron and Supenor. In 1832 he was received .. ..^ ,. ^, • • 1 r\.i. o j u i 

. ^ ,. ^ - ', J • I • lootf A *v identifies him as the originator of the Sundav-school 

into the Conference and was ordained m 1836, and the ^ 

same vear accompanied Rev. William Lord to England Aur^v j*..u r*i^ 

, • , ,, ' - . . . . . *> , As has often happened in other cases of great results 

to plead the cause of missions, and remained a year at - ,i u • • *u u u • 

,. • , . , _ rV- ••..•111 from small begmnuigs, there have been various en- 

that work. A large part of his ministerial labor was . _ .. /• .u • • r e i u i ^ i- 

r J J Ju 1- .• r r» ^tr^ii- r* deavors to fix thc oHgiu of Siindav-Bchools at earlier 

perf.»rmed under the direction of Rev. William Case; . . . . ^ . . Although it is not 

and h^ had charge of AldcrviUe, Rice and Mud Lake, ',.« i^ . * i r u • •» • i * *u 

and Muncietown ^ircaits. He died Dec 14. 1875. Se^ ;»'fficult u, estahhsh priority in several cases, yet there 

Mimle, of, he Ontario Con/a-ence, 1870, p. 12. is no other insunce of an actual hunday-school from 

*^ .^ t » I which continuity or serial connection can be traced 

Sunday-school. Among the moilem develop- down to the present time. If, therefore, mere priority 
ments of Christianity, Sunday -schocls, and what is were in question, it would be necessary to go back to 
known as the Sunday-school enterprise, are prominent, the period of Moses, under whom the catechetical sys- 
To persons familiar with their objects and the script- temof the Jews was appointed, culminating in the grand 
ural precepts by which they are sanctioned, it seems sabbaticalyear(Deut.xxxi, 10-13). But as it is not the 
strange that so long a period elapsed before they came origin of catechization (q. v.) which is under considera- 
into actual existence. That a leading duty of the Church tion, but rather of that form of catechization which, in 
was to teach all nations was made plain in the great modem times, is known as the Sunday-school system, it 
commission of our Lord to his disciples. That little is safe to accept the general verdict of history', accord- 
children were included in the scope of that commission ing to which Robert Raikes is recognised as its founder, 
was evident from the great Teacher's own command to When once the idea of Sunday instruction for thc ig- 
*' sufier little children to come unto him and forbid them norant children of Great Britain was fairly developed, 
not," as well as from his imprei»ive charge to Peter, it was seen to have not only great intrinsic merit, but 
** Feed ray lambs." While evidence is not lacking to perfect adaptation to other places. Hence the schools 
indicate that the Christians of the apostolic age both of Mr. Raikes soon began to be imitated in all direc- 
comprehended the duty enjoined by our Lord and illus- tions, with results of the most encouraging character, 
trated it in adaptation to their circumstances, yet there A Sunday-school Society was formed in London, and, in 
are too many proofs that in the centuries immediately various ways, so general an interest was awakened on 
following, that duty fell into abuse and neglect amid the subject that in the course of a few years Sunday- 
the rapidly growing corruptions of the Church. The schools were commenced in nearly every part of Eng- 
ceremonious catechetical system of the 4th and 5th cen- land. They did not, however, become wiiversal, nor in 
turies was a labored but poor apology for that neglect, the largest degree useful, until a higher idea tlian that 
and when it came to an end no substitute was left in its of mere philanthropy became embodied in them. The 
place. Hundreds of yeara then went by without any plan of employing hired teachers not only made it nec- 
general effort on the part of the Church for tlie religious essary to raise large amounts of money, but necessarily 
instruction of children. Following the Reformation of placed a limit upon their extension and permanence, 
the 16th century catechization in the elements of Script- Besides, it was not possible to secure the best quality 
ure doctrine was gradually introduced into most of the of teaching by any appeal to mercenary motives. In 
Protestant churches, but it was rarely extended to any discussing this subject at a comparatively early period 
beyond the recognised children of the Church. of the history of Sunday-schools, the Rev. John Angell 

1. Oru/in and Early History of the Suiuiay- school James said: '* Hireling teachers can scarcely be expect- 




cd to poMM either the zeal or the ability of those who 
noir engage in the work from motives of pure benevo- 
ieooe. Gratuitous instruction was an astonishing im- 
piorement of the system, and which does not appear to 
bare entered into the views of its benevolent author. 
'If we were asked,* says a writer in the Sundatf'school 
RipotUoryf 'whose name stood next to that of Robert 
Baikes in the annals of Sunday-fwhools, we should say, 
the person who first came forward and voluntarily prof- 
fered hia exertions, his time, and his talents to the in- 
ftnctkm of the young and the poor; since an imita- 
ttoo of his example has been the great cause of the 
pRMDt flourishing state of these institutions, and of all 
that future additional increase which may be reasonably 

While it may not be possible to fix upon any one per- 
aoD as having been the first to commence gratuitous ef- 
fort in the teaching of Sunday-schools, it b not diflicult 
to determine, from the history of the times, who was 
probably more instrumental than any other man in 
cstab&hing and diffusing the system of gratuitous and 
Christian instruction in those schools. It was the liev. 
John Wesley, who, for more than thirty years prior to 
the first Sunday-school of Kaikes, had been in the habit 
of taembling children in various parts of England for 
the purpose of religious instruction. It was he who, 
having recorded in bis journal, July 18, 1784, that he 
found Sunday-schools springing up wherever he went, 
tlw recorded these memorable, if not prophetic, words : 
** Perhaps (iod may have a deeper end therein than men 
tre aware of. Who knows but some of these schools 
nty become nurseries for Christians V** From that time 
fi>rward notices of Sunday-schools were frequent in his 
journals. The f«>ll<)wing is a brief specimen : " July 27, 
1787.— We went on to Bolton. Here are eight hundred 
poor children taught in onr Sunday-schools, by about 
*»Rhtr mastery, wh<» receive no pay but what they are 
t" receive from their great Master.** This record cor- 
''■'H^'nduto the statement made in Mylcs's History of the 
^yk calUd Methodists (Lond. 1 803). Having referred 
to Sunday-schools as an excellent institution begun by 
Mr. Raikes, the author says, " Mr. Wesley no sooner 
i^ttrd of it than he approved of iL He published an 
^conntofit in the Arminian Magaziue for January', 
1785, and exhorted his societies to imitate this laudable 
»am{de. They took his advice. laboring, hard-work- 
ing men and women began to instruct their neighbors' 
chiUreD, and to go with them to the house of God on 
the Loid's day.** Whatever was done by others, the 
Methodists, from the beginning, practiced only gratu- 
rt^^instraction in their Sunday-schools. By them the 
''iDe institution and modes of instruct if »n were simulta- 
B^^^r introduced into the United States of America, 
^^ bishop A^ury, who sustained to the American 
Methodist societies a similar relation to that of Mr. 
Weslpy in England. 

^ early as the year 1784 the following paragraph 
*•• incorporated in the Discipline of the Methodist Kpis' 
»^ Church: 

r]^At shall we do for the rising generation f Who will 
»hor for them ? Let him who is zenlons for God nnd the 
*J]" of men b^u now. 1. Where there are ten children 
wtMpe parents are in society, meet them nt leHst nn hour 
*J*7week. i. Tnlk with them every lime y«>n pee any 
"Borne. 8. Prny in earnest for them. 4. Dllljrenily lu- 
^ct and vehemently exhort nil psrents nt their owu 
"'*»ea. 5. Preach exprc(>i*ly on education.'* 

In sequence of this mandatory rule, addressed prima* 
n|y to ministers, but involving the co-operation of the 
^^, Sonday-schools were established in many places. 
^ one of those schools a very definite and satisfactory 
iccord was made. It was taught in 1786, In Hanover 
0)nnty,ya., at the house of Mr. Thomas Crenshaw, who, 
is 1827, forty-<Hie years later, was a living witness of 
tke fact, aa wai abo the Rev. John Charleston, a minis- 
ter of thirty-nine yeara^ service in the Church, who had 
been eonverted in that school (Bangs, Hist, of the M. 
E. Clvrel). Further historic evidence of the early 

adoption of organized Sunday-school effort by the 
Church referred to grew out of the fact that persecu- 
tion arose on account of its endeavors to instruct the 
colored children of the South. In Charleston, S. C, the 
Rev. George Daughaday " was severely beaten on the 
head, and subsequently had water pumped on him from 
a public cistern, for the crime of conducting a Sabbath- 
school for the benefit of the African children in that vi- 
cinity.** Nevertheless, the Methodist Conference, which 
met in Charleston in February*, 1790, resolved to con- 
tinue the work. Its minute on the subject was in these 

*' Quea. What can be done to Instruct poor children, 
white and black, to read f 

^^Ans. Let us labor, as the heart and soni of one man, 
to establish Sunday-schools In or near the pisce of pub- 
lic worship. Let persons be api)ointed by the bisnopf 
elders, deacons, or preachers, to teach gratvi all thst will 
attend, and have a capacity to learn. . . . The Council shall 
compile a proper school-book to teach them learning and 

At the period of the origin of Sunday-schools the Meth* 
odist Episcopal Church found one of its principal fields^ 
of action in the Southern States, being drawn thither 
by the great spiritual destitution of the inhabitants. 
But it is easy to understand that, owing to the sparse- 
ness of the population and to other reasons, the condi- 
tion of that region was not favorable to the rapid de- 
velopment and permanent establishment of Sunday- 
schools. The same thing was, to some extent, true 
of the entire United States, owing to the general ex- 
haustion of the countr}' following the war of the Revo- 
lution and the unsettled condition of affairs in a newly 
organized government. Hence nearly or quite a quar- 
ter of a century passed by before Sunday-schools be- 
came common in either the Southern or Northern States. 

Meantime they had been making steady and success- 
ful progress in Great Britain, where they were promoted 
by two classes of agencies, the philanthropic and the 
religious. Chi'ing to the low state of public education 
in that country, hundreds of thousands of children were 
wholly dependent upon Suuday-schooln for the first ele- 
ments of instruction. Hence reading and writing were 
universally taught in the Sunday-schools — the former 
as essential to the perusal of the Word of God or the 
Catechism, which from the first were the text-books 
for all pupils able to use them. 

Although much and well-rewarded effort was put 
forth in behalf of Sunday-schools from purely philan- 
thropic motives, yet the greatest progress made by them 
and the highest results secured through them wore in 
sequence of avowed and consistent religious effort. 
When, at length, this species of effort became general, 
Sunday-schools assumed a position of importance and 
of promise not before realized. About the ssme period 
they began to develop what may be called their cumu- 
lative power. This was seen when the first generation 
of Sunday-school scholars had grown up to become 
teachers, and felt themselves moved to do for others 
what had been done for them. In this manner the 
teaching force in Sunday-schools became greatly aug- 
mented. Besides, cases were not rare in which the 
grown-up scholars of Sunday-schools became ministers 
of the Gospel, while others, continuing in sc>culur life, 
became prominent men in businetts and in society. Tho 
strong and effective support rendered by such persons, 
as well as by many others of less prominence, ^ave a 
new ini|)etus to the Sunday-school enterprise, which has 
been enlarging and repeating itself ever since. 

The enlistment of the press as an auxiliary to Sun- 
day-schools was an event of great importance. For a 
considerable f>eriod Sunday-school work was done at a 
great disadvantage for lack of suitable books of all kinds, 
not excepting copies of the Scriptures. The organiza- 
tion of the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1804, 
and subsequently of numerous other societies for the 
publication and diffusion of the Word of God, tended to 
a general supply of the Holy Scriptures in forms and at 




prices adapted to extensive use in Sunday-schools. Be- 
sides Testaments, Bibles, and elementary instruction- 
books, the Hrnt publications iutroiUiced extensively into 
Sunday-schools were called rewani-books, on account 
of their being presented to children as an encourage- 
ment f(tr punctual and regular attendance and for the 
memorization of lessons. At first thev were tracts and 
8tory-btK)ks, in paper (jDvers, of very inferior quality, no 
others being attainable. About IHIO the Hcligious Tract 
Society of London began issuing children'^ >K)oks, pre- 
pared and printed specially with reference to Sunday- 
school patronage. The demand for such books increased 
in the ratio of their production, so that other religious 
societies, and even miscellaneous publishers, found it to 
their interest to provide them. At length the idea of 
introducing circulating -libraries into Sunday-schools 
-came into vogue, and with it a still greater publication 
•of books designed for juvenile reading, and also for the 
instruction and aid of teachers. 

There are no data for accurately tracing the numer- 
ical growth of Sunday-schools in the earlier periods of 
their history. Nevertheless, it is pleasing to know that 
some of the workers of those days were not inattentive 
to the broader aspects of the enterprise in which they 
were engaged. It was estimated by the Sunday-school 
Society of London, in 1786, that within five years after 
the opening of Kaikes's first school 250,000 scholars had 
been enrolled in the schools then established. About 
forty years later (1827) the American Sunday-school 
Union estimated that the aggregate number of scholars 
enrolled in the Sunday-schools of different countries was 

II. Tlw, Second Period of the Sutiday-srhool Enter- 
prise, — This enterprise, at the present writing, has bad 
a recognised existence of about one hundred years. In 
considering its history, it seems proper to divide its first 
century into two periods of fifty years each. The first, 
which has been summarily sketched above, may be de- 
nominated its initial and formative period. The sec- 
ond, now closing, constitutes its period of adolescence. 
We must look to the future for its full development 

Owing to causes noticed above, it was not earlier than 
from 1825 to 1830 that the Sunday-school cause came 
generally and prominently before the American public. 
Between the years named two leading Sunday-school 
unions (q. v.) were organized — one in Philadelphia and 
one in New York. About that time several great pub- 
lishing societies were established that have given much 
auxiliary aid to Sunday-school efforts. The idea of re- 
ligious instruction as the one great business of Sunday- 
achools had then found universal acceptance. The de- 
velopment of public secular instruction had by that time 
become ho general, at least in the Northern and Central 
States of the American Union, that Sunday-schools had 
little occasion to go out of their proper sphere. The 
movement in behalf of general e<lucation in England 
had begun, having been greatly stimulated by the re- 
sults of Sunday-schools. The purchase and use of Sun- 
dav-school libraries had become common in both coun- 
tries, and the means of supplying them with suitable 
books were improving. In short, the Sunday-school 
enterprise was fairly launched, but no more than that. 
All the general improvement and progress of the inter- 
vening fifty years, together with the united and consec- 
utive efforts of the multiplied workers in Sunday-schools, 
have been needed to bring those schools to the position 
they at prcMent occupy. 

There are two metho<is of indicating the progressive 
advance and the actual results of Sundav-schools. The 
one is by general statements, and the other by the com- 
parative showing of 8uch numerical statistics as may be 
found trustworthy. As neither of iliese modes is fully 
adequate, both will here be employed to a limited extent, 
in order that they may as far as ixtssibic supplement 
each other. Within the last fifty years Sunday-schools 
have come to be regarded as an essential branch of 
Church action, not merely in England and America, 

but throughout the Protestant world, whether in home 
or mission fields. They have also been adopted by Ro« 
man Catholics and Jews in Protestant countries. Not 
to speak of the influence of Sunday-schools in the last* 
I named bodies, it is safe to say that the great majority 
of all the ministers, missionaries, and communicants of 
all the Protestant churches of the world are at this time 
the alumni of Sunday-schools, and, as such, their active 
friends and supporters. The recognised necessities of 
these schools have given rise to important changes in 
church architecture, by which nearly every church is 
provided with accommodations for the instruction of 
the young in graded classes, ranging from infancy up- 
wards. They have called into existence not only an 
extensive literature, but also a varied psalmody, con- 
templating the special tastes and wants of the young. 
While in England they have been chiefly limited to the 
poorer and middle classes of the people, in the United 
States they have claimed, and in fact assumed, a rela- 
tion to public (week-day) schools corresponding to that 
which the Sabbath holds to the secular davs of the 
week. In this relation they seek to supplement public 
and general education with the moral and religious in- 
fluences of Christianity. In this view, they secure the 
attendance of scholars from the higher as well as lower 
classes of the community, and enlist for their instruc- 
tion a quality of talent and an amount of effort w^hich 
money could never hire. 

In passing from general though significant state- 
ments like these to such showings as may be made in 
figures, it seems necessary to explain that Sunday- 
school statistics, as minute and comprehensive as are 
now seen to be desirable, are very difficult to obtain on 
a large scale. Only in rare instances have govern- 
ments been interested to collect them, and compara- 
tively few of the promoters of Sunday-schools have so 
far recognised their importance as to take the requisite 
steps for securing them. Consequently, up to the pres- 
ent time, there has not been a uniformity of method 
and the extent of co-operation necessary to making up 
comprehensive exhibits of numbers and results. The 
most, therefore, that has been up to this time possible 
in the way of such exhibits has been to form estimates 
based upon accurate statistics taken within certain dis- 
tricts or churches, and extending t he pro rata outward. 
About the middle of the 19th century an effort was 
made in England, under government sanction, to ascer- 
tain the number and attendance of the Sunday-schools 
of that country. On a given Sunday (March 30, 1851) 
the Sunday-schools of England and Wales were simul- 
taneously inspected; and there were found in 23,514 
schools, 302,000 teachers and 2,280,000 scholars. The 
number of children enrolled as scholars was 2,407,409, 
or about three fifths of the number of children between 
the ages of five and fifteen enumerated by the census 
taken within the same limits. A similar proportion of 
children in American Sunday-schools at the same pe- 
riod would have reached the number of 3,000,000. If 
to those aggregates the probable number of Sunday- 
schools in Scotland, Ireland, and other countries at the 
same date be added, it seems safe to believe that there 
were in Sunday-schools throughout the world, at the 
end of 1850, not less than 6,000,000 schokrs. Similar 
estimates made at the end of another quarter of a cen- 
tury' indicate that at the end of 1875 there were in oper^ 
ation in all countries 110,000 Sunday-schools, embrac- 
ing 1,500,000 teachers and 10.000,000 scholars. One 
statistician of some prominence has since estimated 
that there are in the United States alone not less than 
81,858 Sunday-schools and r>,81M;.r)l»r) scholars. On that 
basis the above aggregate for all countries might be 
enlarged. To illustrate the thoroughness with which 
Sunday-school statistics are taken by at least one of 
the American churches, and also the instructiveneas of 
such statistics when taken through a series of years, we 
subjoin the official summary of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church for the year 1878: Sunday-schools, 19,904; 




Sonday-Khool officers and teachers, 212,442 ; scholars, 
l^Sll^**; scholars over fifteen years of ape, 493,704; 
Mholtrs under fifteen and not in infant clashes, 445,502; 
scbulars in infant classes, 27(),553 ; average attendance, 
96'i^75; Tolumcs in Sun<iay-8choul libraries, 1,911,2H3; 
annual expenses of the schools, |i516,87().94) ; contribu- 
tii^s to the Sunday-school Union for establishing new 
and aiding poor schools, $32,968.27 ; officers and teachers 
whu were communicants in the C'hurch, 169«993 ; schol- 
ars who were communicants, 302,145; conversions in 
connection with the Sunday-schools, 77,644. The total 
membership of the Church at the same period was 
1,688,783, or 35.000 less than the a^cgregate numl)er of 
teschen and scholars in the Sunday-schools. A retro- 
spective comparison of the increase of meml>er8 in the 
aanM Church from year to year shows a striking cor- 
respondence to the number of reported conversions in 
the Sandav - schools. To the extent that the above 


Statistics may be considered representative of the con- 
dition and work of Sutidav - schools in the American 
churches, they render superfluous any argument to 
prove the magnitude of that work and its auxiliary 
power for the promotion of Christian influence. 

It is not to be supposed that results of the importance 
indicated in the foregoing sketch have naturally arisen 
from the spontaneous growth of Sunday-schools. On 
the other hand they are only to be attributed to the 
divine blessing upon the systematic and well-directed 
elTons of intelligent Sunilay-school workers extending 
tbnNjgh successive years. In fact, a considerable por- 
tion of the second half century of Sunday-s(.'hools had 
paswd away before it could be said that these schools 
were thoroughly popular with even the Christian pub- 
lic of America ; nor did they become so without great 
*bA (H)ntinoous exertions on the part of enthusiastic 
friends of the cause. As one great agency for accom- 
plishing that result, Sunday - school conventions were 
•appointed and held in various places and in a great 
variety of circumstances. There were conventions for 
cities and towns, for counties, for districts, for confer- 
ences, and for states. Some of them were managed by 
^D|de denominations and some by a union of all <le- 
iMxninationflb In these conventions, prominent Sunday- 
«choiil workers came in contact with masses of people, 
^luvering objections, diffusing information, and stimu- 
latinjr zeaL Such gatherings gave an opportunity for 
the discussion of new methods, and became a great 
*)^»c>' fur the promotion of all real improvements in 
the organization and conduct of Sunday-schools even 
w ibe remotest sections of the land. In pn>|)ortion as 
^ Sunday-school idea l>ecame popular, and agitation 
in its behalf became unnecessary, conventions of Sun- 
<J«y-school friends and workers began to take the form 
<>f in^tutes after the analogy of teachers' institutes de- 
signed to elevate the standard of secular instruction. 
^<Mr a long period the most that was thought possible 
to be done for the higher training and special instruc- 
"*> of Sanday-scliool teachers, was sought to be ac- 
<*njpliihed through superintendents* and pastors' Bible- 
*'**'«. But at length it was found practicable, with 
w* design of superseding the Bible-classes referred to, 
***««ure many of their benefits on a more popular scale, 
<<»pled with the enthusiasm derived from the assem- 
^v of numbers of people interested in common objects, 
"ence at Snndav-school conventions and institutes, lect- 
<»'» were given on important topics, apparatus and new 
pnblicaiions were exhibited and explained, and model 
'nd normal classes were taught and traine<l by skilled 
**>cher8. By these public proceedings, not only was the 
^er danification and instruction of Sundav-8cluN)ls 
P^^iDoted, but an eiprU du corps was aroused among 
^bers; and in many schools normal departments 
^^ established for the special instruction and (luali- 

The success of Sunday-school institutes and normal 
f^a^Ks reacted upon the conventional idea and caused 
^ t') expand into that of Sunday-school assemblies, de- 

signed to continue in session from one to three weeks at 
a time. In connection with the growing American hab- 
it of taking summer vacations and of gathering in masses 
at })opular resorts, Sunday-school assemblies, under wise 
and energetic management, have s[)eedily grown to be 
influential of great good and promissory of long con- 
tinuance. The Chautauqua Sunday-school Assembly, 
held on the borders of a beautiful lake in Western New 
York, under the presidency of Dr. John H. Vincent, may 
be considered at once the originator and model of vari- 
ous similar assemblies already held, and now said to be 
established for regular annual sessions in different parta 
of the United States ; e. g. at Clear Lake, la. ; I^ke 
Bluff, 111. ; Loveland and lakeside, (). ; the Thousand 
Island Park in the St. I^wrencc liiver; and at Kound 
Lake, near Saratoga, N. Y. These assemblies are de- 
signeil to do, for vast and widely separated sections of 
America, what was contemplatx>d by the London Sun- 
day-school Union in the erection of a building at 56 
Old Bailey, in the heart of London. In that building 
is a Sunday-school museum and a large hall in which 
courses of lectures are given, while in other rooms train- 
ing-classes are taught and competitive examinations 
held. While the centre of a million-peopletl city af- 
fords some peculiar advantages for the objects altove 
indicated, and specially in being accessible at all seasons 
of the year, yet the ample spaces and the romantic as- 
sociations of a beautiful American grove adapted to 
such uses leave nothing to he desired in view of the 
objects of the assembly and during the season allotted 
to it. Many of the constructions are somewhat rude, 
but the appointments are in excellent taste and con- 
stantly improving. Kver>'thing, however, is made sub- 
servient to the grand idea of intellectual and spiritual 
improvement, with specific reference to the pn>motion 
of Christ's kingdom upon earth through the agency of 
Christian instruction. No one can properly appreciate 
the importance and future bearing of the agencies now 
under notice without considering that each coming 
generation will require, in its tuni, to be trained and 
fitted for the ever-expanding work of teaching all na- 
tions the truths of the (lospel. 

It may here be remarked that Sunday-school con- 
ventions have not been limited even to large states ; in 
fact, they have been expanded so as to enlist national 
and even international representation. A World's Sun- 
day-school Convention met in I^mdon in 1862, and a 
(xerman National Sundav-school Convention in Ham- 
burg in 1874. In the United States, in 1875, twenty- 
one State Sunday-school conventions were held, besides 
one of a national and one of an international character. 
The meeting of leading and delegated Sunday-school 
workers from different churches and nations has had 
a happy tendency towards the promotion of practical 
Christian union on the largest si'ale. One of the best 
evidences of this may be instanced in the general adop- 
tion since 1872 of a system of international lessons for 
Bible study. Uniform schemes of simultaneous study 
had been previously adopted to a considerable extent, 
especially in (iireat Britain, where they ha<l long been 
promoted by the I^ondon Sunday-school I'nion, but 
never officially accepted throughout the kingdom. As 
early as I860 Mr. Orange Judd, editor of the Avurican 
AtpicuUurut, originated a scheme of lessons having ail 
the essential features of the present International Series 
— namely, a selection of alxuit seven c<»nsecutive verses 
for each week, in historical order, from the several {tor- 
tious of Scripture. At his suggestion Dr. James Strong 
drew up such a scheme, which was printed in tabular 
form in the Ayriculturigt for February, 18<>2. and hun- 
dreds of thousands of copies of it were distributed and 
used in the Sunday-schools of various denominations 
throughout the United States. A similar plan was pul>- 
lished in the same manner the following year, and in 
1862 the first of four consecutive question-lxx)ks, enti- 
tled I masons for Every Sumlay in the. Year, was prepared 
under the same auspices, and published in New York. 


In 1866 the London systenif with some modifications, was 
brought to the attention of the American public by Rev. 
J. H. Vincent, then eiiiting a Sunday-school periodical 
in Chicago. The question was soon after proposetl by 
him in a Sunday-school institute, " Is it practicable to 
introduce a uniform system of lessons into all our 
schools?** This question was earnestly and hopefully 
discussed in various ways for several years following ; 
until, at the National Convention at Indianapolis in 1872, 
it was answered in the affirmative by a large vote. 
When the project was agreed to by representatives of 
the leading denominations in America, it was through 
friendly correspondence endorsed by the London Sun- 
day-school Union, and has since been in actual and ex- 
tensive use on both sides of the Atlantic The inter- 
national use of systems of lessons, prepared by joint 
committees, has had a happy tendency to promote in- 
creased interest in scriptural study throughout the 
world. This mode of simultaneous study has been 
greatly popularizcil by the publication of notes and 
comments on the uniform lessons in hundreds of peri- 
odicals in various countries and in different languages. 
At the present time, the system of international study 
seems to have won general favor throughout the Prot- 
estant world, and to have the promise of a long, if not 
permanent, continuance. 

In closing this article, it seems proper to say that it 
is in the United States that the greatest work has 
been done in the preparation and pnblication of Sun- 
day-school literature, although not viathout a great 
debt of obligation to £nglish writers. Here Sunday- 
school circulating-libraries were first adopted as an es- 
sential auxiliary of Sunday - school effort. By this 
means, the influences of the Sunday-school were pro- 
jected through the secular days of the week. In this 
country also, Sunday-school requisites and periodicals, 
combining both elegance and cheapness, have been pub- 
lishe<l in the greatest profusion. The Sunday-school 
libraries of the United States have, in fact, become so 
numerous and important as to have challenged and se- 
cured a partial enumeration in the official census of the 
government. The census of 1870 reported 33,680 libra- 
ries, and 8,346,153 volumes in those libraries. This ag- 
gregate, large as it is, does not include the State of Con- 
necticut, and for other reasons is evidently far below 
the facts in the case at the present time. No other 
libraries are so widely diffuse^l as those of Sunday- 
schools; they are not only found in cities, where most 
great libraries are established, but in the remotest sec- 
tions and neighborhoods of the land, and everywhere 
thev are free to all who bv attendance on Sunday- 

* • » 

schools become entitled to draw their bofiks for them- 
selves or their friends. In so vast an aggregate of vol- 
umes, it would not be strange if there were some of an 
indifferent or even of a very objectionable character. 
But such woiUd be only exceptions to the general rule 
that Sunday-school libraries furnish wholesome and at^ 
tractive reading to millions of youths and children, 
many of whom, without them, would have no reading, 
or only that which is ba<l. 

The most cursory view of the various agencies now 
in active operation as parts of the Sunday-school enter- 
princ can hardly fail to impress any thoughtful mind 
with the moral grandeur of that enterprise as a whole. 
Kspecially will any true Christian that contemplates 
the feeble beginning of 1780, in comparison with the 
vast array of Sunday-school activities and agents at 
work in 1880, be led to exclaim, What hath God wrought 
thnmgh the instrumentality of those who have en- 
deavored to obey the command "Feed my lambs!" 
When, moreover, he considers the glorious results of 
the Sunday-school efforts of the past hundred years, 
and the cumulative power of those that may be made 
in the centuries to come, he will see that the prob- 
lem of the world's conversion is in process of solution. 
(D. P. K.) 

SUNDAY-SCHOOL Societiks, Unions, etc. As- 

sociated Christian effort may be designated as the ge- 
neric agency by which, under the divine blessing, the 
great results of the Sunday-school enterprise have been 
accomplished. Such effort has assumed two forms — 
1, local; 2, general— each correspondent and supple- 
mentary to the other. Local associations, whether in 
neighborhoods or churches, have from the first been 
necessar}' as a means of raising the money to founds 
and of enlisting the teachers to instruct, Sunday-schools.. 
General associations were also, from an early day, seen 
to be important for the purpose of awakening public- 
interest and of diffusing information both as to the 
necessity and the best means of instructing in religioua- 
truth. They have likewise had an important function to* 
perform in prompting and guiding individual and UicaL 
effort in the work of organizing and maintaining Sun- 
day-schools, becoming at the same time an important 
bond of union between great numbers of schools not lo- 
cally connected. General associations for these objects- 
have assumed, somewhat interchangeably, the title of 
societies and unions, the latter predominating, appar- 
ently, on account of its expressiveness of their charac- 
ter and objects. The most important of those estab- 
lished in England and America will now be enumerated 
in chronological order. 

L English,—!, In 1785 " The Society for Promoting^ 
Sunday-schools in the British Dominions" was organized 
in London. It was under the leadership of William Fox^ 
who in various ways proved himself to be a true philan- 
thropist, but specially in his zeal, liberality, and personal 
efforts for the education and moral elevation of the low« 
er classes of his countrymen. This society, during the 
first sixteen years of its existence, paid out £4000 for 
the services of hired teachers in Sunda v-schools. W hen,, 
however, the plan of gratuitous teaching came to be uni- 
versally adopted, and Christians and churches became 
generally enlisted in promoting Sunday-schools fn>nr» 
purely religious motives, the importance and influence 
of this society declined until it became extinct. 

2. In 1808* « The London Sunday-8cho<il Union" was- 
organized. It was composed of lay Sunday-school 
workers of different denominations of Christians resid- 
ing within a radius of five miles from the city ymst- 
office. This limitation was adopted as a measure of 
convenience and unity of action, but with no design of 
limiting the influence of the union to the circle thus de- 
scribed. This imion has had an honorable and prosper- 
ous career from its origin to the present time. It has 
never controlled a large amount of funds, nor been able 
to take statistics on any scale of great importance; but 
it has steadily and consistently pursued its specific de- 
signs, and in so doing has been able, from its central 
position, to influence favorably the Sunday-school cause 
not only throughout Great Britain, but throughout the 
world. The following have been its more important 
functions: 1. The publication of Sunday - school requi- 
sites, lesson-papers, and periodicals. Of the latter, The 
Sunday-school Teachers^ Mayazine and several juvenile 
monthlies have long held a high rank. 2. The promo- 
tion of activity and improvement in the work of Sun- 
day-school instruction. For this object the position of 
the union, in the practical centre not only of London, but 
of England, has been eminently favorable. This ad- 
vantage has been diligently and wisely improved by a. 
succession of intelligent and faithful workers, who, by 
personal and co-operative efforts, have kept the stand- 
ard of Sunday-school instruction continually advancini;. 
As a permanent means to this important end, they 
have secured the erection of a fine building in a central 
location, in which they maintain courses of lectures,, 
training and m<Mlel classes, together with competitive 
examinations for teachers. 

3. In 1810 "The Religious Tract Society" of London 
was founded. This society, although not bearing the 
name Sunday-scho<il in its title, or specifically naming 
Stmday-8ch(K>l objects in its constitution, has neverthe- 
less been, from its origin to the present time, one of the 


iMit servioeable auxilumea to the Sunday-ficbool enter- 
prise. Its publicatioiis have been unrivalled for cheap- 
otti, elegance, religious character, and adaptation to 
Sunday-achool wants. As such they have challenged 
md wcured the patronage of all Sunday-school workers 
Umraghout the British dominions. Vast numbers of 
them hive been reprinted in the United States. 

Of Kveral other general associations we are not able 
to ittign the exact dato of origin. The order of their 
cstablishmeut is indicated in the list, and the specific 
object of each is sufficiently expressed by its title. 
They are as follows: **The Church of England Sun- 
dsT-iehool Institute ;" *'The Ragged Sunday-school In- 
stitute;" *^The Wealeyan Methodist Sunday-school 
Unton." The Wesleyan Methodist Church has long had 
a fonn of denominatioiud action in behalf of both week- 
day and Sunday school education. It has, moreover, 
throogh its puUication- office, issued many books for 
Sanday-schouls, as well as requisites and juvenile peri- 
odical Between the years 1860 and 1870 it thought 
prupcr to adopt more specific measures in behalf of its 
SuDday- school work. Hence the institution of the 
onioohut named, and the appointment of a connection- 
al Sandav-school secretary. In general, it may be re- 
marked that the greater part of the churches through- 
oat Great Britain maintain their Sunday-schools by in- 
dividual Church effort^ often aided by the co-operative 
influence of local unions. 

IL Americitn, — 1. Not counting the Church action 
aUoded to in the preceding article, the first general 
Sunday-school organization established in the United 
States dated from Jan. 1 1 , 1 791 . It was formed in Phil- 
adelphia, under the title of " The First-day or Sunday 
School Society.'* It was composed of members repre- 
senting different denominations of Christians, among 
vhom were several members of the Sitciety of Friends. 
"The dm article of the constitution of this society re- 
<iuired that the instruction given in the schools estab- 
lished under its auspices or receiving its beneficence 
>iH>uld ' be confined to reading and writing from the 
Bible and such other moral and religious books as the 
»ci«'ty mav from time to time direct.' The teachers 
were ptid for their services." Like its predecessor of 
"nilar design in London, this society did not have a 
^«)' long or influential career. Neither did the New 
Vori Sunday-school Union, formed in 1816, nor the Phil- 
adelphia Sundav and Adult School Union formed in 
Philadelphia in 1817. 

^ In 1824 the last-named association was merged 
^ "the American Sunday-school Union." This union, 
like that of London, is composed of laymen belonging 
^ different denominations of Christians ; but from the 
^ it has assumed and maintained a far more promi- 
nent position and more aggressive modes of action than 
Its English prototype. It has undertaken the double 
*<^of the publication of Sunday-school literature and 
(Ik missionary enterprise of founding Sunday-schools on 
^^ irontier and in all destitute portions of the United 
StttesL For these objects, it has appealed to its sup- 
pling churches for funds. Those appeals have been 
'***|»red iu large amounts from year to year ; and thus, 
dnhiig more than half a centur}% it has carried forward 
* S^vid and exf»anding work in many places where de- 
'^^inational eflTort coul<l not have commanded success, 
^•n indication of the work it is and has been accom- 
|w*hing, we luibjoin its principal items of statistics for 
f**yesr ending March 1, 1879 : Sunday-sclioolH organ- 
^ 1()87, containing 4915 teachers and 39,7H9 schol- 
*^ Schools aided, 2718, containing 16,4)22 teachers 
'^ 162,962 schf^rs. Miles travelled by its agents and 
■Nonaries, 232,622. Addresses delivered, 5521. Bi- 
^ distributed, 2137. Testaments distributed, 6668. 
Families visited, 14,140. It has expended in mission- 
"T operations an aggregate of $2,471,620, while the 
^oe of books and papers it has put in circulation is 
not Icai than $7,000,000. It is easy to perceive that 
*Kh a system of evangelical effort, steadily and ener- 

getically pursued for a long series of years, must result 
in an amount of good quito beyond the power of figures- 
to enumerate or wonls to express. When to this grand 
idea is added that of the influence of a rich and abun- 
dant Suntiay-school literature, diffused on business prin- 
ciples and through business agencies among the vari- 
ous Sunday-schools of the land, the mind strives in vain 
to comprehend the full extont of the significance and 
hopefulness of this system of effort. From the nature 
of its work, the American Sunday-school Union is una- 
ble to take what may be called permanent statistics, or 
to follow the schools it has founded into their sub«e- 
quent changes and developments. Its office is usually 
that of a pioneer, making preliminary organizations 
which, in the eourse of years — and often of a very few 
years — expand, subdivide, and become merged in the- 
more permanent work of the various churches. 

8. In 1827 '*The Sunday-school Union of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church** was oi^^anized in New York, in 
a form which also contemplated the publication and dif- 
fusion of religious tracts and the Holy Scriptures. Al- 
though all these objects had been previously contem- 
plated and promoted by regular Church action as taken 
in 1784 and subsequently, it was thought proper, ii» 
1827, to make special efforts in their behalf by the 
joint and special organization referred to. In 1840 the 
Sunday-school -Union under notice was reorganized as- 
a separate institution, and in 1844 its interests and 
functions were brought into greater prominence by the 
appointment of an official Sunday-sch(K)l editor, who- 
was also made corresponding secretari' of the union» 
These movements were in harmony with the original 
policy of the Church that institutetl them, namely, to- 
promote Sunday-school instruction as a branch <if reg- 
ular Church action. For such action on a large scale 
circumstances at the last-named period were highly- 
favorable. The Church had then become extended 
throughout the whole country, so that it could reach 
almost any inhabiteil place by its regular agencies. 
Its plan, therefore, w^as to stimulate its ministers and 
members to universal activity, in acconlance with its- 
rules, adopted in 1784 and 1790. This plan saved the 
great expense of sending out and maintaining special 
Sunday-school missionaries, while it made sure of re- 
sponsible and resident agents wherever the work wa» 
undertaken. By similar agencies it was sought ever>'- 
whcre to promote a higher grade of Sunday-school ac- 
tivity and improvetl methods of instruction. For the 
prmluction of an extensive and varied Sunday-school 
literature, provided under official editorship, the union 
was able to avail itself of an organized and most effect- 
ive publishing establishment, owned by the Church,, 
with the best of facilities for diffusing its printed mat- 
ter. In these circumstances, all collections for the mis- 
sionary department of Sunday-school effort were ap- 
plied directly and exclusively to the distribution of 
books, at cost price, to be used by persons engaged ii> 
founding new or maintaining poor schools. I*robably 
no more thorough and efficient system of Church effort 
in behalf of Sunday-schtM>ls was ever organized, inclu- 
sive of the system of statistics by which its workings 
arc shown from year to year. Some of the results of 
the action of that system, running on in regular course,, 
may be inferred from the statistical summaries given in 
the foregoing article. 

4. " The IVotestant Episcopal Sunday-school Union"" 
was organized in New York, at about the period when 
the two unions last named had their origin; but, for 
• some reason, it never secured a strong support from the 
Church in whose interest it was founded and whose 
name it bore. It acted for a time as a publication soci- 
ety, being often aided by individual congregations in 
the issue of particular books. After some years of a 
rather languid existence, its interests were sold out to a 
private bcNikseller. A similar result occurred to the 
Evangelical Knowledge Society, an organization also 
projected, about 1850, by ministers and members of the 





Protestant Episcopal Church, in the idea of securing 
and diffusing a more evangelical literature than that 
furnished by the union last named. 

5. It is proper to say here that neither the Presbyte- 
rian nor Baptist churches of the United States have 
organized Sunday-school unions. They have availed 
themselves to a large extent of the publications of the 
American Sunday-school Union, and also, in part, of the 
juvenile literature issued by their respective boards of 
publication, as well as that of the American Tract So- 

G. In 1832 "The Massachusetts Sabbath-school Soci- 
ety-' was founded in Boston, by representatives of the 
Congregational churches of New England. Its modes 
of action were denominational, and its publications were 
numerous and good, but after some years of independent 
existence the interests of the society were blended with 
those of the Congregational Publbhing Society and the 
American Home Missionary Society. Neither of those 
societies publish Sunday-school statistics. 

7. "The (Dutch) Reformed Sunday-school Union" 
was organized in New York about 1850, and for several 
years proceeded quite actively to promote the Sunday- 
school interests of the Church it represented. It pub- 
lished a small catalogue of Sunday-school books and 
requisites, but did not long maintain a separate exist- 
ence, its interests having been merged in those of a pub- 
lishing society of a more general character. 

8. It is not within the scope of this article to notice 
the numerous local Sunday-school associations that have 
sprung up in the cities, towns, counties, or even states 
of the American Union. Many of them have had but a 
brief existence. Others have been maintained for con- 
tinuous years, happily illustrating the principles of 
■Christian union, but rarely engaging in the enterprise 
of publication. Some of them have collected statistics, 
but usually within limited spheres. 

9. The Foreign Sunday-school Association of New 
York and vicinity had a germinal existence as far back 
•as 1864, but did not secure an incorporation till 1878. 
It is composed of practical Sunday-school workers, who, 
by means of correspondence, co-operation with mission- 
aries, and judicious donations, seek to promote the or- 
ganization and maintenance ojf Sunday-schools in coun- 
tries foreign to the United States and outside of the 
British possessions. It claims t^ have " been the means 
of planting 1977 Sunday-schools in Germany, 1130 in 
France, 150 in Italy, 30 in Portugal, 40 in Japan, 405 in 
<ierman Switzerland, besides some schools in China, 
4ireece, Hungar}', Holland, and other countries." Its 
published report for 1879 contains numerous interesting 
facts, and authorizes the hope that in years to come 
grand results may ensue from beginnings which are at 
lirst necessarily feeble, so far as human agency is in- 

The fact that the Sunday-school enterprise, during the 
£r»t century of its history, has, with the divine blessing, 
-come so fully to pervade English-speaking countries, 
and has made a hopeful commencement in many and 
remote foreign nations, deserves to be taken as a prom- 
ise of success during the centuries to come of inestima- 
ble extent and value. (D. P. K.) 

Sunday Service of the MicriioniST Episcopal 
i'liURCii was an abridgment of the Prayer-book of the 
Church of England, prepared by Mr. Wesley. It was 
arranged for the use of the MethotUsts in America, when 
be recommended their organization into a Methodist 
Episcopal Church. It was entitled The Sunday Service 
of the Methodists of Worth America^ triih other ServioeSy 
and was adopted by the General Conference of 1784. It 
was published in connection with the Discipline (Phila. 
1785; Lond. 1786). This appears to have been the 
last time the Sunday Service was published in connec- 
tion with the Discipline^ and at the General Conference 
of 1792 all reference to the use of a Sunday Service was 
stricken out. It gradually dropped out of u8e. The 
M. E. Church, South, in 1866, ordered that the Praver- 

book as printed by Mr. Wesley in 1786 should be re- 
printed for the use of their Church, and the same ser- 
vice is used in many Wesleyan churches in England, 
though generally the churches using a service prefer 
the regular English Prayer-book. See Simpson, CycUtp, 
of Methodism, s. v. 

Sundays, Special. There are a number of Sun- 
days in the year which have received names suggested 
by events happening upon or near those days. We 
give below a classified list : « 

AnvEMT (q. v.). The Sundays in Advent are called in the 
Greek Cnnrch by a certain number in connection with 
SL Lake's Gospel; thus, Advent Sunday Is the ** Tenth 
of Lnke." The third Sunday in Advent is called (/au- 
deU, from the Introit. 

After Epipuant (q. v.). It is called in the Greek Church 
"Sunday after the Lights:" in the north of Italy "Mnr- 
riage Sunday," from the Gospel. The second Sunday 
after Epiphany is known as the *' Fifteenth of Luke." 

Before Skptuaoksima ^q. v.)t called in the Greek Church 
"Sunday of the Publican and Pharisee." 

Ukptuaorsima (q. v.), called by the Greeks "Sunday of 
the Prodigal," and in the West "Close of Alleluia.'^ 

Sezaorbima (q. v.), in the Greek Church "Sunday of Apo- 
creos." because meat Is not eaten beyond it. It was aii«o 
called " Sunday of the Sower." 

QcDfQVAGKSiMA (o. V.), Called QuinquaqOfiviM Pctnitentice; 
also Bsto Mihi (Psa. xxxi, 2), trom the Introit ; in Ger- 
many "Priest's Fortnight" ecclesiastics commencing 
their fast on this day ; ana in the Greek Church Tj/ro- 
phagu»t because cheese is no longer eaten. 

In Lkmt (q. v.). 

1. Qnadn^eslma (q. v.), called Invaoavit (Psa. zcl, 15) : 
in the Bast "Orthodoxy Sunday" in England (994) 
" Hoi v Day." 

2. Remfniscere, from the Introit (Psa. xxv, 6) : and in 
France "Transfiguration," from the Gospei iu the 
Paris nse. 

8. Oculi, from the Introit (Pf)8. xxv, 15) ; and in the East 
"Adoration of the Cro>««i." 

4. Laetare (Isa. liv, 1), " Sandny of the Golden Rose" 
(q. v.) ; " Refreshment Sunday" (Gen. xliii) ; " Midlent 
Sunday:'* in the Greek Church "Sunday of the Great 
Canon," from a special hymn. In England it was 
known as " Care-Snuday" (iTar, a jteiuiUi}) ; " Mother- 
ing-Sunday" (Gal. vi, 21), when all peri«on8 made their 
offerings in the cathedral or mother-chnrch; "Sim- 
nel" or "Carliug Simday," from eating fine wheats 
cakes or beaus on ihii« dn'v. 

6. Judica (Psa. xllil, 1). *' PaVsion Sunday :" " Dimanche 
RepruB," from veilluir the ima*;t»s; "Sondav of the 
Quintain" in France, from tlie sports of the day: 
"Black Sunday" in Uernianv, from the veiling of the 
crosses when the words "^^ei^ns hid himself" were 
PAT-M-SuwnAT (q. v.), also " Sunday of the Willow-boughs." 
Eastkb (q. v.). 

L First Sunday after Eai>ter. or Octave, has various ap- 
pellations ; Dominica in Afbin. persons who were bap- 
tized at Easter laying aside the white robes then re- 
ceived : Dien Seaphytonun^ the newly baptized being 
then recognised as actual members of the Church; 
Qriinquagesima (q. v.) ; Pa^ha Clatisiimy close of Eas- 
ter; Octava Ii\fantiumj in allusion to the newly bap- 
tized ; Qtuunmodogeniti^ in allusion to man's renova- 
tion by the Resurrection. 

% The-second Sunday was known as that of the " Three 
Ointment-bearers," from the Gospel; "St. Thomas," 
or "Renewal Sunday" (John xx, 27); Mimrieordicut 
Dominifttom the Intnnt (Psa. xxiii, 5); "Sunday of 
White Cloths" or "after the exhibition of relics.'^ 

8. "Of the Paralytic" in the Greek Church ; in the Lat- 
in, Jubilate^ from the Introit (Psa, Ixii, 2). 

4. Mid> Pentecost; in the Greek Church "Of the Samar- 
itan ;" in the Latin from the Introits, Cantate (Psa. 
xcviii, 1) ; RogaU (Song of Sol. U, 14) ; Bxattdi (Psa. 
xxvii, 7). 

5. Rogation (q. v.); in the Greek Church "Of the Blind- 

Whit-Sunhay (q. v.). 

Trinity Sunhay (q. v.); in the East "All Saints' Sim- 
day;" iu France "King of Sundays," or "Blessed Sun- 
day." 1. "Sunday of the rich man and Lazarus" waa 
the term used to designate the first Stmday after Trin- 
ity. 16. "Sunday of the Lilies" is the name by which 
the fifteenth Sunday after Trinity is known. 

After Ascension ; in the Bast "Sniidav of the 31S," in al- 
lusion to the Nicene fathers: at home ''Sunday of 
Roses,** so called by Innocent III in 1130, roses l>eing 
thrown from the nnif of Santa Maria Rotunda, symbol- 
ical of the gifts of the Spirit. Sundays after Pentecost, 
Sundays from Whit-Sunday to Advent; but in England, 
anciently as now, Sundays alter Trinity. 

Stinias, an epithet of the Grecian Minerva, from 
her temple at Sunium in Attica (Pausan. i, 1, 1). 




SanisactaniBm (tn/vciVairroc, iniroducfd irith\ a 
ume given to the practice by which maiiy of the cler- 
gy evaded the rigorous laws respecting celibacy. It is 
wmetimes called domesticumt, and consisted in keeping 
female inmates in their dwellings, with whom they pro- 
fesKd to live in chaste affection, but who were known 
tu be concubines. Jerome and Chrysostom severely 
reprehended the clergy on account of the gross licen- 
tiouincM of which they were guilty, while at the same 
time they were professing the highest purity. See 

Siuma, one of the Norse asas, the daughter of Mun- 
dilfare, the star -god. Her brother and herself were 
possessed of extraordinary beauty, wliich induced their 
parents to name them the sun and moon (Sol, or Suima, 
and Maani) ; but the gods considered the bestowal of 
such names a crime, and accordingly kidnapped the 
children, afterwards placing them in charge of the sun 
and the moon wagons which were formed out of sparks 
of fire which flew from Muspelheim into the kingdom 
of the asas. The horses which drew the wagons were 
named Alswidur and Ar\'arkur (the " universal scorcher" 
and the "early wake"). They speeded rapidly on their 
courses because Skoll and Hate, two mighty giants in 
the form of wolves, f*»llowed swiftly on their heels to 
devoor them. It would seem that the ancient Ger- 
mans also worshipped the sun under this title as a 
shining, light-radiating being. See Norsk MythoI/- 


Banna (Arab, aistom^ le/fal usaye) originally de- 
notes among Moslems the sayings an<i the example of 
Hohammed and his community, provided they are in 
accordance with the Koran, the meaning of which, 
however, is itself explained by the Suima. The term 
is therefore (though incorrectly) used for the collections 
of moral and legal traditions traced to the Prophet, 
vhicb supplement the Koran, somewhat like the Mish- 
na (q. v.), which supplements the laws of the Pent-a- 
teuch. The Sunna not only comprises religious doc- 
trineit and practice, but also civil and criminal laws 
tud the usages of common life — the way to eat and to 
drink, and to dress, and the like. This tradition is 
first heard of during the civil wars among the adher- 
€nu of the new faith, about half a* century after the 
^^^U The single traditions, as we now possess them, 
w^^ly exceed six lines. The diction is carefully wrought, 
*nd ibe form is that of a dialogue. For the credibility 
and eanonicity of a tradition it was originally necessary 
that it Rhould have been heard by one truthful witness ; 
^t this law was much relaxed in afler-time. At the 
*|>d of the 3d century (H.), a countless number of indi- 
ridual collections (J/ojwaJ), mostly of an apocryphal 
character, had been produced by different theologians, 
^t the first who sifted them critically, and without re- 
gard to any special theological system, was Bochary 
(d.2.*)6 H.). ii'm (K>llection contains 7275 single tra- 
<«»tK)iia, 4O0O of which, however, occur twice in the 
vork. M(Mtlim, his pupil, supplemented Bochary with 
*^ber collection, containing 12,000, again including 
^^ repetitions. Besides these, there are four more 
''canonicar collections — bv Abft Dawftd (d. 275 H.), 
Tinnidzy (d. 279), Nasay (d. 803), and Maga (d. 273). 
'^^ Sunna, as we have it in these collections, contains, 
bmadly speaking, more truth than it is generally sup- 
Pi^ to contain, and, critically used, is, besides the 
^^n, the most authentic source of Islam. A selec- 
<>^ from the different collections (both canonical and 
♦xberwise). called MUhciit A l-Ma$abihf has Ijeen trans- 
'foi into English by Capt Matthews (Calcutta, 1«09). 
''igmeuts from Bochary are found in the (jerman 
**ttUiion, bv Von Hammer, in the Fvmlgrubm dts 
<^'*«to. See'SoNNA. 

Snnnltes, traditionista, or believers in the Sunna 
(^^•); the name of the '^ orthodox" Moslems, as op- 
V^ to the Shiltea (q. ▼.). They are subdivided into 
^ principal lecta) who, though at issue on different 

minor points, yet are acknowledged by each other to 
belong to the faithful and to be capable of salvation, 
and they each have a special oratory at Mecca. The 
first of these sects are the Ilanetitcs, founded by Ab(i 
llanifa, who died 150 years after the Ilegira. They 
are emphatically called ''the followers of reason," while 
the other three are guided exclusively by tradition. 
They allow reason to have a principal share in their 
decisions on legal and other points. To this sect be- 
long chiefly the Turks and Tartars. The second sect 
are the Malekites, founded by Malek Ibn-Ans, who 
died at Medina al)out 180 H. As one of the chief 
proofs of his real piety and humility, it is recorded that 
when asked for his decision on forty-eight questions, he 
would only decide on sixteen, freely confessing his ig- 
norance about the others. In Barbary and other |)art8 
of Africa, the greatest part of his adherents are found. 
Mohammed Al-Shnfei, bom in Palestine. 150 II., but 
educated in Mecca, is the founder of the third sect, the 
Shafeites. He was a great enemy of the scholastic 
divines, and seems altogether to have l>een of an orig- 
inal cast of mind. He never swore bv (iScxl, and alwavs 
took time to consider whether he should at all answer 
any given question or hold his peace. The most char- 
acteristic saying recorded of him is, "Whosoever pre- 
tends to love both the work and the Creator at the same 
time is a liar." He is accounted of such importance 
that, according to his contemporaries, " he was as the sun 
to the world, and as health to the body f ' and all the 
relations of the traditions of Mohammed were said to 
have been asleep until he came and woke them. He 
appears to have been the first who reduce<l Moslem ju- 
risprudence into a method, and thus made it, from a 
number of vague sayings, a science. His followers are 
now chiefly found in Arabia and Persia. Ahmed Ibn- 
Hanbal founded the fourth sect, the Haubalites. He 
was bom 164 H., and was a most intimate friend of 
Shnfei. His knowledge of the traditions (of which he 
could repeat not fewer than a million) was no less famed 
than was his piety. He taught that the Koran was 
not created, but everlastingly subsisted in the essence 
of God — a doctrine for which he was severely punished 
by the caliph Al-Motasem. On the day of his death, 
no less than 20,000 unbelievers (Jews, Christians, and 
Magians) are said to have embraced the Mohammedan 
faith. Once very numerous, the Hanbalites now are 
but very rarely met with out of Arabia. On the differ- 
ences between the Sunnites and Shiltes, see ShiYtes. 
See SoMNiTKs. 

Sunyabadis, a sect of Hindft Atheists, or rath- 
er Nihilists, who held that all notions of God and 
man are fallacies, and that nothing exists. What- 
ever we look upon is reganled as vacuity. Theism 
and Atheism, Maya and Brahm, all is false, all is 

SuovetaurUia, peculiar sacrifices among the an- 
cient Romans, so named beciiuse they consisted of a pig, 
a sheep, and an ox. These were offered at the gen- 
eral lustration of the Roman people, which took place 
every five years. The Suovet^urilia, indeed, formed a 
part of every lustration, and the victims were carried 
around the thing to be purified, whether it was a city, 
a people, or a piece of land. The same sacrifices existed 
among the ancient Greeks, under the name of Trittya. 
A representation of the celebration of ihcM* Macrifices ia 
found on the Triumphal Arch of Constaniine at Rome. 
See Sackificb. 

Sup (liiirvkii}). Our information on this subject is 
but scant V. The earlv Hebrews do not seem to have 
given special names to their several meals, for the terms 
n*nilered "dine" and "dinner" in the A. V. (Gen. xliii, 
16; Prov. xv, 17) are in reality general expressions, 
which might more correctly be rendered "eat" and 
"portion of food." In the New Test, we have the 
(ireek terms dpinrov and octTrvov, which the A. V, 
renders respectively " dinner" and " supper" (Luke idv. 




12; John xxi, 12), bat which are more properly "break- 
fast" and " dinner." There is some uncertainty as to 
the hours at which the meals were taken. The Egyp- 
tians undoubtedly took their principal meal at noon 
(Gen. xliii, 16) ; laborers took a light meal at that time 
(Ruth ii, 14 ; comp. yer. 17) ; and occasionally that early 
hour was deyoted to excess and revelling (1 Kings xx, 
16). It has been inferred from those passages (some- 
what too hastily, we think) that the principal meal 
generally took place at noon. The Egyptians do, in- 
deed, still make a substantial meal at that time (Lane, 
Mod. Egypt, i, 18^), but there are indications that the 
Jews rather followed the custom that preyails among 
the Bedawin, and made their principal meal after sun- 
set, and a lighter meal at about 9 or 10 A.M. (Burck- 
hardc, Notesj i, 64). For instance, Lot prepared a feast 
for the two angels "at even" (Gren. xix, 1-3) ; Boaz ev- 
idently took his meal late in the evening (Ruth iii, 7) ; 
the Israelites ate Jlesh in the evening, and bread only, 
or manna, in the morning (Exod. xvi, 12) ; the con- 
text seems to imply that Jethro*s feast was in the even- 
ing (xviii, 12, 14). But, above all, the institution of 
the Paschal feast in the evening seems to imply that 
the principal meal was usually taken then: it appears 
highly improbable that the Jews would have been or- 
dered to eat meat at an unusual time. In the later Bib- 
lical period we have clearer notices to the same effect. 
Breakfast took place in the morning (John xxi, 4, 12), on 
ordinary days not before 9 o'clock, which was the ^rst 
hour of prayer (Acts ii, 15), and on the Sabbath not be- 
fore 12, when the service of the synagogue was com- 
pleted (Josephus, Lifii § 54) ; the more prolonged and 
substantial meal took place in the evening (ibid, § 44 ; 
War, i, 17, 4). The general tenor of the parable of the 
great supper certainly implies that the feast took place 
in the working-hours of the day (Luke xiv, 15-24) ; but 
we may regard this, perhaps, as part of the imagery of 
the parable rather than as a picture of real life. See 


The posture at meals varied at different periods. There 
is sufficient evidence that the old Hebrews were in the 
habit of sitimg ((ren. xxvii, 19; Judg. xix, 6; 1 Sam. 
XX, 5, 24 ; 1 Kings xiii, 20), but it does not hence fol- 
low that they sat on chairs; they may have squatted 
on the ground, as was the occasional, though not per- 
haps the general, custom of the ancient Egyptians (Wil- 
kinson, Anc, Egypt, i, 58, 181). The table was in this 
case but slightly elevated above the ground, as is still 
the case in Egypt. At the same time, the chair was 
not unknown to the Hebrews, but seems to have been 
regarded as a token of dignity. The Hebrew term is 
kisae (Mt33). There is only one instance of its being 
mentioned as an article of onlinary furniture, viz. in 2 
Kings iv, 10, where the A. V. incorrectly renders it 
"stooL" Even there it seems probable that it was 
placed more as a mark of special honor to the prophet 
than for common use. As luxury increased, the prac- 
tice of sitting was exchanged for that of reclining. The 
first intimation of this occurs in the prophecies of Amos, 
who reprobates those " that lie upon beds of ivory, and 
stretch themselves upon their couches" (vi, 4) ; and it 
appears that the couches themselves were of a costly 
character — the "comers" or edges (iii, 12: the word 
is peaky HKQ, which will apply to the edge as well as to 
the angle of a couch. That the seats and couches of 
the Assyrians were handsomely ornamented appears 
from the specimens given by Layard [A7n^t?«A, ii, 300- 
302]), being finished with ivory, and the seat covered 
with silk or damask coverlets. (The A. Y. has " in Da- 
mascus in a couch ;" but there can be no doubt that the 
name of the town was transferred to the silk stuffs man- 
ufactured there, which are still known by the name of 
" damask.") Ezekiel, again, Inveighs against one who 
sat " on a stately bed with a table prepared before it" 
(xxiii, 4 1 ). The custom may have been borrowed, in 
the first instance, from the Babylonians and Syrians, 

among whom it prevailed at an early period (Esth. i^ 
6 ; vii, 8). A similar change took place in the habits 
of the Greeks, who are represented in the Heroic Age as 
sitting (JL x, 578 ; Od, i, 145), but who aflerwards adopt- 
ed the habit of reclining, women and children excepted. 
Sitting appears to have been the posture usual among- 
the A883rrians on the occasion of great festivals. A bas- 
relief on the walls of Khorsabad represents the guests 
seated on high chairs (Layard, Ninecehy ii, 411). In 
the time of our Saviour reclining was the universal cus- 
tom, as is Implied in the terms (dvaceccr^ai, raraiccl- 
9^ai, dveikkivio^aif KaraKkivio^ai) used for ^sitting at 
meat," as the A. Y. incorrectly has it. The couch it- 
self (cXivi}) is only once mentioned (Mark vii, 4; A. Y. 
" tables"), but there can be little doubt that the Roman 
tridinium had been introduced, and that the arrange- 
ments of the table resembled those described bv das- 
sical writers. Generally speaking, only three persons 
reclined on each couch, but occasionally four, or even 
five. The couches were provided with cushions, on 
which the left elbow rested in support of the upper 
part of the body, while the right arm remained free. 
A room provided with these was described as itrrputpi- 
vov, lit. "spread" (xiv, 15; A. Y. "furnished"). As 
several guests reclined on the same couch, each over- 
lapped his neighbor, as it were, and rested his head on 
or near the breast of the one who lay behind him ; he 
was then said to " lean on the bosom" of his neighbor 
{avaKua^ai iv rtf coXir^, John xiii, 23 ; xxi, 20 ; comp. 
Pliny, Epist, iv, 22). The close proximity into which 
persons were thus brought rendered it more than usu- 
ally agreeable that friend should be next to friend, and 
it gave the opportunity of making confidential commu- 
nications (John xiii, 25). The ordinary arrangement of 
the couches was in three sides of a square, the fourth 
being left open for the ser\'ants to bring up the dis^hes. 
The couches were denominated respectively the hit;h- 
est, the middle, and the lowest couch ; the three guests 
on each couch were also denominated highest, middle, 
and lowest — the terms being suggested by the circum- 
stance of the guest who reclined on another's bosora 
always appearing to be below him. The protok/ista 
{7rptttT0K\t(riat Matt, xxiii, 6), which the Pharisees so 
much coveted, was not, as the A. Y. represents it, " the 
uppermost room" but the highest seat in the highest 
couch — the seat numbered 1 in the annexed diagram. 
See AccuBATiON. 

lectns medins 






« 6 4 

7 3 

8 2 

9 1 









Some doubt attends the question whether the females 
took their meals along with the males. The present 
state of society in the East throws no light upon this 
subject, as the customs of the harem date from the time 
of Mohammed. The cases of Ruth amid the reapers 
(Ruth ii, 14), of Elkanah with his wives (1 Sam. i, 4), 
of Job's sons and daughters (Job 1, 4), and the general 
intermixture of the sexes in daily life, make it more 
than probable that they did so join ; at the same time, 
as the duty of attending upon the guests devolved upt)n 
them (Luke x, 40), they probably took a somewhat ir- 
regular and briefer repast. See Dine. 

Before commencing the meal, the guests washed their 
hands. This custom was founded on natural decorum ;• 
not only was the hand the substitute for our knife and 
fork, hut the hands of all the guests were dipped into 
one and the same dish; uncleanliness in such a case 
would be intolerable. Hence not only the Jews, bat 


was enlivened with music, singing, and dancing (2 Sam. Supererogation (^opus mpeferogaiionW), llie 

xix, 35; Psa. Ixix, 12; Isa. v, 12; Amos vi, 5; Ecclus. distinction between pracepta and coruilia evangelica^ 

xxxii, 3-6 ; Matt, xiv, 6 ; Luke xv, 25), or with riddles or between the potiitive duties enjoined by the law and 

(Judg. xiv, 12); and amid these entertainments the the moral requirements of the Gospel, which the faithful 

festival was prolonged for several days (Esth. i, 8, 4). are at liberty to comply with or not, referring chiefly ta 

Entertainments designed aUnoet exclusively for drink- 1 Cor. vii, 6, and treated in the Catechisnu Roman, iii^ 

ing were known by the special name oimUhteh (nn^O). ^» ^4, is of very ancient origin. Scholastic theology in- 

This resembled the conUssatio of the Romans, Which f"^, "^^ particularly on that distinction, aiui estab- 

, ^ . , 7 • • • lished It m the form in which it has since been held 

took pUce after the supper, and was a mere dnnking ^^ ^ orthodox Roman Catholics. If the observance 

revel, with only so much food as served to whet the ^f the obligatory commandments constitutes aU tlie du- 

palate for wme (Smith, />tc^ o/^n/iy. p. 27 1>— Smith, tieg of man, then hU undertaking to accomplish the 

See Banquet. Instances of such drinking-bouts are non-obligatorv cormlia may be looked upon as a sort of 

noticed in 1 Sam. xx v, 36 ; 2 Sam. xiU, 28 ; Esth. i, 7 ; xxaBc, the object of which is to gain hy this accomplish- 

Dan. v, 1 ; they are reprobated by the prophets (Isa. v, ment a certain degree of merU. We acquire by it a sort 

11 ; Amos vi, 6). Somewhat akin to the muhuh of the of surplus, and this is what is deagnated as opus supers 

Hebrews was also the kdmos (kw/zoc) of the apostolic erogatumis. This doctrine of supererogatory' merits i» 

age, in which gross Ucentiousness was added to drinking, not svmbolical, for the CouncU of Trent does not express 

and which is frequently made the subject of warning in itaelf on that point. On the other hand, the principle that 

ttie Epistles (Rom. xui, 13 ; Gal. v, 21 ; Eph. v, 18 ; 1 the righteous may fuUy satisfy the divine Uw pro hujiu 

Pet, IV, 3). See Drink. ^^^ ^^^^ l,y y^oVks done in God is fully established 

Super-altar, a term given — 1. To a portable altar, by Cone. Trid. Sess. vi, can. 16. This is also the case 

placed on the altar itself at the time of the celebration of with the other principle, *' Si quis dixerit, hominis justi- 

the Christian eucharist, or set up separately. Hincmar flcati bona opera ita esse dona Dei, ut non sint etiam bona 

(867) allowed the use of a consecrated slate, marble, or ipsius justilicati merita, aut ipsum justificatnm bonis 

a black stone slab, probably owing to the needs of the operibus . . . non vere mereri augmentum gratise, viram 

Crusaders and the deficiency of churches. It was large leteniam et ipsius vitaB setemte . . . consecutionem atque 

enough to contain the chalice and host. See Altar, etiam gloriie augmentum ; anathema sit** (Sess. vi, can. 

Portable. 2. Ordinarily and commonly this term is 32). Finally, the symbolic books of the Roman Cath- 

applied to the ledge behind the altar, on which relics, olic Church recognise also the voluntary assumption of 

flowers, candlesticks, and the altar-cross stand. It is the vows of obedience, poverty and chastity (Sess. xxv, 

very frequently so applied in the ancient Church of can. 1), of which Bellarminc (/>e 3/onacAif, c. viii) says 

England. they are " nee pnecepta nee indifferentia, sed Deo grata 

Superannuated Prkachkrs arc ministers in the ^^ **» »"<> commendata,** If a satbfactory fulfilment of 

Methodist churches who, by reason of age, infirmity, '^® ^^ '^ possible, if good works constitute a desert, 

or afflictions, are disabled from preaching, but remain '^*" ^^® schoUstic noUou of the opera mpererogatira 

members of the Annual Conferences. In the Amer- becomes a natural consequence. This doctrine, in short, 

ican churches they retain all the rights and privileges ^ ***® ^^^^ ^^ '**® system. It is the natural conse- 

of active ministers except being eligible to appoint- *1"«"<^ ^^ ^^*^ conceprion of the law in relarion to the 

ments. In the English Wesleyan Church, if members justification of man. It is supported by tradition from 

the Conference. a. 1), and has not only never been denied, but always 

I. Riqhtt, etc,— \y\ien a superannuated preacher lives asserted and defended* against aU attacks by the mUt 
out of the bounds of his Conference, he is entitled to a ^™»n«nt theologians of the Roman Catholic Church, 
seat in the Quarterly Conference, and the privileges of '^^^ assertion "ut unus posset pro altero satisfacere,** 
membership in the Church where he resides. He is en- *" ^^® Catech, Bom,, can only be explained in view of 
titled, if needy, to receive a share of the proceeds of the ^^^^ doctnne. If we now inquire further into its con- 
collection taken in the churches for Conference claim- sequences, as attempted by more modem theologians, 
ants, and of the chartereil fund. Each Quarterly Con- bolder, for instance {Xeue Untersuchungen, 2d ed. p. 305 
ference is directed to estimate the amount needed for «!.), wefind an inextricable confusion m the conception 
the support of these preachers or their widows, and for- ^^ ^^^ **^' Miihler starts from the admission that the 
ward a certificate to the Annual Conference, The case "®'*^ ^■^» ^ '^« absolute will of God, and the unity of 
i:* considered bv the Conference stewards, and on their ^^^ **""*" ^»^^ ^i'*^ ^^« ^»^'i"® ^>' ^<^^«' ^'*^^^^^ ^^ ^^ 
reiKirt the amount to be distributed is decided by the q"»res, cannot be 8urpa88e<l. Yet his conception of the 
vote of the Conference. ^*^ *® erroneous and a mere abstraction, for, on the one 

II. Duties, etc-H is the dutv of the superannuated '**"^' *** co"»ider» it as without limits, infinite; and, on 
preacher to forward annually to the Conference of which ^^"^ ^^^^^^ «* resolving itself into a numl>cr of separate 

he is a member a certificate of his Christian and minis- 
terial character, signed by the presiding elder of the 
<iistrict or the preacher in charge of the work where he 
resides. Without suoh certificate he has no claims on 
the Conference for support. 

In IJS7<) there wore in the Methodist Episcopal Church 
1103 snperainiiintcil preachers. The Methodist Episco- 
pal Chunh, South, in l»7.j, reportetl 259. See Discipline 

commandments, each of which constitutes a duty. Thus 
considered, no one can do more than the law reqiiires, 
though any one can do more than is required by the 
separate commandments taken individually. From tlie 
moment that by his entering into communion with 
Christ love becomes the ruling principle of a man's life, 
he has absolutely fulfilled the moral law. Regeneration 
being presupposed, there are yet dift'erent degrees in the 

of the M. /:. Church; Sinif^ou, Cychp, of Mtthodism,  ^^^^^^ ^^ **^^«' «"^ ^^^^ degrees are not regulated by 

any law. Hence every one may ac^^mplish certain du- 
ties as if they were not duties for him, thus oversK^p- 
. , , . . . , ^^» , ping the common limits of dutv and attaining to.ahiirh- 

episci^us has always been retiiined in the Church to : ^, ^ ,,f ,)eH-ection. According to this argununia- 

denote the chief minister in sacred thmgs. It was ti^,,^ .^e moral law wouhi constitute, so to 8p<-ak, an 
sometimes translated by I^tin wnters into superattefi^ ima£rinar^^ nnantitv. nonst«rinir. on tho o,i« h.n.L in fh« 

8. V. 

Superattendens. The Greek word imaKoiroq, 

detiSy i. e. superintendent. See Bishop. 

Superbia, the Roman personified j^rid^, a daughter 
of iEther and Earth. 

imagmar}' quantity, consisting, on the one hand, in the 
complete bo<ly of the divine commandments, and, on the 
other, in a number of imputations separate from these 
commandments, and very difficult to define particular- 




ly. This, then, bringa us back again to the (lititinction 
httuwn prtrctpta aud consUui, as the basis of the ojftnt 
SMpertrogatieu, Protestantism, on the contrary, looks 
upon the divine law as one indivisible, and being in this 
fonn th« nile of all human life and action. Objectively, 
it i» the expression of the idea of that which is guud in 
itself, while subjectively it tinds its accomplishment in 
love. But in order to satisfy the manifold exigencies 
of life, it presents itself abw in the form of a plurality 
of commandments. These, however, are not to be con- 
Mtlered u Kparatc from each other, nor, when taken to- 
gether, u forming an incommensurable whole ; but, as 
it i» muii duty to do in ever}' circumstance that which 
is good in itself, each distinct commandment is to bt looked 
upon oi the teal of the cofnjUete moral idea^ as the tchoie 
<^'rne law in its relation to the circumstance under con- 
ndtratuM, As to which of the many commandments 
limb its application in a given case, this is a question 
eotirely dir4inct from that which is objectively to be de- 
fined. The perception of it is given to the regenerate 
h\' the Holy Spirit tlirough a conscience filled with 
lovt. It is evident that in this system there is no pos- 
Mbility of supposing a human power in those regener- 
ated in Christ by virtue of which they could, under 
any circumstance, do more than is requiretl of tlicm, i. e. 
more than that which is absolutely good in itself. Thus, 
we may not only assert in abstracto that the young 
woman who devotes her life to taking care of the sick, 
or the misBiiouar)', does not thereby attain a higher de- 
^rree nf moral peifection than others who contribute but 
a mite towanls the advancement of the kingdom of Ciod. 
All cle|)ends in this respect on the individual, and on 
iht> ptkMiion in which (iwl has placetl him. Thus, a 
)mn^ woman who, having an aged motlier dependent 
(•n her care, should enter an order— such, for instance, as 
the Siatvrs of Mercv — would do a bad action. Of the 
woman who anointeil him our Lord said himself, *' She 
fuiih (hmc what she could" (Mark xiv, 8). In Luke 
xvii, 10, he says, *' When ye shall have <lonc all those 
thing!} which are commanded you, say. We are unprotit- 
«hle aervanta." Of the stewards, it is re<iuirctl that 
they should be found faith fid, and nothing else. Of 
Christ himself it is said that he was " obeilient unto 
'IPWh, even the death of the cnws" (PhiL ii, «), and to 
^ more tiian obedient is impossible, while to be less is 
to be diivibedicnt. The contrary doctrine, which a»- 
cnbe* morits to roan aside fn)m the grace of (iod, is not 
^"ly immoral, but i>osiitively irreligious. It is even il- 
l^calwhen locked at from the Roman Catholic stand- 
P"'nt, since (Mohler, i>. 300) no living man ever accom- 
plishes the whole law. See Janow, l)e Retjulis; Con/. 
■' "9- art. XX vii ; ApoL n. 1441, Ha, 187, 209 ; A rt, Smolc. 
"'. 3. 322; Owf, A w,l. xiv. 

We ithould neglect one of the principal consequences 
"f the theory of the opus ttiiptreroyatirum if wc forgot 
t" consider its relation to indulgences (q. v.). While 
the sacrament of {leiiancc and the at>H<)lution coniiect- 
^' with it grant exemption from sin and from eternal 
IHuiLthment, the Church possesses a moans of lessening 
'•Tpven remitting the temporal punishments required 
*'y divine justice by means of indulgences. Those toni- 
P***! punishments are otherwise to lie undergone partly 
^ th'm earth, as penances and ecclesiastical expiations 
(P*»ff rtflfiicK/irrr), partly afterwards in purgat«)ry (^Per- 
"'He.ix, 2), But whence docs the Church ikwsosh the 
P"*er thus to set up as the *' representative of (iiHl's 
^^y and justice in our time," and as such to exercise 
"••^h aright of grace as is so far from l>eing ecdeniasti- 
^ in its character that it extends (under some restric- 
thHi) even beyond this life? How can it defend the as- 
'•'niiition of a potcstas con/erendi indulgent ias a Christo 
^'^sta, mentioned in Conc^ Trid. Sess. xxv ? On this 
P<^Dt they refer, as was already done by ^Vlexander of 
Hales, to the thesaurus supereroffatirmis perfectorum 
'''UQded by the supererogatory merits of Christ and of 
^niots: ''Est indulgentia remissio poiniu temporalis 
*Uioc post absolutionem sacramentalem pcccatis debi- 

t«, in foro intenio coram Deo valida, facta per applica- 
tionem thesauri Kcclesia^ a superiore legitimo" (Perrone, 
ix, 1). That there exists such a fund capable of aton- 
ing for all the sins of humanity, of any kind, the l»asis 
and foundation of which are the intinite merits of the 
Son of (jod as man, and of Christ in his saints (Klee, 
Ihfgm, ii, .'(85), is considered tm Jidti projrimum. Aside 
fn>m the fact iliat it is implicitly establisheti by the sanc- 
tion of indulgences (Cone. Trid. Sess. xxv, can. 21 ), it is 
confirmed by the express declarations of |x>pes Clement 
VI ( Const, (■nifftuitus)^ l^eo X, I*ius V, < iregorj* XIII, Pius 
VI, and Uenettict XIV. See also Alex. Ales, pt iv, qu. 
23, a. 1, m. 1 ; All)ertus Magini(4.ASV/i^ iv, dist.20, a. 17, 18 ; 
Thomas Afjuinas, pt, iii, (|u. 25, a. 1 ; tSfnf. i v, dist, 20, qu. 1 , 
a. 3 ; Summ, adr, (imt. iii, 1 oO : Itoiiavontnra, SnU, iv, dist. 
20, pt, ii, ({u. 1 ; Uellarmine, De Indu/t/. c. ii, iii ; Veroni- 
us, Reyula Fid*i^ ii, 4; Uossuet, KrjHfsitum^ § 8; Balleri- 
ni [Peter], Summ, Theol.Pra-l, iii. Still there may re- 
main some doubt as to whether the merita on which 
the system of indulgences rests is to be considered as 
active performances in the strict sense of the ttpus su- 
pereroffatiotiiSf or as unmerited sufferings, such as those 
undergone by the saints, and which were not to be con- 
sideretl as punishments, but which thus 8er\'ed to atone 
beforehand for the faults afterwards committed by the 
universality of sinners. It is only in the first case that 
the doctrine of the opus tiipererogatioms forms the basis 
of the 8>'stem of indulgences, or the notion of the ojms 
supereroifatirum must also embrace the superfluous suf- 
ferings of the perfect; and on this the orthodox writers 
of the Roman Catholic Churcli do not agree. In their 
polemical defences of the doctrine of a fund of merits, 
they mostly base themselves on the second considera- 
tion. If we leave these, we find in their other works so 
much that is obscure and indefinite on this as well as 
on most other points that it is impossible for Protes- 
tant expositors to attempt to define the doctrine of the 
Church without being at once accused by Roman Cath- 
olics of misunderstauiUng their authors. The same Miih- 
ler who in AVuc Untersuchumfen, § 68, derives the thtsau- 
rus from the excessive sufferings of some, in § 09, p. 
411, considers good works as efficient as undeser\-ed 
sufferings in freeing the yet ensnared members of the 
IxNly of Christ. This is still more expressly asserted by 
Klee {Dofftn, ii, 334) and Bellarminc (/)e Afotiach, c. vii, 
viii). And it could not be otherwise, for the thesanrusy 
that basis of indulgences, the pro<luct of the " merita 
Christ i et sanctorum, quatenus haec Mititfactoria sunt," is 
alone *' norunt the(dogi omnes opera bona esse mcritoria, 
impetratoria, et satisjactoria,*' Thus the ojM^ra sujurtro" 
//a/iVa contribute unquestionably to making up the fund 
of merits imparted to those who need it in the form of 
indulgences. '* Ix's lH>nnes (ouvres dc tons les homines, 
le sang des martyrs, les sacrifices et les larmes de I'in- 
nocence snccumnlent sans relnche pour fairc equilibrc 
au nial. I/action do graces, la priiTC, les satisfactions, 
Icrt secours, les inspirati<ins. la foi, resperance et Taniour 
circulent dc Tun a I'autre coinnic dus tieuves bienfau^ans" 
(l)e Maistre, Suir&tn de St.-Ptttrsbounj), 

This d<K*rrine of the opv* siipfrtrof/atiimis was at- 
tacked by WycUffe (/fiai. p. 2«7 ), and sharply critici>ed 
in flijh. von Wesel'M A dr. Induhj. JHttput. The |K)iiition 
of the Keformers on that question may lx» seen in Me- 
lancihou (Lnvi, Ih- SafiMj'dcfionr) and Calvin (/;w^ iii, 
o). It was afterwards treated by Chemnitz (i, />** Jio- 
uis ffpp.i\ii.i); ii. Ih- /;«/«///.), Chaniier (/*i//w//vf//V/ ^V/- 
thoK iii, lib. 2 1, /fe Sofixfticfionibus A /iV-ww), and .!(». (ier- 
hard (/.♦/<•. xv, 1», ed. Cotta). The Synod of Pisloja 
(/'rnjKfK, Xl.I)j in 1X70, took the same views in the 
Roman Catholic Church. If Protestant poleniists have 
occasionally failed to observe that the vicarious satis- 
faction of the saints does not refer to sin itself, but to 
the tem{)oral conseiiuences of sin pardoned, this has, 
nevertheless, made no practical difference. We may also 
notice here the evident incongruity between the Roman 
Catholic essays on this subject and the fundamental 
truth of Christ's all-sufficient merits. For, admitting 




the funiUnKnUl dutincttoa mmde hj 

twecn mmlam de coiBligno «ad nm-ifum di iimgruo, I minor delailB connected witb the m«r 
since the ment of Christ remaine alill the acltvc princi- 
ple at the wipereTogatoTy merita uf the saints, the latter 
cannot increase the cufwc of the merita of Christ, but 
only the quatUUji or mmJier. " Per modum cumuli id- 
jiciniitur satiiraclionihus Chriati, quia istia ulla ratione 
denieetur." The merits of uthera, conieqaently, are re- 
versible merely aa aadaTactory services, not as personal 
moral actions, and thus are looked upon only aa means 
of application of the nMiils of Christ as manifested in 
aiiperurugative works. " Non habent nisi rationcm me- 
dil, quo Cbrisii pretium notna applicatur" (BeUamiine, 
lie iHdalg. i, 1, n. 4). — Heraog, HiaiSocytlop. s. v. Sea 

SuperfrODtaid, a term a|>plied M — 1. The back 

wall of the altar, which received either stone-reliefs oi 
a metal covering with embossed designs and enamel- 
work. 8. The modem name for a covering for the top 
of the altar, which cnmmonly hangs down about six 
inches all round and is fringed. It is ordinarily made 
of silk velvet, saUn, or damask, and is placed over the 
hre wh tc n n h wh h cuetumarily co e and 
preser^ e he a tar slab 

his han 
in several Iteformed churches where episcopacy is not 
admitted, paniculariy among the Lutherans in Uermaay 
and the Calvinials in aome other places. The superin- 
tendent is umilar to a bishop, only his power is some, 
what more restrained than that of our diocesan bishops. 
He is the chief pastor, and has the direction of all the 
inferior pastors within his district ur diocese. 

Superior, an official cKerciuni; jnrisdiction : the 

chiefof a confraternity, hTotherhuod,si)lerhrioil, munas- 


head of a convent is elected hy the members of 

vent, and the superiors in a province elect the provincial. 

SupeiioreaB, a female auperior of  convent or 

Supernatural. This is a word which is popular- 
ly used in opposition to "natural," things and cventa 

which are not within the ordinary concrete experience 

and hnnwledije of mankind being looked upon as form- 

g part 'a separste system of things ami events. 

hs Bupeniatural, whatever it be, that is either 

anil cITecc in nature from 
h chain" (Bushnell, Kaiure and ihe Saper- 
oTl MtiHh (On **B SBpefTtuternt p. 146, 147) 
deflniljon: "We may speak of whatever ia 
be beyond the natural aSTirWemafurall The 
apply nut only to the divine action, but to 
cy of such beings as ghosts ai 

rpserve the phrase tupenuilaral to the Su- 

tbe works performed hy him, 

e objects created hy him beyond Ihe natural 

Dch as angels anil Che world to come. Wk 

Superbnmeial Cloth, 

Sup«rbum«ialA, a tern 
j«.tt (q. v.). 

Saperindlcta were taxc 
emperors, beyond the ordinary cai 
xigeocies aiirl extraonlinary 

r the archiepiscopal 
I posed hy the Boman 

. Fnon 

y were called )ii|ierindi 
were universally exempted by several laws of the Chris- 
tian emperors.— Bingham, Chrul. A nliq. bk. v, ch. iii. § 8. 

Superinspvctor, « word by which Ijitin writers 
have tranalaieil tpitcnpui (tirinitoirog), or tijAop (q. v.). 

Snpeiliiatltntitin is, in the Anglican Church, the 
iiKtitutiiin to a l)enelice over the head of a beneficiary 
BupiHued lo be dead after prolonged absence. 

Superintendent. I. The officer of the early 
Church who was also called nrrrtrer, or huhnp (IwincD- 
irpc). a. The officer in the Knglish Wesleyan Church 
who has charge of a circuit; be is responsble to the 
Conference for the maintenance of discipline and order 
in all the societies of the circuit, and presides as chief 
pastor in all circuit courts. The superintendent or one 
of his colleagues must make the cireu it plan, arrange for 
the quarterly viutation of the classes, change or re-elect 
the atewanii-^be nomination being with himself, the 

nur worh) as a sign or proof of Cnd 
itural interposition or a revelation 

'prnuiHtrid, but we 

we find that law and order exist, 
and every increase of knowledge 
reveals to us further illustraiions 

Heaven's first law." Belief in the supeniaturiil doea 
not, therefore, require us to believe in any violation of 
law, funce all reasoning which starts from what we know 
leads to the oinclusinn that "supernatural phenomena 
are as much the result of law aa phenomena which are 
caUed 'natural.'" See Miraci^ 

SupematuraliBt, a name commonly given in 
(•ermany at the end of the last and the beginning ofthe 
present century to all who beljcveil in supernatural 
agency as exerted in the inspiration of the Scriptures, 
the performance of the miracles therein recorded, etc 
Their opponents arecaileil AHliaiipenialaraiiiti. 

8tipamamerai7 PKEAniRK. 1. In the Methmlist 
Episcopal Church, a '■ supernumerary jneacher is one 
who, because of impaired health, is temporarily unaUo 
to perform effective work. He may receive an appoint- 

of the Anniud Conference of which h 

hall hi 


ofthe Church except bv vote of the Cuiifereiice, and he 
shall be subject to all the limitations ofthe IHtciplm 
in respect lo respjiointment and contiimance in the 
same charge that apply to effective preachers. In case 
he be left without an appointment, he shall have a seat 
in the Quarterly Conference, and all Che privilege or 
membership in the place where he may reside" {Ditri- 
pliKe, iviii, 1). In IBOO, on motion of Dr. Coke, super- 




numenn* preachers, their widows and orphans, were to 
bare the same support which was then accorded to ef- 
fective ii^eachers. The funds of the Conferences increas- 
ing, is well as the advantages of membership multiply- 
ing, great difficulties arose, and in 18tK) the General 
Coofeieoce abolished the relation so far as the Annual 
Conferences were concerned. In 1864 the relation was 
Rstored with the deliuitiou at present given, with the 
pruvlsioQ that no supernumerary preacher shall have a 
diiiD upon the beneficiary funds of the Church without 
a vole of the Annual Conference. In 1876 the number 
of supeniumerary preachers was reported at 701. 

'2. Among the English Wesley ans, in order to secure 
the relation of supernumerary the consent must be ob- 
tained of the May District Meeting. They receive a 
maintenance acceding to the number of years they 
hixt been in the active work. This is derived from 
Che Annuitant Society, which is in reality their own 
iife-aasurance fund, and provides, to a certain extent, 
for the support and education of their children. Upon 
entering into business they are reckoned as local preach- 
ers, after four years as superannuated, and if members 
of the legal hundred, are superseded. They arc under 
the super\'ision of the District Meeting: and if their 
namea ire on the minutes, they are members of the 
<inarteriy, Local Preachers*, and District Meeti ngs. See 
Simpaon, Cyclop, of Methodism, s. y. 

Supeipellioe (or SuperptUiceum'), a surplice 


Snpeipoaitio, a word used in the ancient Church 
(0 dengnate a fast, which lasted not only through the 
day, but till the morning of the following day, or for 
ttreral days together, as was usual in the Passion week. 
The stations, or fasts on stationary days, terminated at 
three o'clock in the afternoon. See Fasting ; Sta- 

Snpexpnrgation, purgation or cleaning beyond 
that is needed. 

Super-Blab, or Sufer-table. See Altar, Port- 

Superstition (hunfcufioviaf (Utmon4error), Fes- 
tn, governor of Juibea, informed Agrippa that Paul had 
^^ted with the other Jews concerning matters of 
tbeir own superstition (Acts xxv, 19), in which he 
apoke Uke a true pagan, equally ignorant of the Chris- 
tian religion and of the Jewish. Paul, writing to the 
ColoflNina (ii, 23\ recommends to them not to regard 
^ teachers, who would persuade them to a compli- 
■oce with human wisdom in an affected humility and 
mpeistition; and, speaking to the Athenians, he says, 
'^I perceive that in all things ye are too superstitious" 
(Acta xvii, 22). The heathen idea of religion has al- 
viys been one of terror. A superstitious man looks on 
^ as I severe and rigid master, and obeys with fear 
<nd trembling. Varro says the pious roan honors and 
^es God, the superstitious man dreails him, even to 
(^nor; and Maximus Tyrius observes that a man truly 
pious looks on God as a friend full of goodness, whereas 
tile superstitious serves him with base and mean flat- 
toy. In the New Test., however, the word " supersti- 
tioD" or '^superstitious'' is used in a less offensive seiue. 
f estua, I governor newly arrived in his province, would 
Imdly have paid so ill a compliment to Agrippa, a king 
<tf the Jewish religion, as to call his religion supersti- 
^wa; and when Paul at Athens tells the Areopagites 
^ they are too superstitious, he uses a word no doubt 
■Baoeptihle of a good as well as of a bad sense, as it 
would have been highly indecorous, nor less unneces- 
Miy, to cahunniate the religious disposition of his 
judges whom he was addressing. If we take the word 
in the sense of worship or reverence, Festus may say, 
''Ftol and the Jews differ in respect of certain objects 
^ spiritual reverence," and Paul may say, " I perceive 
J€ are greatly attached to objects of spiritual rever- 
^noe," not only without offence, but as a ver>' graceful 


introduction to a discourse which proposed to describe 
the only proper object of such reverence. See Paul. 

The Hebrews were never given to such gross supers 
stition as the heathen luuions of antiquity ; yet there 
are traces of the same weakness of the human mind in 
their various modes of divination (q. v.) and their 
views of possessed persons (q. v.). A special instance 
has been found in the case of Azazel (q. v.) ; also in the 
satyr (q. v.) and the night-monster (q. v.). See also 

The modem Mohammedans are given to superstitions. 
Those of Egvpt mav be found in line's Modtm Eg%fp- 
tians, i, 322,* 386, 376; ii, 283, 8<)8, 312. In Palestine 
the peasantry" have numerous superstitions: they be- 
lieve in iucautations, in charms, in divination by sand 
and other means, and in the evil eye, their children be- 
ing left purposely dirty, or even besoilcd, in order to 
avoid the consequences of an envious look. The belief 
in spirits is also general. These include, firet, the Jan, 
or powerful daemon, good or bad, the latter kind having 
for bodies the tall smoke - pillars of the whirlwind, so 
commonly seen in summer; secondly, the Afrit, who is 
seemingly equivalent to a ghost ; thirdly, the ghoul or 
hag of the cemetery, which feeds on the dead (a place 
haunted by one of these daemons is carefully avoided, or 
at least never approached without the most polite salu- 
tations, intended to appease the unseen spirit) ; fourth- 
ly, there are Kerad, or goblins, whose name is akin to 
the Arabic word for monkey ; lastly, there is the Shai> 
tan, or Satan, a name often applied to human beings of 
an evil disposition (Condcr, TetU Work in Palett, ii, 
233). See D.«mon. 

On the general subject, see Xavier, De Superstiiione 
Judaor. (Hamb. 1720) : Keineccius, id. (pref. to Chris- 
tianas Werke [Leips. 1706]); Spizelius, A€((T(^a(/iovca 
Ebrcpo-gaitUis (ibid. 1608); Manzel, De Voce AfKrt^ac- 
lioviff. (Roet. 1758) ; and the monographs cited by Danz, 
Worterb. s. v. " Aberglaube." See Witch. 

SUPERSTITION (l4it. superstifio) had for its an- 
cient sense that of worship over and aI)ove that which 
was appointed by proper authority. Hence religious 
systems not recognised by the Roman State were called 
*^ superstitions," Christianity itself being for some cen- 
turies among the number. The word has been used 
so indefinitely that it is difficult to determine its precise 
meaning. It does not seem always to have been used 
in a bad sense in old English, as is shown by Acts xvii, 
22, where it represents camcaifiovia, a word used by 
the apostle as indicating that the Athenians were a 
God-fearing people who would not refuse to listen to 
his appeal about the "unknown Cod." Superstition 
must not be uaderstood to mean an '' excess of religion, 
as if any one could have too much of true religion, but 
any misdirection of religious feeling, manifested either 
in showing religious veneration or regard to objecta 
which deserve none — that is, properly speaking, the wor- 
ship of false gods — or in an excess of veneration for an 
object deserving some veneration, or the worship of Cxod 
through the medium of improper rites and ceremonies" 
(Whately, On BacoUj p. 155). It is generally defined to 
be the observance of unnecessary and uncommanded 
rites and practices in religion ; reverence of objects not 
fit for worship ; too great nicety, fears, or scrupulous- 
ness; or extravagant devotions; or religion wrong di- 
rected or conducted. The word may be applied to the 
idolatry of the heathens, the traditions of the Jews, the 
unscriptural rites of the Catholics; to the dependence 
placed by many on baptism, the Lord's supper, and oth- 
er ceremonies. It mav be extended to those who, with- 
out any evidence, believe that prophecies are still ut- 
tered or miracles are performed. Some forms of intel- 
lectual scepticism involve superstition of a far more 
dangerous kind than that involved in the credulity of 
ignorant piety, as belief in witchcraft, magic, table-turn- 
ing, spirit-rapping, etc. 

Superstition, says Claude, usually springs either (1) 
i from servile fear, which makes people believe that^God 



ti ilwiyi wrathful, ind ii 

doUtr}-, which mikes 

CTMuiea, and on this a 
worihip tbcm ; oi (3) rnim hy- 
pocrisy, which makcB men will- 
ing CO discharge tbeii obligatiimn 
Ui <iod by ^mace and by zeal 
Tur external service*; or (4) ftum 
presumption, which makes men 
aerve God alter their own fancies. 
See Gaude, A'uiiy on Iht Compit- 
ntioH of 11 StrmOB, ii, 49, 299; 
Saurin, ,!«™« {Eng. ed.), V, 41t : 
Gregory, A'ssojri, Essay 3 { Bluul, 
Diet, of Hut. ThroL s. v.; Buck, 
Diet. ■. v.; Fleming, I'vcutufury 
ofPhU. .IcitHct, a. V. 

SnpeitfltUB, a king gar- _^ 

ment like a modem great-coat, ~ 

resembling a straight-cut cloak 
in some [larticulars, worn ox'er the secular and religions 
dress in mediieval times as a proteclion against the 

SnperTille, Daniel de, a Piolestant theok^ian, 
was bom at .Saumur, in August, 1G57, of a respectablr 
Dutch family, and, being early designated for the sacred 
ministry, studied theology at Sauniur and Geneva, and 
in 16S3 was called W take charge of the Church of Lou- 
dun. On iheKerocationof the Edict of Nantes, he took 
refuge in Kotterdam, whence he could not be drawn by 
offers rrum Berlin, Loudun, and Hamburg. In 1601 the 
authorities of the city- created for him an express pas- 
torale, which he occupied till his death, June 9, 172S. 
Ue was of a sweet disjiou lion, a lively imagination, ami 
a happy delivery. He published several seimons anil 
devotional works, which are enumerated in HoeTer, 
ttaur. hiog. Giairalt, s. v. 

Supanrlaor Cantdrum, the masier of the chor 

SupenrlBor OpAila. the superintendent ofworkaj 
also called nuiguter opei-ii. 

Buph Cq^O, a wa-Kwrf [see Flao], Jon. ii, 6) is the 
characteristic epithet o( the Kcd Sea (q. v.), which 
alxiuiids in scilge ( Kxod. x, 19, and olten ). In one 
passage (Ueut. i, I) it has been suppoaed by some lo 
deaigiiale a place, but no locality of Chat name has been 
discovered, and must iiilerpretera (with the Sept. and 
Vulg.) understand it there to stand for the Red Sea (by 
the omission of D^, mi)- So in Numh. xxi, 14, H^ID, 
ni;>A^(Sept. Zwof); Vulg. .Vure fiainim), some think 
a place (perhaps the same) to be indicated, but others 
with belter reaHin render the word as an appellative, 
aiorin, L e. violence (as in Job xxi, 18, and elsei " 

Supper hiirvor (Usrh vi, 21; l.uhe liv, 12, 16; i 
John xii, 2> er4\ ; sometimes rendered ^' feast^), a word 
used iiidifTereiilly in the (lomrric age for the early or 
the late meal, iu special meaning being the principal 
meal. In later tiroes, however, the term was applied 
exclusively to the late meal— the tSpitor of the llo- 
tneric age. It was the chief meal of tlie Jews, and also 
of the (ireeks and Romans, being taken towards or at 
evening, after the labors of the day were over (Matt, 
xxiii, 6; Mark xii, SS; Uhe ix, 46). In the New 
Test, it is also specially s|ioken of tbe paschal supper 
(John xiii. 2; iv, 21, 20), and of the Lord's supper (1 
Cor. xi, 20); and of any meal (ver. 31); meCapbori- 
cally of a marriage-feasl, as Hgnraiive of the Messiah's 
kingdom (Kev. xix. 9) ; and of heaps of Che slain as a 
least for birds of prey (ver. 17). See Sur. 

A modem Oriental supper-party is thus described by 
LamartiiM : " Uur apartments consisted of a pretty 

court, decorated with Aralac i>ilastcrs, and with a spout- 
ing fuuntaiii in [he centre falling inlo a large maitile 
bsHin ; rounil this court weFc three rooms and a divan, 
that is 10 say, a chamber larger than the others, furmed 
by an arcade, which openeil on the inner court, and 
which had neither door nor shutters lo close it. li is. 
 place of transition between the house and the street, 
serving as a garden to the lazy Mussulmans, its motion- 
less sliade sup[>lying for them that vl the trees, which 
they have neither the industry lo plant nor eiiergj- |4> 
go and seek where nature herself causes them to grow. 
Our ruom% even in this magnificent palace, would have 
appeared ruinous lo the [joorest hut of our peasanis; 
the windows had no glass, an unknown luxury in the 
East, notwithstanding the rigor of winter in theae 
mountains; no beds, tables, or chairs; nothing but the 
naked walls, mouldering and riddled with rat and llzani 
holea; and as a floor, the beaten cUy, uneven, and mixeit 
with chopjied straw. Slaves brought mats of rush, 
which they stretched upon this floor, and Damascus 
carpets, with which they covered the mals; they after- 
wards brought a small table of Bethleltem manuraoture, 
made of wood, encrusted with mother-«f-pearL These 
ot halfa foot either in diameter or in height; 

of holding more than the iray on which the 
Mohammedans place the live or six dishes which cum- 
e their repasUi. Our dinner, which was seri'eil on 
this table, coiisutod of a pilau, of a dish of sour milk 
mixed with oil, and certain gourde like uur cucumbcn, 
stuffed with hashed mutton anil boiled rice. This is, in 
fact, the most dewrable anrl savory food which one can 
cat in the East. No knives, spoons, or forks; chey eat 
with the hands : but the repeated ablutions render this 
iBlom less revolting for the Mussulmana." See Eat- 

SUPPER OF THE LORD (,KvptoiiAv li'imof), so 
called bi- Paul in his historical reference lo the Pass- 
aver supper as observed by Jesus on the night in which 
lie was betrayed {I Cor. xi, 20; Matt, xxvi, 20-Sl). 

L Scriptural Statemtnti.—Heverni controverted points 
may perhaps be best adjusted by a connected harmony 
o{ the last Passover of tiie Lonl, constructed from the 
evangelic narratives alluding to it, but titling up the 
rarious omitted circumstances from the known Passover 

" Now, when it was evening, Jesus sat down with 
ihe twelve (Malt.) apostles" (.Mark). The Gnt cus- 
lomary washing and puridcations being performed, the 
blessing over the Jlrtt cap of wine, which began the 
feast, would be pronounced, probably in the usual fona 
— " We thank thee, O God, our Heavenly Father, who 
haic created the fruit of the vine." Considering the 




peculiarity of the circamstancea, and the gcnias of the 
Mw dUpensatton about to be efttablisheil — that the 
great Teacher had already declared the superiority of 
simple foroM to the involved traditions of the Jewish 
dociora, aiid that his disciples alone were present on 
tbia occaaion — it may be supposed that, after the bless- 
ififf over the herbs, the recital of the litur^^y (or haga- 
ikiA) explanatory of the redemption of their anc<wtors 
from Egyptian bondage would be somewhat siraplitied, 
and perhaps accompanied with new reflections. 

Then probably the second cup of wine was mingled, 

md with the flesh of the paschal lamb, feast-offerings, 

ind other viands, placed before the Lord. '* And he 

«ttd onto them, With desire have I desired to eat this 

?tacba with you before I suffer; for I say unto you, I 

»hiU no more eat thereof until it be fulfilled in the 

kingdom of God. And he took the [second] cup, and 

gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide among 

you, for I say unto you, I will not henceforth drink of 

the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God shall 

come" (Luke). 

When the wine distributed to each would be drunk 
off, one of the unleavened cakes would next be broken, 
the blessing said over it, and a piece distributed to each 
disciple, probably with the usual formula — '^This is the 
l)reatl of affliction which V(»ur fathers did eat in the land 
of EfQrpt;** i. e. not the identical bread, transubstantia- 
ted, but a memorial or sign of it. The company would 
then proceed with the proper supper, eating of the 
feast-offering, and, after a benediction, of the paschal 

The translation of the phrase chttvov y^vofiivov 
(which immediately follows) by "supper being ended" 
has touch confused the various narratives, and led many 
to think that Judas was present at the LonVs supjicr, 
property so calleiL The true reading probably is yti'o- 
luvMv (not ytvofuvov)j as understood by the Arabic 
*°d Pendc translators, in the sense "while supper was 
•bout," or *• during supper-time." 

"And as they were at supper, the devil having now 
pot it into the heart of Judas u> betray him ; Jesus, 
^wing that the Father had given all things into his 
^^»oAi, and that he was come from God, and was going 
i^ Ood, rlieth from supper; and," after due prcpara- 
tiorte," began to wash the disciples' feet" (John). Af- 
^ this striking symbolic exhortation to humility and 
mutual service (John xiii, 6-20), "Jesus was troubled 
*D spirit, and bare witness, and said, Verily, verily, I 
"y onto you, that one of you will betray me. Then 
the disciples looked on one another, doubting of whom 
^ spake'* (John). "And they were very sorry, and 
^^^^ each of them to say unto him, I»r(l, is it I?" 
(Matt). **One of the disciples, leaning back on Je- 
*os* breast, saith unto him, Lord, is it I ? Jesus an- 
•*«ed, He it is to whom I shall give a sop, when I 
^^^ dipped it. And after dipping the sop he giveth 
u to Judas liicariot. Then Satan entered into him. 
Jesus saith unto him. What thou doest, do quickly, 
lie then, on taking the sop, went immediately out; and 
* WW night" (.John). 

I^e sapper would then proceed until each had eaten 
"^ent of the paschal lamb and feast-offering. 

"And as they were eating, Jesus took the bread," the 
^^ unleavened cake left unbroken, " and blessetl" 
^ '•and brake it, and gave it to the" eleven " disci- 
1^ and said. Take eat; this is my body (Matt,, 
"**)> which is broken for vou : this do in remem- 
•wnceof me" (Luke, Paul, I Cor. xi, 24). 

1^ supper being concluded, the hands were usually 
•**h€d the second time, and the third cup, or " cup of 
"**ng" (1 Cor. X, 16) prepared, over which the master 
'^^y gave thanks for the covenant of circumcision 
^ for the law given to Moses. Jesus, therefore, at 
^Juncture announced, with peculiar appropriateness, 
^ New Covenant. 

''After the aame manner, also, Jesus took the cuf) af- 
^ *on)er, and, having given thanks, gave it to them. 

saying, Drink all of you out of it; for this is my bl(K>d 
of the new covenant, which is shed for raanv for for- 
giveness of sins (Matt.) : this do, as oft as ye drink, 
in remembrance of me" (I Cor. xi, 24;. "lUit 1 say 
unto you, I shall not drii^ henceforth of this fruit of 
the vine, until that day when I drink it new (jcaivov) 
with you in my Father's kingdom" (Matt. ). 

" And when they had sung a hymn" (Matt.), prob- 
ably the Hallel, our I^rd disc(»urst>d long with his 
disciples aboi^t his approaching death and defyartnre 
(John xiii, 31 ; xiv, ol) ; and when he had tiuished he 
said, "Arise, let us go hence." "And tliey went out 
on to the Mt>unt of Olives" (^latt.). 

II. KcvU*ui*tical Ustif/e, — A multitude of disputes 
and controversies have existed in the Church, from the 
earliest ages of Chriotianity, regarding the nature, ob- 
servance, and elements of the I»rd's siip{^>er. On these 
points the reader may consult the following works: 
Pierce, Waterland, Cud worth, Hoadlcy, and Hell, On 
the KucharUt; Orme, LortPg Supi>er lUustntted (Ixmd. 
1832); Goodman, On the KmharUt (ibid. 1841); Cole- 
man, Christ, Awtiq,; II alley. On the tSitcrunumts (ibid. 
1845 ) ; De Linde and Meanis, PHze K*$ay« on the JetC' 
ish Pasforer and Christian Kuchtirist (ibid. 1845). 

The early Church appears, frv>m a vast prcftonderance 
of evidence, to have practiced communion weekly, on 
the Lord's day. 

The custom, which prevailed during the first seven 
centuries, of mixing the wine with water, and in the 
(rreek Chur<:h with hot water, appears to have origi- 
nated with the ancient Jews, who mingled their thick 
wine with water (Mishna, Terumoth^ x'l). Maimon- 
ides (in Chomett rt'Matsuh, § vii) stales that the pro- 
portion of pure wine in every cup must not be less than 
the fourth part of a quarter of a bin, besides water which 
must neeils be mingled, that the drinking of it may 
be the more pleasant. The raisin-wine often employed 
l)oth by the ancient and modern Jews {Arhah Turim^ 
§ 483, date 130<)) contains water of course. Kemnants 
of this custom are still traceable in the East. The Nes- 
torian Christians, as late as the 16th century, as we find 
fn>m the old travellers, celebrated the eucharist in such 
wine, made by steeping raisins one iright in water, the 
juice being ])ressed forth (Osorius, JJe Heb. Kmavvel. 
lib. iii ; Uoter, HeL ii, 3 ; Odoard Barb<»so, ap. Ha- 
mum. i, 313; Brerewood. On the Diversities of Lan- 
(fuaifes [1622], p. 147). The Christians of India (said 
to be converted by St. Thomas) used raisin -wine, as 
also do s^me of the Syrian churches at the present day 
(Koss, Panstheiu [\Gi^\\, p. 492; Ainsworth, Travels in 
A sia Minor [1842] ). The third Council o( Braga would 
not permit the use of the pure "fruit of the vine," for 
thev condemned as heretics " those who used no other 
trine but what they pressed outof the clusters of grapes^ 
which were then presented at the Lord's table" (Bing- 
ham, t'hrist. A ntiq, bk. v, ch. ii). The wine used by our 
Lord was of course fermented, as no other could have 
been procured at that season of the year, and as it seems 
to be contrasted with the new wine of the heavenlv 
kingdom (Matt, xxvi, 21V). See Winfx 

As regards the bread, many of the Eastern churches 
use unfermente<l bread in the communion. " The 
(rreek Church adopts a leavened bread, but the Roman 
Church has it unleavened ; and this difference has been 
the cause of much controversy, though it seems easy to 
de<:ide which kind was use<l by Jesus, the last sup{>er 
having been on one of the ' days of unleavened bread,* 
when no other kind could be eaten in the land of Ju- 
tlwa." The Protestant churches, generally, pay little 
regard to the miture of the elements, but use the ordw- 
narv bread, as well as wine, of the countrv. It was. 
probably from regarding in a similar way the bread and 
wine as mere ordinary beverage that s<jme of the an- 
cient sects gave up the wine altogether, and substituted 
other things. Epiphanius {/Iterts, A\i) and Augustine 
{Uteres, 28) mention an ancient sect of Christians in 
Phrygia, called Artoty rites, because they used bread 




and cheese. Others made use of bread and water only; 
and the third Council of Braga (A.D. 675) condemns 
a custom of communicating in bread and milk. See 
Lord's Supper. 

SupplicatiOi a solemn thanksgiving or supplica- 
tion to the gods among the ancient Romans, on which 
occasion the temples were thrown open, and the statues 
of the gods carried on couches through the public 
streets that they might receive the prayers of the peo- 
ple. A supplicatio was appointed by the senate when 
a victory had been gained, or in times of public danger 
and distress. 

Supplication of Beggars is a book which ap- 
peared mysteriously in London about A.D. 1527, setting 
forth the rapacity and licentiousness of the clergy. It 
eventually came into the hands of Henry VIII, who, 
after hearing it read, said, " If a man should pull down 
an old stone-wall, and begin at the lower part, the up- 
per part might chance to fall upon his head," thus 
broadly intimating that the clergy were the founda- 
tions of the rotten old Church ; and should an attempt 
be made to reform them, the whole structure would 
tumble down. Sec Burchard, Jlisf, of Congregatumul- 
ism, i, 26. 

Supplication of Commona is a notable book 
published in 1546, with the full title of A Supplication 
of the Poor Commons to the King, It was a sort of 
counterpart to the Supplication of Beggars, and made 
<M>mpUints against the character and conduct of the 
clergy, especially the monks. See Strype, Memoirs^ i, 
608-621 ; Burchard, Hist, of Congregationalism, i, 83. 

Supplicati5ndB (Gr. Xtravtiat), in its original 
siunitication, is but another name for prayers in general, 
of whatever kind, that either were made publicly in the 
church ur by any private person. The term is applied 
l>uth to litanies and short prayers, with brief petitions 
and responses. See Litany. 

SupralapsarianB, persons who hohl that God, 
without any regard to the good or evil works of men, 
has resolved, by an eternal decree, supra lapsum, ante- 
cedently to any knowledge of the fall of Adam, and in- 
dependent of it, to reject some and save others; or, in 
other words, that Goil intended to glorify his justice in 
the condemnation of some, as well as his mercy in the 
salvation of others ; and for that purpose decreed that 
Adam should necessarily fall See Subi^psarians. 

Supramanya, a Hindil deva, son of Siva, and 
sprung from the eye in the forehead of that god. He 
fought the giant Sura Parpma, and with the most pow- 
erful weapon of his father split him in two, after seven 
days of battle. The festival Kandershasta b celebrated 
in his honor. 

Supremacy, Papai^ The papists claim for tlic 
See of Home, represented in the |>erMon of the pope, " a 
principality of {^tower over all others, as the mother and 
mistress of all Christian churches;" and all other patri- 
archs are requiretl to receive their [tails from the Roman 
pontiff. This doctrine is chiefly built on the supposed 
primacy of Peter, of whom the pope is the pretended 
successor; a primacy so far from being countenanced 
by Scripture that we find it there absolutely forbidden 
(Luke xxii, 24 ; Mark ix, 35). The authority of the 
Roman See was tirst recognised by the fourth I^teran 
Council, A.D. 1215, and was first protested against by 
the authors of the Reformation. The title of " mother 
of churches," claimed by the Church of Rome, must 
certainly belong to the Church at Jerusalem, and was 
given to that Church by the second Council of Con- 
stantinople, A.D. 381. See Primacy. 

SUPREMACY, RoYAU In the Church of England 
all ecclesiastical jurisdiction is annexed to the crown ; 
and it is ordained that no foreign potentate shall exer- 
cise any power, civil or religious, within the limits of 
that kingdom. Canon ii of the Church of England 

*' Whosoever shall hereafter nflBrm that the kine's maj- 
esty hath not the same authority in canaes ecclestasiical 
that the godly kUi^ had among the Jews and Christian 
emperors of the primitive Church, or impeach auy part 
of bis regal supremacy in the said causes restored to the 
crown, and by the laws of this realm therein established, 
let him be excommunicated ipw faeto^ and not restored, 
but only by the archbishop, after bis repentance and pub- 
lic revocation of those his wicked errors." 

In the United States, of course, no supremacy or inter- 
ference in spiritual affairs on the part of the civil au- 
thorities is recognised. 

Sur (Heb. Sur, ")!|0, removed, as in Isa. xlix, 21 ; 
SepU di oloi ; Vulg. Sur\ the name of one of the gates 
of the Temple at Jerusalem (2 Kings xxiii, 6) ; called in 
the parallel passage (2 Chron. xxiii, 5) ** the gate of the 
foundaiion,'' HIO^, yesod (which is the preferable read- 
ing), being apparently that which led across to Zion by 
the causeway or bridge. See Tkmple. 

Sur (JLovp ; Vulg. omits), one of the places on the 
sea-coast of Palestine, which are named as haWng been 
disturbed at the approach of Holofernes with the As- 
syrian army (Judith ii, 28). It cannot be Tyre, the 
modem Sur, since that is mentioned immediately be- 
fore. Some have suggested Dor, others a place named 
Sora, mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium as in 
Phoenicia, which they would identify with Athlit ; 
others, again, Surafend. But none of these are satis- 
factory. The apocryphal character of the book itself 
makes us suspicious of the accuracy of the name. See 

Sura Deva, in HindA mythology, is the goddess 
of wine, who sprang out of the milk-sea when the moun- 
tain Mandar was cast into it, in order to prepare the 
drink amrita. 

Sura Parpma, in Hindti mythology, is the giant 
with whom Supramanya (q. v.) fought. After he had 
been cut into pieces by the latter, one half changed it- 
self into a peacock, and the other half into a cook. Siva 
used the first as an animal for riding, and the second 
served as a watcher for the house in which the wagon 
of Siva stood. 

Surcingle is a band of black silk or stuff, fringed 
at the ends, and bound round the waists of the clergy 
so as to confine and keep the cassock in place. 

SurenhuaiUB (Surenhus), Willkm, professor of 
Greek and Hebrew at Amsterdam, flourished in the end 
of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th centur}'. He 
edited a beautifully printed edition of the Mischmt, sive 
totius IlebrcRontm Juris, Rihium, A tUiquitatum, et Legum 
Oralium Systema, cum Clarissinuyrum Rabbinorum Mai' 
tnonidis et HartenorcF Commentariis Integris, etc (Amst. 
1690-1703, 6 vols, fol.), which has ever since remained 
the best edition (see Wolf, Bibl, Hebr, ii, 886). He pub- 
lished also mV^^ nitO, JiVf Bi/3\of KaroXXa-y^y, tn 

quo secundum Vett. Theoll, Htbb, fornwlas allegnwU et 
modos interjtretandi conciliantur loca ex V, in X, T. aUe" 
gala (ibid. 1713, 4to), a work of unsurpassed value oa 
the subject to which it reUtes. 

Sureties is a name given to sponsors in virtue of 
the security given through them to the Church that 
the baptized shall be ** virtuously brought up to lead a 
godly and a Christian life." See Sponsor. 

Surety (some form of -t*?* <^rdb, to barter, and es- 
pecially to deposit a pledge, either in money, goods, or 
in part payment, as security for a bargain ; tyyvo^), 
*^ Suretyship" in the A. V. is usually the rendering for 
D*^7pin, tokehn, literally in mai^. *' those that strike 
(hands)," from ^^t^, to strike (Gesenius, Tkesaur, p. 
1517). The phrase' T^ P^^bri, tesumeth ydd (Sept. 

• • • 

irapa^fiKtj'), *^ depositing in the hand," i. e. giving in 
pledge, may be understood to apply to the act of pledji^^ 
ing, or virtual, though not personal, suretyship (Lev. vi, 
2 [Heb. V, 21]). In the entire absence of commerce. 




the law Uid down no rules on the subject of suretyship ; 

but it i» evident that in the time of Solomon mercantile 

dealiiigK had become so multiplied that suretyship in 

tbe commercial sense was common (Prov. vi, I ; xi, 15; 

xvii, \» ; XX, 16 ; xxii, 26 ; xxvii, 13). But in older 

timet the notion of one man becoming a surety for a 

wrvice to he discharged by another was in full force 

(Ke Gen. xliv, 32), and it is probable that the same 

form of undertaking existed, viz. the giving the hand 

to (Mriking hands with), not, as Michaelis represents, 

the person who was to discharge the service — in the 

commercial sense the debtor — but the person to whom 

it was due, the creditor (Job xvii, 3 ; Prov. vi, 1 ; Mi- 

cbielis, Lavs of Motes,, § 151, ii, 322, ed. Smith). The 

anety, of course, became liable for his client's debts in 

case of his failure. In later Jewish times the system 

bad become common, and caused much distress in many 

InstAnces, yet the duty of suretyship in certain cases is 

reco|;ni9ed as valid (Ecclus. viii, 13; xxix, 14, 15, 16, 18, 

19). See Plcdob. 

The earliest form of suretyship mentioned in Script- 
are Is the pledging of person for person, as when Judah 
anilertook with his father to be surety for Benjamin 
(^?S^*^?X, / wJU exchange for Aiw, put myself in place 

of him, Gen. xliii, 9) ; and when circumstances emerged 
which !«eemcd to call for the fulfilment of tlie obligation, 
he actaally offered himself in the room of Benjamin. In 
this sense the psalmist asiks God to be surety for him for 
9^^^ (Psa. cxix, 122), as did also, in his great distress, 
H»ekiah Clsa. xxxviii, 14). though the sense here is a 
Kltle weakened in the A. V. by the rendering " under- 
take for me." More commonly, however, the kind of 
wrety»hip spoken of had reference to pecuniary ol)Ii- 
^tions or debts, and forms the sul)ject of prudential 
»dvice« and warnings in the book of Proverbs (vi, 1 ; 
xii 15; xvii, 18 ; xx, 16). In the first of these passages, 
the dangerous practice of entering into sureties is put 
in two furm»— tirst, " if thou be surety for thy friend," 
then *' if thou hast stricken thy hand with a stranger;" 
tliere being no further difference between them than 
that the one has respect to the thing itself, the other to 
the mode of going about it : the person agreeing to be- 
come surety gave his hand to his friend. Hence, also, 
"• Pmv. xvii, 18, a man " who strikes hands," that is, 
^iAWy becomes a surety, is declared to be void of un- 
derstanding. In the highest sense the term is applied 
'•> Cbri«i, who, in his character as mediator, is repre- 
*<*nted ta " the surety (lyyuof) of a better covenant*' 
C'^b. vii, 22), having made himself responsible for all 
that in this covenant was required to be accomplinhed 
f*|r t)|^ salvatiftn of those who were to share in its pro- 
viflona. See Mkdiation. 

SURETY. In the ancient Church the clergy were 
f'>rt)idden to be bondsmen or sureties for any other 
"'"lit appearance in court, because it was thought that 
•♦""h aort of encumbrances might bring detriment to 
^^ Church in distracting her ministers from constant 
tttendance upon divine service. 

Stiiin, Jkan Jo8KiMf, a French ascetic writer, was 
^ at Bordeaux in 1600, entere<l the <:)nler of the Jes- 
uits at fifteen years of age, and soon distinguished him- 
*^f by his profound piety and knowledge of human 
"■^Te. In 1634 he was sent to take charge of the l.'r- 
»|Jine convent in Ix>ndon, and l>egan a series of exor- 
^'"'^ against the evil spirits supposed to prevail there, 
^t eventuallv became himself the victim of the da^mo- 
^i*!^ possession, and was required to return to Bordeaux. 
'1 1637 he again went to London, and remained there, 
*ith partial seasons of lucidity, for many years, but was 
•tkogth removed from place to place in hopes of relief. 
°*i«oorered hia sanity in 1658, and died at Bordeaux, 
^Pril 21, 1665, leaving several works on practical ndig- 
^» which are enumerated in Hoefer, A our. Bw</, Gene- 

, 8liriiiam {Negro-English) Version. Negro-Eng- 
^ or, as it might be designated with equal propriety. 

Negro-Dutch, is the language of the Dutch colony of 
Surinam, in (vuiana, and is current among a population 
of at leaHt 100,000 people. Ever since 1738 there haa 
existed in Surinam a mission of the United Brethren. 
The language is a compound of English and Dutch, 
with a sprinkling of Spanish, Portuguese, French, and 
African or Indian words. Prior to the vear 1813, the 
greater part of the New Test, was translated into that 
language. In 1828 Moravian missionaries completed a 
version of the entire New Test. The MS. was sent to 
Germany, and was re\4scd by Hans Wied, who for up- 
wards of twenty years had resideii in Surinam, and who 
expressed the opinion that the translation was *'as per- 
fect as possible." With the aid of the British and For- 
eign Bible Society, an edition of 10(K) cttpies was printed 
in London. This edition was soon exhausted, and, as 
a result of these publications, more than 12,(MN) con- 
verts were added to the Church. Another edition of 
the New Test, and Psalms was prepared by the Mora- 
vian missionary Treu, and, with the aid of the Neth- 
erlands and the British and Foreign Bible societies, 
2000 copies were printed in 1846. Whether the Old 
Test, has been translated and printed, we are not able 
to say. (B. P.) 

SuriUB, Laukentuta, a Carthusian monk, wa*s the 
child of Lutheran, or, as others say, of Komitih parents. 
He was bom at Lubeck in 1522, and educated at Frank- 
fort-on-the-Oder and at Cologne. At the latter place 
he became acquainted with Canisius (q. v.), and joined 
the Roman Catholic Church. In 1542 he entert'd the 
Carthusian Order and devoted himself to m<)na^tic as- 
ceticism and literary lalK)r. He displayeii both 7.eal for 
Romanism and hatred for the Reformation, whoso load- 
ers he charge<l with having borrowed their doctrines 
from Mohammed. Besides translating various mystical 
writings by Tauler, Ruysbroeck, Sus<i, etc., Surius com- 
posetl a Commerttarifis Hnris Rentm in Orbe Getftarum 
ah Anno 1500 (I^v. 1566). This liook was designed to 
oppose the famous Protestant work by Sleidan (q. v.), 
but was devoid of any particular value ; but it was, nev- 
ertheless, carried forward by iHselt and others to 1673, 
Additional works bv Surius are, Ifomilio' sire Condones 
Prastautissimonnn Kcrl. Doctorum^ etc. (Col. L%0-76). 
— Concilia Omnia, etc. (ibid. 1567): — and Viffp iSano- 
forum ah Aloysio Lijwmanno olim Conscnptte (il>id. 
1570-76, 6 vols, fed.), which was re|)eatedly reprinted, 
the lyest eilition being that of C(>logne, 1618. A seventh 
vol. was added after the death of Surius by the Carthu- 
sian Jacob Mosander. Surius died May 23, 157H. See 
hityg, Cnirerselle, torn, xliv (Par. 1826;; and Herzog, 
lieal-Kncgiioji, s. v. 

Surlet (de Chokier), the name of an old French 
family, which dates from the year 1170, and culminated 
in the person of Fastro Bare de Surlet, who died ab(»ut 
1473. The emperor Ferdinand II ennobled the familv 
of Surlet in 1630 with the title de Chokier, The folU.w-- 
ing members deserve mention here: 

1. Jkan, l)orn at Liege, Jan. 14, 1571, studied at Lou- 
vain, and took his degrees at Orleans. He Iwcame can- 
on of St. I^mbert, abbe of St. Hadelin of Vise, and vicar- 
general of the diocese of Liege, where he distinguinhod 
himself bv his zeahms charitv and erudition. He died 
about 16.55, leaving several works on ecclesiastical mat- 
ters, for wliich see Hoefor, \our, Jiivg. iien^raU, s. v. 

2. Jkan, nephew of the preceding, became 
canon of Liege and ablH> of Vise. He founded the house 
of the Incurables and that of the Filles Repenties at 
Lif'ge, and died alK)ut 16K3. 

3. Jkan Fukdi-'kic, uncle of Jean, was a leanied cann- 
on of Liege, who wrote Knchiridhm Pro'catiomnn (Liege, 
1636), and died March 15, 1635. 

Surname. Names were at first expressive, a.H 
those of Scripture. According to Ihi Cange, surnani^^ 
were originally written, not after the Christ ian-nntiio- 
but alK)ve it. and so were ** supemoniina'' — overnanr^e'C^ 
The first or Christian name is usually given at bai 


tiBm. Hereditary surnames did not exist in England its English form it is found in the Communion Service 

till after the Norman Conquest. They are taken from of the Church of England. 

locality, as Field or Forest ; from occupation, as Fisher Surtur, in Norse mvthologj', is the mighty ruler 

or MiUer, Pilgrim or Palmer; from personal qualities, ^^ Muspelheim, the implicable enemy of the asas, who, 

as Black or Brown ; from natural objects, as Lemon or ^ ^y^^ conflagration of the universe, will lead the armies 

Lamb, Peel or Hog, Steel or Jewel, etc. As distinct from ^^^^^ ^^^ ^f Muspel, join himself with the serpent Mid- 

the surname, the sirname or sires-name is a natura ^ ^„j ^^^ ^^,lf y^^^^ ^^^^ ^^e residences of the 

atldition, with 8on,Mac,or FiU, O, ap, wich, or sky (aU ^,^ ^^ ^1 ^^^ ,^3^ j„ , tremendous battle, and 

signifying 8.>n), as Donaldson or Macdonald, t itzgerald, jj^^, ^ ^^ ^^,g overthrow of the world. See Norsk 

OConnell, Alexandrowich, Petrousky — ap Howel be- Mytiioixxjv. 
coming Powel, and ap Richard becoming Prichard. 

-- M^^ /-J . It' *u V \ Surya, in HLndft mvthologv, is the sun (not the sun- 
Surplice (IjaU 8uperpeiliceum, over the pelisse), a . r *v. * • n jt*j \ i- u- t i- • 1 • _* 

, ,*^ ,. ^ '^ \ t! 1 f iu god, for that IS called Indra), which m India 18 an object 

long, loose linen garment worn by clergymen of the ^^ ' rshio as the celestial Unius. He rides in a c*r 

Church of England during the performance of divine i_. u i.ij-«j 

c,. 1 u*i.rii e ^ drawn by seven green horses, whose leader is called 

Surplices are also worn by the fellows of col- ._ /.. ? -u-** u j w 


, u 11 1 u 11 *w u I 1 . J .. • Arun. A thousand genu are in his tram, who adore him 

leges or halls, and by all the scholars and students m „ . . . _ ^ /? q • r. jr u- 

Zp .. rA f t 1 ri u -J 43 and sing hymns to him. Surva is often removed from his 

the universities of Oxford and Cambridge upon Sun- Tu • i *u * »u -^u 1 j 

. . ,. , , J . *i. • ». J .. ^u car, and has impressed the earth with numerous legends 

days, holidays, and even dunng their attendance at the ,!. U . u- i. i. 

r, . » L u I. • 1 r -.u of his power. He has many names, among which, how- 

oollege chapels or churches. It is also worn for the ^ .urn- » 1 w^r • i- »• u- * 

P - ,V , . ,^ J * 1 1 * I «ver, the following twelve are chief, indicating his at- 

service of the choir. Its use dates back to an early . .. ' _ . • 1 ..• j 1 1 1 ..u 

. i> «• . 1 u« 1 . ^ c J tributes in vanous relations, and also measurably the 

dav. Paulmus sent a lamb 8-wool coat to Scverus, and _ *w t' »^ c \r \ t>u i j *r> • 

. •. 1 • r .u eu I.- J Ml months: varuma, Sur>'a, Vedang, Bhanu, Indra» Ravi, 

Ambrose complains of the use of beaver skins and silk /^ u .• v o \ t\' \ • nt-* 1 -i" u 

. „,. * , .^ * r»u I ..-J Gobasti,iama,hvama rets, Divakai,Mitra, and \ishnu 

dresses. The white garment of the clergy is mentioned /• .l ^ V»u i\ * n 

, ^ ., N  I n r f Al ^ permanent sense of the word). Among all na- 

.^ -,^" ^. I ¥ * /• /^u '. 'I'u /I -1 I tions we find at the lowest stages the powers of nature, 

^ «ononuj «.<! Ivo of Ch.r.r«. I he t^unc'l of ^^ especially the heavenly todiea, adored a. mightj? 

^le requjred the su^ce to reach below the middle ^^j^^^^ 
of the thigh. 1 he Gilbertines wore a hooded surplice. 

At Burgos, in summer, the canons wear, instead of a SuB. See Crank; Horse. 
cope and mozzetu (their winter habit), a sleeved sur- Su'sa (Esth. xi, 3 ; xvi, 18). See Shushan. 
plice raised on the shoulders. The name is first men- _, . . .^ .^, . . , . .^ 

iioned by Odo of Paris and Stephen of Tournay, in the »« sanchite (Chald. only in the emphaU plur., 

12th century. The origin of the surplice U thus given Susankaye\ 5<;^D3tt3:ittJ; Sept. Jktvffavaxaioi ; Vulg. 

by Durand*: "It was so called because anciently this Susanechai) is found once only (in Ezra iv, 9, where 

garment was put u{)on leathern coats made of the skins it occurs among the list of the nations whom the 

of dead animals (guper tunicas pelUcas de peliibus nwr- Assyrians had. settled in Samaria, and whose descend- 

tuorum animaUum factas\ symbolically to represent ants still occupied the country in the reign of the Pseu- 

that the sin of our first parents, which brought man do-Smerdis). There can be* no doubt that it desig- 

under the necessity of wearing garments of skin, was nates the Susians, either the inhabitants of the city 

now hid and covered by the robe of Christ's innocence Susa or those of the country (Susis or Susiana) of 

and grace." The name and color (white) signify holi- which Susa was the capital. Perhaps as the Elamites 

ness of life joined to penitence. The use of the surplice are mentioned in the same passage, and as Daniel (viii, 

was strongly objected to by the Calvinislic and Zwin- 2) seems to call the countr>' Elam and the city Shu- 

glian reformers on the Continent, and by the Puritans shan (or Susa), the former explanation is preferable, 

in England, who regarded it as a relic of popery. The See Shushan. 

argument against it is to be found in Beza, Tractat, -, / /« / « » k.i.,.;L»£ 

TA^-o/oj/. Ill, 29 ; and its defence in Hooker, Accw. /W- ^**«»«»****« v^-wt «»*•'•'« . ^.wwM.f^.-t*, »*i *^t 

ify, v,'29. Much controversy has been held of Ute ^Ao*AamMiA, a Wy [q. v.]), the name of two females in 

years as to the propriety of the surplice being worn by ^*»« ^^i^e. The name likewise occurs in Diod. Sic as 

the preacher in the pilpit, which is contrarv to the '*^*^ ^^ ^^« daughter of Nmus (11, 6); and S/u:$han (1 

more general practice of the Anglican Church. The ^^«>n- "' f^ ^' ^^) " <>f ^^^ **">« o"g»» *"^ meaning 

surplice and alb (i\. v.) are slight variations of what (Gesen. Tnetaur. s. v.). 

was originally one vestmenU Foreign surplices are 1- The heroine of the story of the Judgment of Dan- 
much shorter than those used in England. In Italy »«1 >" ^*^« Apocrypha, otherwise called 
the short surplice is called a cotta. See Orname^nts, Susanna, The History of, bemg one of the appeii- 
EccLEsiASTicAL. diccs to the canonical book of Daniel. See Daniei^ 

' -, * ' . - ... .1. I r AinX-'RYPIIAL ADDITIONS TO. 

SurpUce-fee is a fee paid to the clergy for occa- , y,.,^ ^^ /'e„i^«,„._This Apocr>'phal piece has 

sional duties This seems to have been unknown in ^j^^^„^ ^.^^^^ Sometimes it is Vailed ii:oviTdyya) 

the ancient Church ; indeed, seyera laws were passed ^^^ sometimes (Aave^X) Daniel, and sometimes 

by the early Church commanding the gratuitous per- ^^^^ ^„^,;;^) j^f,, j^j,^„^,t of Danid, Equally 

formance of all religious offices. uncertain is its position. The Vat. and Alex. MSS. 

Surrogate is a name (meaning one substituted, or and the Vet. Lat. place it before the first chapter of 

apiwinted in the pUce of another) commonly applied in Daniel, while the Sept., after the Cod. Chisianus and 

ecclesiastical usage to an officer delegate<l by the bishop Theo<lotion, ed. Complu., put it after ch. xii. 
to grant licenses for marriages, probates of wills, etc., 2. />>wi</n.— The object of this attractive story is to 

in large towns. A surrogate is, properly s[>eaking, the celebrate the triumph of womanly virtue over tempta- 

deputy or substitute of an ecclesiastical jutlge. tions and dangers, and to exalt the wisdom of Daniel 

BurBum Corda. In the ancient service of the in saving the life of the pious heroine. Chr}'sostom 

Church, it was the duty of the deacon to summon each rightly sets forth the beautiful lesson of chastity which 

claw of worshippers separately to engage in prayer by this story aflfords, when he says, "God permitted this 

saying, " Let us pray." Other forms for announcing trial, that he might publish Susanna's virtue and the 

the time of prayer were also used, as ''(iive audience," others* incontinence; and, at the same time, by her ex- 

*' Lift your heart" (Sursum conla). This rite is de- emplary conduct, give a patteni to the sex of the like 

scribed in detail in the eighth book of the Apostolical resolution and constancy in case of temptation" {Serm. 

ConstitutiimSy where it is said that the high-priest or dr SusannaX The story of Susanna is therefore read 

celebrant at mass says, " Lift up your hearts," and the in the Roman Church on the vigil of the fourth Suii- 

£aithful res|>ond, '* We lift them up unto the I^)rd." In day in Lent, and in the Anglican Church on Nov. 22. 


t daraeter, A HfAor, Dalt, and CMginal fjmguagr. 
-Tboogh thr rorm of this Kory, u we now have il, 
ikwri lh»t it is greatly embelliihed, ysl th»re ia eveiy 
■MBn u> believe that it ia Diil wholly AclUJoua, hut 
tacd gpon r>ct. The puonomasiu ia Daniel's exant- 
iuiiH uf Ibe ekl»n, when he is reprewnted aa uying 
to the vne who affirmed be aaw the crime committed, 
'■the angel of UoU 

fived K 


vov* Mitdrr a kotm-irrt 

aallku in tjTO," oiily prove that (he Creek ia an 
(Ubontlon of aa old Hebrew «Uiry, but not that it 
-oci^IialRl with the Alexaodrine IranalBlor of Daniel. 
Tbe Song of Solomon may have au^gesteil matetikl to 
tie iDltwi. The opinion of Eusebiiu, Apolltnariue, and 
JennH, thai the prophet Habakkuk ia Iho author of 
«l» HijlOT)- of Suaanna ia eriilently derived from the 
ORtkiDtcriptioauf the HiMory ofBel and tbe Dragon. 

2. Om of (be women who miniatered to our lord'* 
fiRMul irania out of their private meaiii (Luke riii, 

SVSANNA wiB hekl by tbe ancient Church to be a 
•tidIbI of resnrreciion, and alaoatypeofthe persecuted 
Cburrh— the two elders representing the pif{*ii> and 
'be Jtn. Kepreaentationa of her are fmiuenily found 
' n sarcophagi. 

oeived holy orders, and in 1 
at Brunn. He died June 1 
Suail waa one of the moei 
poets of Moravia. Of his 
in the Czechian language,' 
Apoilalic Full 

a appoint nvHinc, m Moravia. 
>n>minent iheoloRiann and 
orks, which are all wriiien 
! mention the IVortt^l/u 
' EccienatHcal 

llgmm (i»46 ; 2d eiL 1H6») :— 
Go^rU (18G4-e7), * vols. See IMfraruchti Ha«d- 
•rtitrr /Ur dai hilhotiicht IJeHltr/ila«d, 186H, No. 69, 
p. 80; aq. (B. 1'.) 

Bubo, Hkinrfcii, a Mvitic. was bnm March 31, 
IBOO.atConalanre. His real name was VonBrrg; but, 
having been greatly influenced by ihe tender piety of 
his mother, he assumeil her name when her death, in 
his eighteenth year, caused him to seek satisfaction for 
his soul in inwani peace. He had been a student at 
Constance and Cologne, and now waa strongly influ- 
enced by Master Eckart; but imagination and feeling 
ore powerful with him than tbe apeculaiive fao 


lo clothi 

the idea, and such he found in the " wisdom" 
'litingg of Solomon. Ideniirying this "eleniil 
wisdom" now with Christ and again with the Bleaaed 
Virgin, he expended upon it his love and the ilevotion 
of his life. He graved upon bla breaai, with an iron 
pencil, the name of Jesus. Having retunird In the 
Convent of Conslince, he gave himsi'lf lo solitary mor- 
tilicaliona, and had many visions, ^^'hile there be alaa 
wnxe his (Uerman) book On Ihe Klrrvtil Wiidom, in 
1338, which was designed to leach pious souls how lo 
imitate Christ in bla sufferings. Having reached the 
age of forty j-ears, he concludeil his penaiiceH and be- 
came a preacher, or, as he phrased ii, "a knight of 
Cod," and hislabois were largely beneficial lo the cam- 
He entered into relations with other mystical 
teachers, eapecially Taulerand Heinrich tou Sijrdling- 
en. He induced many noble ladica lo devote them- 
selves to B quiet and charitable life, aided in tbe fonna- 
oC Ibe Friendg of lioil (q. v.), and 
founded a Brotherhoo<l of the Eternal \Vis<lum, for 
which be compnaeil a rale and a number of prayen. 
These labors exposed him tr- criticism and even dan- 
gers. He was even accuicil of disseminating tbe heret- 
ical teachings of the Brothers of the Free Spirit (q. v.). 
In his latter days he was chosen prior of his convent. 
Sinn afterwards he related the history of bis inner and 
outer life to his friend the nun FJizabeth Stilgliii, and 
ohe wrote the narrative without hia knowledge: but it 
waa Bubaequenllv revised and completed by bis band, 
and received Inio the collection of his works as part 
first. Part secwid was the book at Klfnuil H'ii>l«mi 
part third, hia book of Trulk, like Ihe other in ilislogue 
form, and inteniled to satisfy the iniguirics of a disciple 
uf the truth. The conclusion consists o( several mis- 
cellaiieoua letiera. SuBO died Jan. lb, 130&, in Ihe l)n- 

'•"^iiues for baptism, 

special reference to tl 
*■*! itaoediately before and after the 

Sn'ai (Heh. Svti', ^S^is, At 
■^ blwr of Gmddi, which latter v 
**" tbe liibe of Manasaeb lo exf 
^ OlDmb. xiii, 1 1). &C. ante ; 

Bull, Fkahx, a Roman Catholi 
■«1 U Heu-Kausnili, near Auster 

lar is Suso's represent ation 

the Eiemal Word which proceeds from the Father; the 
love which reunites them is Ihe Holy Spirit. The siu- 
■lained human soul can find no other way lo God than 
('brist, and more particularly Iban the imitation of his 
HufTerings. The distinction Ix-inei'ii Creator and creat- 


ura never ceasta, bawever; m that, dtwpite hit mratical 
■pirit, Siuo does not croaa tbeline where Che panlbeigtic 
Mending or the ereaud and the EUnial Spiril begins. 
Su» waa, in brief, the repreae illative of poetic mysticinm 
—a real puel, whu i> unable to apprehend an idea with- 
out clothing it in symbolic Tumi ; and lie wan in no true 
sense either a philosapher or a ])ractical man of af- 
fain. Sniw'B writings appeared at Augsburg, 148'2 and 
1612, fol. Diepenbrock published them in 18-i!)BtRat- 
Ubon (2d ed. IRSa) ; in La^n, by Suriiw (q. v.), 165o 
'ii they were rendered into 

B FfltH iOflhe -Vine Hofh), which 
i to Sun, was written in 1S'J2 by the 
in Merswin, — Berzog, Hrat-EncyUop, 

French and Italian,  
book, Van den » 

Stnuburger Kulr 

an eccleiiaatical aet of two kinds: 1, 
Boris of punishment inflicted upon of- 
fending memben of the clergy. This relatea either to 
the revenues nf the clergj'min or to hi> office, and hence 
is called grtapnttic a bfnffUno and taapftaia ab officio. Sua- 
pension from benefice deprive* the offender of the whole 
or a part of his revenue. Suspcnsinn from office is vari- 

itiU; abvffii 
large 01 

In all ih 

in his 

retains his order, rank, and benefice in distinction to the 
penalties of solemn depusal and degradation, by which 
he forfeits all rights of his order and benefice. All per- 
Hiits who can excommunicaie can suspend. Suspension 
must be precedeil by a moniliun, and its cause must be 

prcived to have committed such and such thing^ there- 

your orders." Every act of jurisdiction, such as absolu- 
tion, is null and void during suspension, if it has been 
publicly announced; but the ministration of baptism or 
enmmuniiiu is valid. Suspension is removed by abso- 
lution, by revocation of the sentence, by expirBtion of 
its time, and by dispensatiou. S. The other sort of sus- 
pennou, which eittends also to the laity, is suspension 
from entering a consecrated building, church, or chapel, 
or from hearing divine service, ■'commonly called mass," 
■ud from receiving the holy sacrament; Mhicb. there- 
Andre, i>H Vrtnl Ci(Naii(7w, i, 948; ii, 1110; Maillsne, 
Da Droit rtuwiufNe, v, 3.52 ; Blunt, IHd.of Dodrmat 
Theohgs, B. v, ; Riddle, Ciriil. .1 utiq. p. »4!!. 

StMplClon cnnsials in imagining evil of others 
without |)muf. It is somelime* opposed to charity, 
which Ihinketh no evil. " A suspicious temper checks 
in ibv hud every kind affection; it faanJens the heart, 
and estranges man from man. What friendship can wa 
expect frum him who views all our conduct with dis- 
trustful eyes, and ascribes every benefit we confer to 
■rtlHcc and Btralagvm? A candid man is accustomed to 
view the characters of his neighbors in the most favor- 
able light, and is like one who dwells amid those beauti- 
ful scenes of nature on which the eye rests with pleas- 
ure. On (he cfnitraiy, the suspicious man, having his i 
imagination tilled with all the shocking forms of human I 
falsehood, deceit, and treacliery, resembles the traveller i 
in the wilderness who discerns no objects around bim 

open, serpents that hiss, and lieasls of prey that howl." 
See Harrow, .!jfnni>»i ,- Gisborne, ^'mnoiu ,• Dwight, Ti(- 
ology; James, Oa rharitg. 

StiBteiitatlon Funa l. En^iik Wf>lei/an.—A 
fundfoimeil in the several districts which has for its ob- 
ject the raising of such an amount in each district as, be- 
ing divided among the i>onrer circuita, will secure to I heir 
preachers a much larger salary than couU be paid them 
without supplementary aid. The whole is under the 
supervision of Conference. 2. free CAureA iffSa^bmi. 
— A fund provided for the support of ministers of that 
Church. The idea was probably derived by Dr. dial- ! 


men ftom the Wesleyans; and  scheme was devised 
by him and made public before the Diaraption, and is 
now carried into operation throughout Scotland. The 
amount of this fund for 1873 to IHT4 was £152,112. 

SntoUSe (or Boutcllffe). Mattbew, an Eng- 
lish divine, was educated at Trinity (J<jllege,Cambridge- 
In 1&86 he was instalieil archdeacon of Taunton, and on. 
Oct. 22. 1&8M, contlrmed dean of Kxeter. He died ii> 
1G29. lie acquired some celebrity by his College of 
Polemical Divines, which came to naught shortly after 
his death. Among his works are, A Trtatite ofEctlt- 
tiaHkal DUdpline (Lend. 1531, 4to);— 0« Prritflrno^ 
rjaigue fioea in Fkxiimi Ckritiiana FalHeia (ibid. I.^SI, 
4lo) -.-De Cal/uiliea el Oi-liodara Chriili Ee^tia (ibid- 
1592, 2 vols.): — Tfe Pontijieii lnjutla Domimitinne nt 
l-kdaia, contra llelUirmmim (ibid. 1599, 5 vok) —Dt 
Turen-FapitiBo, or RetetailaMt brlaem ifa/iotnetaniim 
ami Pnjiers (ibid. 1699, 4lo) -.—Dt Purtfalano, etc (ibid- 
1599, 4to) —Jle Vera Ciriui Ecelena (ibid. 1600, Ho) : 
— Oe ifiuii, advemu BtUarminum (ibid. 1603, 4la) : — 
I)e IndnlgenliiA et Jvbileo (ibid. 1606, S vols. tivo). Se» 
Allibone, Oirf. o/flrt(. ond/tmer. ,4M(Aor»,s.v.i Chal- 
mers, Diog. IHcl. s. v. 

Bntoli&e, Robert Buma, a minister of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, was bom in Yorkshire, Eng- 
land, in 1815, and came to America in I83S, settling in 
Trenton, N. J. In IHM he was admitted on trial inlo- 
the New Jersey Conference, and was actively employed. 
up to the time of bis death, which occuned at Vincent- 
town, Feb. 18, 18T4. See ilinata of Amual Confer- 
tucet, 1874, p. m. 

Snthdnre (Sax. toulk door), the place where ca- 
nonical puigation was performed. When afactcharKetl 
against a person was unproved 

id then, 


Snthroh Sbahls, a division of the Sikhs in Hin- 
dustan whose priests may be known by pariicolar marks. 
Thus they make a perpendicular black sir«ak down the- 
forehead, and carry two small black sticks, each about 

when they solicit alms. They lend a wamlcring life, 
begging and singing songs in (be Punjabi and other di- 
alects, mostly of a moral and mystic lemiency. They 
are held in great contempt, and are frequently disrepu- 
table in character. They consirler Tcgh Ilabader, the 

Butphen, Joseph Walworth, a rresbvteriait 
minister, was bom at Sweden, N. Y., in 1825. He en- 
tered Hamilton College, and graduated in i9Al ; after 
which he entered the Union Theological Seminarv, in 
1B4M; from whence he graduated in 1M5I, He was or- 
daineil with a view of his entering the (breign Held as- 
missiunary, and on Nov. 7, 1851, departed for Marnovan. 
in the Turkish empire. H is service was brief, as lie had 
but scarcely Ifegun his labors when he was called to the 
heavenly world. 

Sutphen, MoirU Crater, n.D., a Presbvterian 
minister, was bom Dec 1, 1837, at Uedminster, N. J. 
He unilcd with the Church Aug. 1|>,I855. He gradu- 
ated from I'rincetoa College in 1856. After teachiiig^ 
in a private family iu Viiginio. he eiilcreil Princeton 
Theological Seminary, from whence he graduated after 
a three years' course. In both college and seminary be 
gained a high position as a scholar. He was licensed 
iiy the Presbytery of Elizabeth town, at Kahway, N. .1., 
aiidoiiMay 1, 1860, was ordained by the Presbyterj- of 
Philadelphia, and installed as collegiate pastor of the 
S|>riHg tiarilen Church in that city, to serve as co-pas- 
tor with the \-enenible John McDowell, D.D., at whos« 
deatli, Feb. 13, 18)13, he became sole pastor. After  
pastorale of great fidelity and fruiifulness, in which he 
lK;came quite pnpular,he became collegiate pastor with 




the Tenenble J. HcElroy, D.D., of the Scotch Churcli 
in New York, and wa» installed April 28, 1866. He was 
obliged to resign in 1872, on account of aphonia, which 
m journey to Europe failed to remedy. After his return 
lie spent a winter in Florida, and made an effort to sup- 
ply the pulpit of the Jacksonville Church, but was 
«^liged to relinquish it. Ketuming to the North, his 
tiemlth continued to fail, and he died at Morristown, N. 
«9., June 18, 1875. Dr. Sutphen was a talented, popular, 
^nd useful preacher, a man of genial spirit, a Christian 
gentleman, a laborious pastor, and a kiani student, and 
^vas succeMful in all departments of Christian work. 
^le was offered the presidency of three colleges, and at 
47ne time a professorship in one of the the<ilogical semi- 
naiies of the Church, but to none of these did he con- 
sider his health adequate. He was engaged during the 
\atteT part of his life in preparing a Manual of FatnUjf 
V^oTtkip, (W. P. S.) 

Sutra is the second division of the sacred writings 
«f the Buddhists, addressed to the laity. The following 
will show how these sacred writings are classified : The 
Dhirmmt, divided into the ASutUmi and A bhidhammani ; 
igtin divided into — 1. ir»na^(i, or discipline ; "i, Sutra, 
or lUMouraes ; 3. A bkidkarmma, or pre-eminent truths. 
The Sutrt Piuka contains seven sections, called Sangis; 
•Dd, including both text and commentary, has 396,500 
itaiuu. See Hardy, EcuUm Monachism, 

Butrl ( near Rome ), Council ok ( Concilium Su- 
trvktm), was held in December, 1046, by Henry the 
BUck, king of (Jermany. Gregory VI was invited 
to thi:» council, and came, hoping to be recognised 
sfl sole pontiff*; but, finding various difiiculties and 
obataclw in the way, he renounced the papacy, stripped 
himself of his ornaments, and gave back the pastoral 
Miff, after having held the papal chair about twen- 
ty months. After the council, Henry, accompanied 
l>7 the prelates who had been present, went to Kome, 
ind by common consent of the Romans and (rer- 
Din«, Suidger was elected {tope, who took the name 
of Clement II, and was consecrate<l on Christ mas- 
^1' See Mansi, Condi, ix, 943; fiaronius, AnnaL 
A.D. 1046. 

Suttee (5^nsc. #fi/t, rirluous, i. e. wife), the name 
IP^CD in Hindustan to a woman who voluntarily sacri- 
^ herself by bunting upon the funeral pyre of her 
bitfhtnd, and also to the rite itself. The practice has not 
^ confined to India, where it has had effect for many 
^^turies, but has existed in other countries. Diodonis 
^ius gives an instance which occurred in the army 
|>f Kunjfnes more than 300 years RC. The i)eriod of 
^ongin in India is unknown, though it is certainly of 
S^t antiquity. Although the practice is not enjoined 
oy their aacre«l books, yet it is base<l by the orthodox 
HisdfiAon tlte injunction of their Shastras, and there (»n 
^ no donbt that various passages in their Puriinas and 
^^ of law countenance the belief which they enter- 
**•> of its merit and efficiency. Thus the JirahtHn' 
^'tfom savs, **No other wav is known for a virtuous 
vunaii after the death of her husband; the se[>arate 
f'^^OMtion of her husband would be lost (to all religious 
'w«tj). If her lord die in another rountrj*, lot the 
^thfiil wife place his sandals on her breast, and, pure, 
•"^ the fire.** The faithful widow is pronounccHl no 
w»«de by the recited text of the Rig-Veilti. The c(k1c 
'•'^yist says, ** Learn the power of that widow who, 
^^\ng that her husband has deceased and been burned 
* toother region, speedily casts herself into the fire." 
^ the code of Angiras, " That woman who, on the 
^h of her husband, ascends the same burning pile 
*ith him is exalte<i to heaven, as e<{ual in virtue to 
Anindhati (the wife of Vasishtha). She follows Iht 
^■^■od to heaven, and will dwell in a region of joy 
'^Kmany years as there are hairs on a human IxmIv, 
^thirty-five millions. As long as a woman (in her 
**<(iiire migrations) shall decline burning herself. like 
*^ral wife, on the same fire with her deceased lord^ 

so long shall she not be exempted from springing agalD 
to life in the body of 8<»me female animal. When their 
lords have departed at the fate<l time of attaining heav- 
en, no other way but entering the same fire is known 
for women whose virtuous conduct and whose thoughts 
have been devoted to their husbands, and who fear the 
dangers of separation.*' 

The mode of |)erforming suttee varies in some unim- 
portant res|)ects, but its principal features are the same. 
An oblong space, seven feet by six feel, ia enclosed by 
bamboo stakes about eight feet long, driven into the 
earth, within which a pile is built of straw, Ixmghs, and 
logs of wood. After certain prayers and ablutions have 
been gone through with, the body of the deceaseii hus- 
band is brought fn)m the house and placed upon the 
pile; sometimes in a little arbor of wreathed barolxiofly 
hung with flowers within and without. Then the wife 
appears, and is unveileil by the Brahmins, herself re- 
moving the ornaments from her [>er8on, distributing 
them among her friends, by whom they are liighly 
prized. She reserves only one jewel, the tali, or amu- 
let, placed roimd her neck by her deceased husband on 
the nuptial day. Led by the (irincipal Brahmin, she 
walks three times around the pile, and then ai«cends to- 
the side of her husband. Embracing tlie body, she lies 
or sit« beside it, whereupon the nearest relative ap()lie8 
the torch. The shrieks of the dying woman, if she ut- 
ters any, are drowned by the shouts of the spectators 
and the noise of drums. 

Efforts to suppress this rite were made as early as the 
16th century by the Mohammedan emperor Akbar. but 
without much effect. The j>ractice continue<l to such 
an extent that between 1815 and lM2r> there were 71 M 
cases reported in Bengal alone. In 1829 lord Bentinck, 
governor -general, enacted a law declaring all aid, as- 
sistance, or part ici I tat ion in any act of suttee to be mur- 
der, and punishable as such. In 1847, during lord Har- 
dingers administration, the prohibitory^ edict was ex- 
tended to the native states in subsidiary alliance with 
the government of India, and the practice may be con- 
sidered to be practically extinct. 

An attempt, of late years, has l>een made by rajah Rad- 
hankant Deb to show that in a text lielonging to a par- 
tiadar school of the Hlack Yajui'Veda there is really a 
|>assage which would justify the practice of suttee; but 
the text cite<l by him is of doubtful canonicity; and, 
moreover, there is a text in X\\9- liiff-Vtda which, if 
pn>perly read, directs the widow, after attending to her 
husband's funeral cen'monics, to return home and at- 
tend to her domestic duties. See Wil^m. (fu the /S'w/>- 
poted Vaiilik AnthoriJt/ for the Biindmj of Hindu H'lt/- 
owt (Lond. 18C2), vol. ii. 

Sutton. Alvah A., a minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, was l>om in Vermont, June 19, 1846. 
He went to Minnesota in 1869, and engaged in teach- 
ing and farming. In 1873 he t(K»k work under the pre- 
siding elder, and sup])li<-d I/tng IVnirie charge for two 
years. In 1875 he was ordained deacon, admitted into 
the Minnesota C^mference, an<l appointed to the Brai- 
nerd Mission. He diet! Feb. 15. 1m76. Si'c Mimdtt of 
Annual (.'mijtntices, 1876, p. 126. 

Button, Amos, an English missionary', was lH>m 
at Sevenoaks, Kent, in 1798. He was ordained for the 
mission work at Derbv in 1«24, and sent to Orisr^a. In- 
dia. He left this tield once for a vi>it to England and 
America. His death took place at Cut tack, India. Aug. 
17. 1854. He translated the Scriptures into <.)riya, com- 
pileil an <Jriya dictionary, grammar, and lesson -lKN>k» 
besides writing Thf Family Chaplain (Calcutta, IK'Jl- 
32, 2 vols. 8vo): — Hi»e and Prot/reM of the Mission at 
Orifna (Pbila. 18mo): — OrtAita and its Erangt-lizalion 
(Derby, Eng. 8vo; Boston, 1«50, 8vo) : — I/grnn-lxfok /'or 
MtMitm Congregations : — and (iuidt to the Saviour. 

Button, Charles Manners, D.D., an English 
prelate, was the fourth s<»n of lord (ieorge Maiun-rs Sut- 
ton, and was l)(»ru in 1755. He was educated at Emnianiiil 




College, Cambridge; appointed dean of Peterborough, 
1791 ; bishop of Norwich, 1792; dean of Windsor, 1794; 
and archbishop of Canterbury, 1805. He died July 21, 
1828. He published, Five British Sjtecies of Orobancke 
{Trantacfions of the Linn. Soc 1797, iv, 173) : — Sermons 
<1794,4to; 1797, 4to). See Allibone, i>»c/. o/ ^rt/. owrf 
Amer. Authors^ s. v. 

Button, Chrifltopher, a learned English divine, 
was a native of Hampshire, and entered Hart Hall, Ox- 
ford, in 1582, aged seventeen years, but was soon trans- 
ferreil to Lincoln College. He was made prebendary 
of Westminster, 1G05 ; prebendary of Lincoln, 1618, and 
died in 1629. He published, Disce Mori (Lond. 1600, 
^mo, with several later editions, N. Y. 1845, 16mo) : — 
Disce Vivere (I-«nd. 1608, 12mo; 1853, 18mo; N. Y. 
16mo) : — Godiy Meditations upon the Most Holy Sacra- 
merU of the Lord's Supper (Lond. 1622, 12mo; late edi- 
tions, 1838, 1847, 1849; Oxf. 1839, 1844, 18mo; N. Y. 
1841, 16mo). See Allibone, Diet, of Brit, and Amer, 
A uthors, 8. V. 

Button, Henry, a minister of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, was born near Princeton, N. J., July 20, 
1808. Leaving home, he resided for some time in Tren- 
ton, N. J., where he united with the Church. After 
preaching a year, he entered the Philadelphia Confer- 
ence on trial in 1835. In 1858 he was made supernu- 
merary, and after sustaining that relation for several 
years, was placed on the superannuated list, and there 
remained until his death, in Philadelphia, Pa., March 
23, 1876. He was then a member of the Wilmington 
Conference. See Minutes of Annual ConferenceSj 1877, 
p. 12. 

Sutton, Richard, the co-founder of Brasenose 
College, Oxford, was the younger son of Sir William 
Sutton. Of the time or place of his birth w^e have no 
certain account, but we know that he practiced as a bar- 
rister of the Inner Temple. In 1490 he purchased some 
estates in Leicestershire, and afterwards increased his 
landed property in different counties. In 1498 he was 
SL meml)er of Henry VIII's privy council, and in 1505 
was one of the goveniors of the Inner Temple. We 
£nd him, in 1513, acting as steward of the Monastery of 
Sion, near Brentford, Middlesex. He died about 1524. 
His bequests were almost all of a religious or charitable 
kind. His benefactions to Brasenose College were es- 
pecially liberal, he having completed the building and 
•doubled its revenues, besides leaving to it several valu- 
able estates. He bore the expense of publishing the 
very rare book The Orcharde ofSyon, 

Sutton, Stephen B., a minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, was boni in Clermont County, O., 
Feb. 14, 1819, and united with the Church in February^ 
1837. He was licensed to preach March 16, 1844, and 
was admitted on trial into the Indiana Conference in 
October, 1851. He died at Martinsville, December, 1863. 
Mr. Sutton was very successful in his work, having ad- 
mitted about 1275 persons into the Church. See Min- 
vtes of A nnual Conferences^ 1864, p. 201. 

Button, Thomas (1), founder of the Charter- 
}iouse school and hospital, was born at Knaith, Lincoln- 
shire, in 1532. He was educated at Eton and Cam- 
bridge, but at what college is uncertain. After travel- 
ling abroad for some time, he returned home in 1562; 
was retained by the duke of Norfolk, and afterwards 
became secretary to the earl of Warwick and his broth- 
-er, earl of Leicester. In 1569 he became master of ortl- 
nance at licrwick, and shortly after obtained a patent 
for the office of master-general of the ordnance of the 
North, which he retained until 1594. He entered into 
business, and was at the time of his death (at Hackney, 
Dec, 12, 1611) the richest untitled subject in the king- 
■dom. He endowed the Charterhouse in 1611 with the 
bulk of his property. See Allibone, Diet, of Brit, and 
Ama\ Authors, s. v.; Chalmers, Biog. IHct, s. v. 

Sutton, Thomas (2), D.D., an English clergy- 

man, was bom at Bam ptoii, Westmoreland, and entered 
Queen's College, Oxford, in 1602, at the age of sixteen. 
He became perpetual fellow in 1611, lecturer of St. 
Helen's, Abington, Berks, and minister of Calham, and 
afterwards minister of St. Mary Overies, Southwark. 
He was drowned at sea in 1623. He published separate 
Sermons (Lond. 1615, 8vo; 1616, 8vo; 1626, 4to; 1631, 
4to): — Leisures on Romans^ ch, xi (1632, 4to): — and 
left in MS. Leisures on Romans^ ch, xii, and Psalm cxix^ 
See Allibone, Diet, of Brit, and A mer, A uthors, s. v. 

Sutton, 'William, a minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, was bom in Virginia about 1783, and 
in 1810 was licensed to preach. In 1823 he was or- 
dained deacon by bishop M'Kendree, and in 1829 elder 
by bishop Roberts, and after this gave the Church 
faithful service for twenty-nine years. He died at 
London, Madison Co., O., Dec. 13, 1858. See Minute* 
of A nnual Conferences of the M, E, Churchy Souths 1859, 
p. 190. 

Suva, in Japanese mythology, is the god of the 
chase and the tutelary patron of all hunters. Large 
processions are annually formed in his honor. 

Svadilfiir, in Norse mythology, was a famous horse 
of the giant who built the castle of the gods. He pro- 
jected a great fortress for the asas who were defending 
themselves against the ice-giants ; and he offered him- 
self as an architect to erect it, provided they would give 
him three winters to finish it, and the beautiful Freia as 
a wife and the sun and moon as servants. By the ad- 
vice of Loke, the asas accepted the offer, on the condi- 
tion that he should fulfil it in one winter, and without 
any other help than the horse Svadilfur. The giant 
agreed to this, and his horse exhibited such extraordi- 
nary strength that he easily lifted stones of the greatest 
weight, which would have required a hundred horses to 
carry ; and the building was already completed, except 
a single gate, before the asas had thought it possible. 
Thev then threatened Loke with death if he did not 
break up the contract. Loke thereupon assumed the 
form of a beautiful mare, and so engaged the stallion 
Svadilfur that he broke the rope by which he was held 
and followed Loke, who took him far enough away. 
From this connection sprang Odin*s famous eight-footed 
horse Sleipner, who was fleeter than the wind and never 
tired. The architect saw himself deserted by his help, 
and sought to assume his gigantic form in order to fin- 
ish the work with all his strength ; but in the dilemma 
of the gods as to whether in that case they should 
abide by their word, or whether the giant should 
not be required to finish the work as he was, Thor 
suddenly app'.ared with his hammer and slew the 

Svaha, in Hindft m3rthology, was the spouse of the 
fire-god Agni. 

Svainshaugi, or Swains' Hili^ in Norse mythol- 
ogy, was a place which appears to have been originally 
the residence oC dwarfs, inasmuch as the I'Aida mentions 
several of these as coming thence to Orwanga (arrow- 
field) and Jomwall (iron or battle field). 

Bvaixdunoka, in Slavic mythology, was the brill- 
iant bride of the star-goil. She was worshipped by the 
heathen l*russians as a friendly, benign goddess, who 
kept the stars in their courses when her husband drop- 
ped their reins in his wild chase on the moon-car through 
storm and cloud. 

Bvaiztiz, in Slavic mythology, was the god <»( the 
stars and of sunlight, whom the ancient Prussians re- 
vered in common with the Wends and Slavs in Pome- 
rania, etc. He was represented in exceedingly rich 
clothing, had flames and rays about his head, and a tuft 
of hair on the middle of his crown, which rose like a 
flame of fire. From old Khetrsean works of art we infer, 
notwithstanding the inscription which calls him Belhog 
(i. e. biali bog, a good deity, in opposition to Czemebog, 


iht (Til god), Ihil he wu » mslicioiu lUity. uticc he I 
appun u fierce «nd forbidding; but we miut bear in i 
mind that Kulpture muH rise lo i high grade berore I 
ftihle uid inTitiug funns can be repr«*nl«l. Thi» i 
an wma at that time in Hich infancy tbst we can only | 
wonder how the figures are ahapely at aU. Sriixlix ' , 
VIA ihe maM benevolent deity; he illuminated the j 


le mythotngy. wi 

BveiBudea, in Slav 

a the origi- 
ita descend- 

holoBv, HM the god of 
Bumnier, reprvscnleil by the warm beams of spring that 
inlroditred summer, lie was wurebipped by the Wenda 
and Slavs aa a deily of the second laiik. 

Svava, in Nome niythohj([y, waa a beauliful daugh. 

l»r of kiug KfUmi, who became famous through Ilelgi 

*"'■ ' Haddiiiga, the ton of lliorwanl, king of Norway. The 

STOkona, in Lettish mythology, were »ooth»ayer« ij^t had made a vow to call his own the fairest woman 

whu tuntold fortiuiee rfom flamc and the smoke uf * <,f the earth ; and thus he already had three wives— 

l■8>>^ [ Alfhihl. the mother of lledin; Siireid, the mother of 

STmlgonl, in Lettish mytholagi-, were prieota who lliimlunt;: and Sinrind, the mother of llilming—when 

undcratouri nuptial ceremonies, eiumined bridegrooma he hranl that Sigurliii was the handtommt of women. 

■od bridei who were about to many, tied Ihe conjugal He Immediately wooed her through the jarl Aili. but 

knot, am] pr»nouiKe<l the blessing upon them in the was rrjected through fear of other suilurs. Thereupon 

naioe of Deity. ' he made war upon her father, and at length seixed Si- 

Sruittfrit, in SUvic mythology, wag the moU re- \ P"'!."- *'''^,*"".' however, already the mother of a 

lained tguiet until the kini 

e famous Ilelgi, n 
I hearted Srava arouseii nim, gave nim ine name oi iiei. 
p, and allied herself to him as a godmother. Defended 

le gods among the W 

At AtkDna. on the island of Kugeu, stood his gigantic 

iin))K,vhii;h was far and wide, Air the whole southern 

«»« of the Baltic Sea, the central point of worship. ] ^V ""« bad and charming Walknr, and armed with a 
Syuttvil WIS an enormous oolusaus, which on four never-failing sword, Helgi signalized himself by deeds 
wtki bort four hearls with shorn hair and short beard. "*" "•« RfMtest herrnsm : but he wa^ I^everlhelcB^ slain 
HiidMliiiigwai like that of the Wends in general: a >>y Atli, the son of Hrodmar. No sooner, however, 
pwnwunding lo the kneea, made of cloth or felt, with *»' ^''ta' reb*"" " the son of king Siground and the 
Imgnidnleevea; a ginlle held it together; the legs beautiful Dorghili than Svava als.i reappeared in a scc- 
*m ban: on the feet he wore coarse bark shoes; an ""tl incarnation as the Shild virgin Sigrun. Helgi was 
immtiiK word hung at his side: and in the right hand but one day old when he slonl in armor and hinged fur 
li( (wiinla large bow resting ou the ground; his left 
tiiiul brld a cornucopia, which was annually Ailed wi ' 

le battle and victory. He crept, ii 

wine, [n addiUon lo these explored il as a waiting-maid, and then attacked and 
inajgiiia, hU image, which s'*" fi'™ 'n « dreadful contest. Uelgi next wooed the 
stood in Khetra. had also a beautiful and formerly loved Svava. now Sigrun; but 
long-bearded human head had yet lo undergo many a severe ci.iiteet, situ* she was 
already betrothed to Hodbmd, a son of king (iramnar 


I of Sweden, bat not loved by h 

le cornucopia and ■'■"i overc 
idicated— the lai- and was af 

Helgi . 


icated— the lai- >'<<1 *■* approaching the goal i>f his wishes when  new 

ter for war, the former for "balacle arose in the person of his own brother Hcdin. 

peace. He overshadowed The latter waa returning bime to Julaaliend when he 

the whole earth with bin met an ugly oldwitch,oulofthel"re»t.ridingon awolf, 

four heads; hence his coun- "l'"*' 'he dr')ve with teins of Iwi.-teil snakes, and she 

■el was highly priied and o"*™! herself as a Walkur U> the beautiful youth as a 

his oracles were the most proteclrew; but when he dindaineil her. she angrily 

oonspiciKiita, as his cullus •"'>'">' "Thou shsit pay for thin with Itraga's cup." 

involved earthly power and When Hedin reached hia home, he wildly swore that 

aulhoricv. He was wiir- he would posseas himself ofSigrun, his brother's bride, 

shipped 'with drunken rev- ""1 he accordingly went immeiliately to seek bu broth- 

elriea, and large olTerings, ", '•>' '^«' puqKw. The latter not only treated htm 

including, not unftequently, '•"'"lly, 


aadfttnithe quantity 
«iliiig jtMc an augury was dra' 
" "lowise of the new yea 
"i Ihi image of the god w< 
'i<""l,on the baptiam of th 
•""Wpof ihia god thereafter 

when he was angr\-. His 

one high-priei!t,who,onthe 

ilay of I he great harvest fcs- 

intevii. t'™'? personally swept Ihe 

temple, and that with re- 

.011, BO as not to offend the god with his 

ily was poured into his great cornucopia; 

I, having been alreaily i 
battle, anrrendered her to his brother. When Helgi ar- 
[^[y rived in WalhalU. all [he joys of heaven ohiIiI not sbp- 
ply the place of the beautiful Sigrun t he therefore re- 
side of the lovely Sigrun till the mnming liglit an- 
nounced the end of his delight; and, muimiing his 
Bleed, he returned lo ihe halts of Walhalls. Helgi 
was a Ihird time bora aa the amnid Haddiiiga, while 
Tl as Kara, daugh. 

r of Hall 

who 1 


r fn.m 


hter, ruled o 

r Denmark, a 

1 supei 

: destroyed by Wal- 
people. Itie public 
ased, atih<iugh it firi- 
'W manv old peasants 
lane. 'The interjiTc- 

Ifutg VrU (Sanctus Vims) is 

e of the corruption ( 

(Mintif Ibe 

Snrtalfbttln, in None mythology,' 
()m oTall evil gmii or Hack elves. 

Sverga Divl, in iiindO mythology, is a sectio 
genii who execute the immediate command! of Ii 
[be Indian aun-god. They seem not lo have a 1 
form, since they often ask human help in order to de 
tlivm against the AsIlur^ or evil genii. 

SvlaitOTit (Slavic, tafy mtrriiir), the most i 
brated deity of the ancient Ualtic Stavoiiiaiifi, w 


i<lol w 

la the ni 

! island of Rllgen. This last stronghuM of Slavonic 
' i atry was taken and deslruyeil, A.I). 116M, by Wak 
1 1, king of DeDDiark. See StAvoM.kXS, 




Svldor and Svlpall, in None mythology, are sur- 
names of Odin, 

Svipul, in Norse mythology, was one of the beauti- 
ful Walkursjor female spirits who order the liattle. 

Swaddle (^nn, to handagej tnrapyavoia; but 
nCia, in L4im. ii, 23, means to bear vpon the pdlm)^ to 
swathe an infant with cloths in order to keep its tender 
limbs from injury, a practice common in the East (Ezek. 
xvi, 4 ; Luke ii, 7). See Birth. 

Swaddlers, an absurd nickname given by the 
Irish Roman Catholics to the earlv Methodists. It is 
said to have originated from John Cenuick preaching a 
sermon on the Babe ^wrapped in swaddling-clothes," 
the ignorant Roman Catholics who heard it or heard of 
it supposing the ** swaddling-clothes" to be an invention 
of the Protestants. In the year 1738 a ballad-singer 
named Butler actuallv raised riots in Dublin and else- 
where to the cry of " Five pounds for the head of a 
swaddler!" and he and his allies called themselves 

Swahili Version. The Swahili, which was for- 
merly described as Kiiuaheli ( that is, ** according to 
Swahili"), is spoken at Zanzibar and for a considerable 
distance down the East Coast of Africa, besides being 
likely to become an important means of communication 
with inland tribes. The language is evidently an off- 
shoot of the Kaffir family, but is strongly impregnated 
with Arabic words, being a connecting-link between the 
two opposite families of speech. A tentative translation 
of the New Test, was made by the Rev. Dr. Krapf when 
iu Eastern Africa a few years ago, but he never so far 
perfected his work as to render it prudent to propose its 
publication. Independently of Dr. Krapfs work, the at- 
tention of others had been drawn to this important sub- 
ject: and when the Rev. Dr. Steere returned to England 
in 1869 he brought with him a translation of St. Matthew 
and the book of Psalms, which he had himself prepared 
during a residence of several years at Zanzibar. In the 
Hame year the Gospel of St. Matthew was printed ; and 
as this was the fir«t time any part of the Scriptures had 
been published in that language, and the circulation 
must of necessity be limited, only a small edition was 
issued. In 1H71 the Ixwk of Psalms was printed, which 
wa^ followed in 1875 by the publication of St. John's 
(tospcl, and in 1877 by that of St. Luke, the latter as 
translated bv the late missionarv Rebmann, but with 
the orthography made to conform to that of bishop 
Steere. From the Rej>ort for the year 1877, we see that 
a proposal was made to use the Arabic cliaracters for this 
version, but the committee of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society could not approve of it, inasmuch as the 
weight of evidence went to show that any natives who 
were acquainteil with the Arabic characters could read 
thc^pure Arabic version, while for the rest the Kisuaheli 
in Roman characters was far nimpler. Altogether the 
missionaries circulated in about nine years (i. e. since 
the publication of St. Matthew in 186*9 to March Si), 
1878) 4048 copies. Thus encouraged, bishop Steere is 
preparing a translation of the other books of the Bible. 
(R P.) 

Swaim, John Sanford, a minister of the Meth- 
oilist Episcopal Church, was born at Chatham, N. J., 
May 1, 180G, and uniteii with the Church at the age of 
fourteen. He was admitted on trial in the Philadelphia 
Conference in 18.'U, and continued actively engaged in 
the pastorate until 18C3. He then entered the Chris- 
tian Commission, and was appointed to Hilton Head. 
In 1804 he was made su[>ernumerar}', and appointed 
missionary to Jacksonville, Fla. Finding the climate 
congenial to his health, he continued to reside there un- 
til his death, Nov. 18, 1875. See Minute's of Annual 
Con/erenceSf 1876, p. 42. 

Swaim, Samuel Budd, D.I)., an able minister 
of the liaptist denomination, was born at Pcmberton, 
N. J., June 22, 1809, and was a graduate of Brown Uni- 

versity in the class of 1830 and of the Newton Theolog- 
ical Institution in the class of 1833. He was ordained 
at Haverhill, Mass., Nov. 7, 1838. For some time he 
was professor in Granville College (now Denison Uni- 
versity). In 1838 he took charge of the First Baptist 
Church in Worcester, Mass., where his ministry was an 
en>inently successful one, and continued sixteen years. 
From 1854 to 1862 he was pastor in West Cambridge^ 
and then became an agent for the American Baptist 
Home Missionary Society. His death took place Feb. 
3, 1865. (J. C. S.) 

Swain, Charles "W., a minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, was bom at New Bedford, Mass., Oct. 
22, 1793. He united with the Church in Richmond^ 
Clermont Co., O., in 1819, and in 1881 Mras admitted on 
trial into the Ohio Conference, and in due time received 
deacon's and elder's orders. He was actively engaged 
in the ministry (excepting one year's service aa agent 
of the Ohio Weslevan Universitv) until the fall of 1865. 
In 1856 he took a superannuated relation, and made his 
home in Easion until his death, April 25, 1870. Mr. 
Swain assisted in organizing a temperance society in 
New Richmond, O., as eariy as Sept. 1, 1829, the first of 
the kind west of the Alleghany Mountains. See Jlin- 
lUes of A nnual Conferences^ 1870, p. 166. 

Swain, Nathan, a Methodist Episcopal minister,, 
was bom in 1767, and converted when fourteen years 
of age. In 1799 he was admitted on trial in the Phila- 
delphia Conference, in 1801 admitted into full connec- 
tion and ordained deacon, and in 1803 ordained elder. 
He c(»ntinued effective, with the exception of two years. 
until 1816, when he took a supemumeran* relation, which 
he sustained until 1832, when he became superannuated,, 
and so remained until his death, March 1, 1845. See 
Minutes of .4 nnual Conferences^ iv, 14. 

Swain, Richard, a Methodist Episcopal minister^ 
was a native of New Jersey. In 1789 he was admitted 
on trial, in 1791 into full connection, and filled the fol- 
lowing stations: Trenton, N. J., in 1789; Flanders, in 
1790-91; Middlctown Circuit, Coun., in 1792; New- 
London, in 1793; Salem, N. J., ift 1794; Burlington, in 
1795; Freehold, in 1796; Trenton, in 1797; Freehold,, 
in 1798; Salem, in 1799 and 1800; Bethel, in 1801; 
Cape May, in 1802 ; Salem, in 1803. He became super- 
numerary in 1804-7, and died Jan. 17, 1808. He was 
a man of great usefuliwss in the ministry'. See Min^ 
utes of Annual Conferences, i, 159; Stevens, Hist, of the 
3/. A'. Church, iv, 280 ; Bangs, I/ist. of the M, E, Church, 
ii, 252. 

Swallow is the rendering, in the A. V., of two 
Heb. words, and possibly the true meaning of a third. 
None of them, however, are very clearly identifiable ac- 
cording to modem scientific classification. 

1. li'^'n. derdr, prop, liberty (as often rendered), i. e* 
strictly sicifiness, occurs in two passages only with ref- 
erence to a bird: Psa. Ixxxiv, 3 (^Heb. 4), **The «c<i/- 
low [hath found] a nest :" Prov. xxvi, 2, " as the swal^ 
low by flying." The ancient versions, in the former 
passage, understand a turtle-dove (Sept. Tputym'i Vulg. 
furfur), and in the latter a sparrow {arpoif^o^, jmsstr). 
The radical signification of the word favors the idea 
that it may include the swallow, with other swiftly fly- 
ing or free birds. The old commentators (so the rab- 
bins), except Bochart (I/ieroz. ii, 5JM) s<|,), who renders 
it "itdumba fera,'* apply it to the swallow, from the love 
of friH:dom in this bird and the impossibility of retain- 
ing it in captivity (De Wette, Umbreit, Ewald, Gese- 
nius, Thesaur, p. 355). It is more likely that it was so 
named from its rapidity of flight. It probably, there- 
fore, is more properly the ''swift'' or ''black martin,** 
and probably the dururi, mentioned by ForskAl as mi- 
grating to Alexandria from Up|)cr Egypt about the end 
of October (Ihscript. Anim. p. 10). The frequenting of 
public buihlinfcs by this class of binls (Herod, i, 159; 
^lian, r. //. V, 17) is proverbial (Schultens, Monum. 


VriL A rab. Carm. p. 1 ; Niebubr, Riitrn, n, 2T0). See 

i^lST, 'lyir, the laiUmr, aln occun tvriM; lu. 
Ixxvui, 14, " Like  crtae [or] i atpathw,90 did Ichat- 
ut;" Jet. Tiii, 7, "The turtle and llie crane utd Ihe 
Kollw uloerve the time," In both these pMwjr™ it 
kignciiled with k Ihird terra, O'O. ni* (y. r, D^O, 
till Tendered "cnne," but in the former puuge the 
tuitMtive "1 ("and," "or") U wuitiuf. The Sept. in 
Ih. BoJers both wonto by the nngfv one x'*''""'' 
VilfrpuMii* tinuidinu.- 4Bil in Jer. ^eXiJwi- aypui; 
tnnfo i< eiamia ; Ihui «Kfeeiiig with the A. V, in do 
DHlng Ibt matonr. Buchirl, however {Wirmi. ii, CM 
«|.X nuintuni that 'affir a the proper Hebrew (leHiK' 
nuiin of the cr«ne. He corapsres tlie woni with tlie 
Child. S';-I1=, tvrhya, Ihe AraU knrti. the IJr. jipa- 
PK.tht Wdih ^nn, anil the Gem. iriin, all of which 
Ut Bke it, oiiomatflpoelic. The millerinE oi queni- 
k« Bynd fflXtX) and Die mi|{ratory liabit 



tomjtfcd br the poeU with that of a person in distreu 
«j|Tirf,aiid ita migratory habila are frequenlly dwelt 

Jiw.iii,13,2S; Hiny, x, 31; Quint. Curt, ^myni ii, , 

107; lili, loi m{.\ This view h»» been followed by ' 
E(«nHilUier,SIaurer,anJHendef«o» in their commenu 

litwiD bii commentary on luiah, reputliiLei it in his 
tlaatni, where he Ireau \<gir a> a verbal adjective 
aguKjiim duiltrrinff or tirilltriiig, and regards it a» an I 
<phlM of the swallow in the pauage in Imiali, and 
u I rlHif^nalion uf the nwalluw in that in Jeremiah. I 
nn\i(„\hfKe.lbyKm,M{Drr Prophet Jri,naerUart}.\ 
It ii in fivor of this Ibat in the former the copulative is 
■Hting between the two wunls: but ihia may be ex- i 
pUigel at a case of asyndeton (aa in Has. vi, 3 ; Hab. | 
iiitll.tlc); whereai the iiuertinn uf the 1 in the other 
(•"((f "tenia clearly to prove that 'agir and lUi ile- j 
HUiJiirefent birds. Ilitiig, inileed, proposes to strike , 
•t ihir copula, bot without sufficient reason. Maurer . 
Mm ~1U fnim an Arabic root signifying lurbaril 
egmia, h as to demgnate an aquatic Innl; Knobel ! 
'ooldtiaceit to another Arabic root meaning 'o mwnrn 
ritnulj. The mo, lit. if distinct from the ^^37, 1 
'"Jiir, ii ptubably a lai^e tpecies of swallow, ami the 
luln leim, when not a mere epithtt of the former, . | 
JKiuiAj ligiiilMa a peculiar kind uf heron. Sii, huw- 1 1 
"e, aiiy perhaps be an imiutive name expressiTe of I j 
tta willow's voice or twitter; and in Dr. Kriinicolt"s re- ; , 
■•rktbal in thirteen codicesofjeremiah lie read frii for ; , 
"«( and the BOurce of tlie ancient fable of the Kgyp- 
'""/rii bring Iraiisfbrmed into aswallow. See Cit-isK. 
Vhtwver be the precise rendering, tho characters 
itBhei in the several paasages where the names occur 
*" urirtly applicable to the swallow, viz. its swiftness 
'■"iglu, its neating in the buildings of the Templu, its 
■xonfal, garrulous note, and its regular migrali' 

The Swift (<.'/j}wliu ayttt). 
are known, appear all to he the same as (hose of Eu- 
rope. The following are the most abundant ; 1. Cgpie- 
Ivi aput, the common swift or black martin, dislin- 
guiahed by its larger sim', short legs, very long wing*, 
forked tail, ami by all tho Ines of the feet turning for- 
ward ; (bftse, armed with small, crookeii, and very sharp 
claws, enalile the bird to hang against the aides of walls, 

rite from the giuuiid on account of the 
lcn(tth of its wings. The laat two, but more particu- 
larly this Bpccies, we Uke to be the deror, on account 
of the name diirari, already mentione<I', which was 
moat probably applied lo it because the swift martin 
prefers towers, mjuarets, and ruins lo build in, and is, 
besides, a bird lo which the epithet " free" is particu- 
larly apiJicahle. On the Eupipean coast of the Medi- 
terranean it bears Che name of biirbola, and in several 
parts of France, including I'aris, is known by the vul- 
gar name of "le Jnif," tlie .lew; and. finally, being the 
largest and must conspicuous bird of tbe species in Pal- 
estine, it is the type of the heraldic martlet, originally 
applieil in the acience of blazon as the especial distinc- 
tion of Crufiader jHlgiima, being borrowed from Oriental 
nations, where Ihe Irird is likewise honored with the 
term hagi, or pilgrim, to designate ila migratory hab- 
its. The diHir lieiiig meiitioiied as buiUling on the al- 
tar seems to imply a greater gencralizalion of the name 
than we have given it; for liabita of nesting in imme- 
diate contact with man belong only to the house and 

i; iHIt 

le pre 

a literal se 


""jolnetvetbat Ihe garrulity of the swallow was pro- 
lo^ among the ancienta (see Nonn. Dloiiys. ii, 133, 
•nl Atijtoph. Batr. 93). Hence its epithet icoinXdt, 
""xi-itlenr," tmrAaiai ii rit \t\i2ivat, Aihcn.G2!. 
S»Aaicr.|IM,andop3poT(lii,He«iod,0;i.!W6; andVir- 
g4C<onf.iv,306. Although Aristotle, in his Kulural 
^<'^,uiA Plinv, following him, have given currency 
Is 0» fihle that "many swallows bury themselves dur- 
og»iiiler,vet the regularity of their migration, alludcil 
<» by Ibt p'rophet Jeremiah, was familiarly recogniaed 
^Ttbtancients. See Anacreon ((M, xnxiii). The ditly 
<V>»*i by Atben. (360) from Theognis is well known— 

fcOrid {Fatl. ii, 859), "Pnennntia veris hirando." 
Tbt tfKMt of Syria and Falesdne, so f^ aa they 

ill bears that character 
more completely than the other. It is not necessarj- to 
dilate further on the historj' of a genus of birds so uni- 
versally known. •!. lliruiido nuliiti, or dovinlini (var, 
CaUriai), the chimney swallow, .wilh a forked tail, 
mailied with a row of white spots, whereof llirtnido 
Sfritiai, if at all diOcrenl, is must likely only a variety. 
3. CMiibiH urbiai, Ihc martin, or common wiiulow 
swallow. 4. fcrfj*. ri/Hiria, sand-martin, or shore-bird, 
not uncommon in Vortlicm Kgypl. near the raoulhi of 
the Llella, and in Southern I'alestine, about (laza, where 
it nestles in holes, even on the sca.sliore. Ueaidea 
these, the Eastern or russet swallow (//iiundo ru/ula, 
Tem.), which nestles generally in lissures in rocks, and 
the crag-martin (fofjfc m^wrtrw, Linn.), which is con- 
fined lo mountain gorges and liesert district s, are aUo 
common. (See liu, i, 27 j ii, 386.) The crag-ioattin 
is the only member of Cite genus which does not migrate 
from Palestine in winter. Of the genus CjjMffiis (swift), 
beuiks the one first noleil alwve, the s|ileiiirLd alpine 
swift ICgpttlui mcMw, Linn.) may be seen in all suitable 
localities. A third species, peculiar, so far as is yet 
known, to the north-east of I'alesiine, has recently been 

'Tri^"ram, XhI. Iliil. "/ tkt BibU, p. IWi; Woo.1, BibU 
Animiiti, p. 301 sq.; Lewysobn, Zovlogit da Talmwir. 
I p. 206. See Biku. 


Siraaia the rendering, in the A. V., of r'£S:r,'fii- 
Mnirii, in two or the three puuget where tiiis word 
occur*, iiameir, I^v. xi, IH: Deut. xiv, 16. where it 
Btinds in the list of unclean binla (Sept. nop^vpiaii; 
T/SiCI Vulg., Biipviagiy, porphyrin, ibUi Saiiieritan the 
ume). Bmhan [llitroz. ii, *i90) expliint it noetua 
(owl), and dcrires the name Trom B^'^, ihaindnx, " in 
aaloDiih," liecauae other birds are uartled at the appa- 
ritinn or the owl. (icMnins iuggesta the pelkim, frnm 
wnl, "to breathe, to puff," with rGTercace to the infla- 
tion ofita pouch. Whatever ma; have been the binl 
intended bf Muses, these conjectures cannot be admit- 
ted u ntiafactory, the owl and pelicin being both ditt- 
tinctly expressed elsewhere in the catalogue. Oiggeius 
wavered between these two: and Dr. Mason Ilarn^ 
seemingly not better informed, and conlVmnding the 
Ameriun red species with the white one of Africa, 
guesMd that porphtfrion must mean the Jtoiaingo, 


^riving tl 

breathe," was inclined to render fimWiniW by "goose;" 
but an thiii bird is not by the present Jews deemed un- 
clean, it may be confidently assumed that no mistake in 
this matter on have occurred during any periml. and 
consequently that the goose cannot have been marked 
unclean by the law and afterwards admitted BmoiiK the 
clean birds with its name transferred to another species. 
The Hebrew fHctimtaiy by .Selig Newman, it is true, 
renders /iiuA *ii»?(A "swan;" but the Polyglots show Ibe 
great uncertainty there is in several of the names of 
both the chaptari in question. The swan, for which 
some recent scholars contend, asserting that it was helil 
sacred in Egypt, docs not occur, so far as has been ascer- 
tained, in any Kgyplian ancient picture, and is uot a bird 
which, in migratiiij; to the south, even during the cold- 
est seasons, appeals ifl proceed Tarther than France or 
Spain, though, no doubt, individuals may be Uown on- 
ward in hard gales to the African shore. Only two 

as the sea between Candia and Khodea; one whore a 
traveller mentions his passing through a flock reposing 
on the sea duriug (he night; the other recorded by 
llasselqnist, who saw one on the coast of Kgypt. But 
it may be conjectured that they mistook pelicans for 
swans, particularly as the last mentioned are fresh-water 
Urds, and do not readily take to the true salt sea. Mr. 
Strickland,indecd,Bay8 of the mute swan {Csffnii' "lor), 
that it visits Smyrna Bay iu winter; and Mr. Varrell, 
on the Buthoritv of Mr. Bennett, tells us that the hooper 
(C./trut) sometimes goes as far south as Egypt and 
Barbary. He adds that " they viMt Corfu and Sicily in 

the lakes of Blserta, and one in the Like of Tunis at the 
end of April, 1845." . But these are veri- rare instances. 
Nnr, if it had been known to the Israelites, is it easy to 
uniterslaiid why the swan should have lieen claised 
amiiug the unclean birds. The renderings n( the Sept., 
pnrphsrio and ■*£», are either of them more probable. 
Neither of these binls occurs elsewhere in the catalogue. 
The porphyrion, or purple galEinule, caunot have been 
unknown to the translatont, as it was, no doubt, common 
in the Alexandrian temples, and was then, as it is now, 
seen both in Egypt and Palestine, aop^opiaiv, por- 
phgrio anliganrsm, Bp., the purple water-hen, is men- 
tioned liy Aristotle (Jlitl. A mm. viii, H), Aristophanes 
(.Ir. 707), Pliny {llifl. Xnl. x, 63), and is more fully de- 
scribed by AthciuBus {Dripn. ijl, 888). The circum- 
stance of the same Heb. name being given to the cha- 
meleon (see below) may have arisen from both having 
the faculty of changing colors, or being iridescent ; the 
lirst,when angry.becoming green, blue,and purple— col- 
ors which likewise play constantly on the glossy parts 
ot the second's plumage. The poqihyrion is snperior in 
bulk to the common water-hen, or gslliuule; has a hard 
crimson shield on the forehead, and flesh-coloreil legs; 
tbc head, neck, and sides are of a lieautiful turquoise 


blue, the upper and back pans of a dark but brilliant 
indigo. It is allied to the com-rmke, and is the largest 
and most beautiful of the family Raltidir, bnng larger 
than the domestic fowl. From ilie extraordinary length 
of its toes, it is enabled, lightly treading on the flat leaves 
orwater-iilanta, to support itself without immersion, and 
apparenti}' to run oit the surface of the water. It fre- 
cpieiits marshes and the sedge bv the banks of rivers in 
all tbe countries honlering on the Mediiemnean, and is 
abundant in I/mer Kgj'pt. Athenieus has cnnrcctly 
noted its singular babit of grasping its food with iu 
very long toes and thus conveying it to its mouth. It 
is distinguished from all the other species of Hidlidir by 
its short, powerful manilibles, with which it crushes it» 
prey, connsling often of reptiles and young birds. It 
will frequently seize a young duck with its long feet. 
and at once crunch the heail of its victim with its beak. 
It is an omnivorous feeder, and, from the miscellaneous 

catalogue of unclean birds. Its flesh is rank, coarse, and 
very dark-colored. It was anciently kept tame in the 
precincts of pagan temples, and therefore, (lerhaps, was 
marked unclean, as most, if not all, Ihc sacred aiiitoals 
of the heathens were. When, in the decline of idoUtr?-. 
the dog, peacock, ibis, the purple Urd in question, and 
other domesticated cmiameiits of the temples had di*a|>- 
peared, Gesner'a researches show how earlv and long the- 
writers of the Middle Ages and of the KeHval of Lit- 
erature were perplexed to And again the porphyrioii of 

shadow of a doubt upon the subject, the species bdng. 
moreover, dqiicted upon Egyptian monuments. The 
Porphgrio hgiKnthiaui is the species most common lit 
Europe, although there are several others in Asia aiiit 
Africa; I'oi'pAyrio erj/thropus, thunAti\l on the south- 
east coast of Africa, appears lo be that which the pagan 
piiests most cherisheil. 

Purple Gslllnnle {Porphirrio bj/aciiitlkinnjl). 

the unclean "creeping things that 
creep upon the earth," evidently no longer stands for 
the name of a bird, and is rendered " mole" by the A.V., 
adopting the iiilerpretalion of Ihc Sept-, Vulg., Onkelos, 
and some of ihe.lcwish doctors. Dochart has, however, 
shown that the Heb. ehalrd {ihrtj, tbe Arabic lAiild or 
kiSd, denotes the "mole,'' and has argued with mueh 
force in behalf of the " chameleon" being the Hniiimrfk, 
The Syrisc vendon and some Arabic MS8. undersUnd 
" a eenti|iedc" by the original word, Ihc Targum of Jon- 
athan s " salamander;" some Arabic versions read oim- 
iiuf^is. which (iolius renders "a kind of liiard.' In 
Lev. xi, 80, the " ctiameleon" is given by the A. V. ai 
the translation of the Heb. i^6ach (Tm), which in oil 




prolMibtlity denotes some larger kind of lizard. See 
Chamkleon. The only due to an identification of fm- 
sktmeth is to be found in its etymology, and in the con- 
text in which the word occurs. Bochart conjectures 

that the root (3^9, nashdm, to breathe) from which the 
Heb. name of this creature is derived has reference to a 
vulgar opinion among the ancients that the chameleon 
lived on air (comp. Ovid, Mtt. xv, 411, '* Id quoque quod 
ventis animal nutritur et aura," and sec numerous quota- 
tions from classical authors cited by Biichart, llieroz. ii, 
505). The lung of the chameleon is very large, and 
when filled with air it renders the body semi-transpar- 
ent ; from the creature's power of abstinence, no doubt, 
arose the fable that it lived on air. It is probable that 
the animals mentioned with the tiruhemetk (I^v. xi, 30) 
denote different kinds of lizards ; perhaps, therefore, since 
the etymology of the word is favorable to that view, the 
chameleon mav be the animal intended bv tituhemeth in 

» • 

the above passage. As to the change of color in the skin 
of this animal, numerous theories have been proposed ; 
but, as this subject has no scriptural bearing, it will be 
enough to refer to the explanation given by Milne-Kd- 
wards, whose paper is translated in vol. xvii of the AWtii- 
^ryh Nrtc Phiiotuphicai Journal. The chameleon be- 
ings to the tribe Ikndrosaura^ order Saura ; the family 
inhabits Asia and Africa and the south of Europe. The 
Cham4po vulgtiris ia doubtless the species mentioned in 
the Bible. See Tristram, Natural History of the Ri- 
^, p. 249 ; Wood, BibU A nimalt, p. 87, 488. See Liz- 

SWAN (myth, and astmn.), a beautiful constellation 
in the Milky-way, which may be readily known from 
the five bright stars, arranged in the form of a cross, of 
^hich it is composed. It is situated between Cepheus 
>nd Vul|)es, to the east of the Lyre. On bright wintry 
nights the naked eye may count a hundred and fifty 
s^r>» in this large constellation. The Swan commem- 
orates the form chosen by Jupiter when he deceived 
Nemesis and Leda, or possibly the singing swan, sacred 
to Apollo, into which Orpheus was, at death, transformed. 

Swan, RoBwell Randall, a Congregational 

muiister, was bom at Stonington, Conn., June 10, 1778 ; 

was fitted for college by Kev. Hezekiah N. Woodruff, 

of Stonington, and graduated from Yale College in 1802. 

Us united with the College Church Dec 1, 1799. His 

porpoee to enter the ministry was not formed until 

^ith, 1804, and shortly after he commenced the study 

of tbcology under Dr. Emmons, of Franklin, Mass. In 

October of the same year, after a severe ilhtess, he con- 

tttoed his studies with Dr. Perkins, of West Hartford. 

His Uoense to preach was granted him by the Hartford 

^orth Association, at Northington, Feb. 6, 1805. Ow- 

^ U> ill-health, he did not immediately settle, but in 

'I^BttBber took charge of an academy in Stonington, 

I'd (applied the vacant Church there. He was or- 

<>*iDed pastor of the Church in Norwalk Jan. 14, 1807, 

*^ he continued until his death, March 22, 1818. 

^Sprague, AimaU of the Amer, Pulpit, ii, 485. 

Swan, £Uunnel, a Presbvterian minister, was bom 
in the island of Dominica, Nov. 80, 1798. While Sam- 
'^ vss a child his father returned to his native coun- 
^(Bootland. Here the son received a liberal educa- 
^ completing his course at the GUsgow University. 
At the age of nineteen he came with the family to Phil- 
f^'^^phia, from whence he soon went to Princeton 8em- 
J''y. He was licensed to preach by the Philadelphia 
V'^byte^ April 17, 1823, and received as a licentiate 
^ ^be Presbytery of Huntington, Pa. He received a 
**llfit)no the Sinking Valley Church, which he declined 
to sooept, and was dismissed to the Redstone Prenby- 
^* His next call was to the churches of Fairfield, 
^''Sonier, and Don^al, which he accepted, and was iii- 
"^ June 17, 1824. He proved to be a devoted, self- 
'^Tiog, and sacoessful pastor, and for seventeen years 
^* half retained the eMeem and growing confidence 
of liii three churehet. ^coming seriously crippled by 

a shivered limb, he was compelled to relincjuish so ex* 
tensive a charge, and he accordingly resigned, and ac- 
cepted a call to the Johnstown Church, Pa., where he 
was installed in 184 1. Half of his time was occupied by 
the Church at Armagh. Here he continued until 1855.. 
In 1856 he removed to Leland, IjA Salle Co., III., where 
he made an extensive purchase of land ; and though he 
had no pastoral charge, he continued to preach the (i(is> 
pelas be had opportunity. From IHCiD to 1871 he resided 
at Aurora, IlL For the pi)q)oKe of giving liis cliildron 
an education, he returned East, and. though advanced 
in years, continued to preach until the end of his ])il- 
grimage, Aug. 5, 1877. (W. P. S.) 


Swanger, John P., a minister of the Metho<list 
Episcopal Church, was born in Mifiiin County, Pa., Feb. 
15, 1836. He was converted and united with the Church 
in 1854, and in 1859 was received on trial in the East 
Baltimore Conference. His rainistrj', however, was of 
short duration, as he died June 29, 1867, in Baltimore. 
See Minutes of Annual Conftnncts, 1X68, p. 27. 

Swarm is the rendering, in the A. V., of two very 
different Hebrew words. 

1. rriS, ^fdah (usually rendered "congregation" or 
"assembly"), is employed to designate the swarm of 
bees and honev found bv Samson in tlic lion\s carcas» 
(Judg. xiv, 8). The lion which Samson slew had l)een 
dead some little time before the bees had taken up their 
abode in the carcass, for it is expressly stated that "af- 
ter a time" Samson returned and saw the bees and honey 
in the lion's carcass, so that " if," as Oedmann has well 
obser\'ed, " any one here reprewnts to himself a corrupt 
and putrid carcass, the occurrence ceases to have any 
true similitude, for it is well known that in these coiiu- 
tries, at certain seasons of the year, the heat will, in the 
course cf twenty-four hours, so completely dry up the 
moisture of dead camels*, and that without their under- 
going decomposition, that their bodies long remain, like 
mummies, unaltered and entirely free from offensive 
odor." To the foregoing quotation we may add that 
very probably the ants would help to consume the car- 
cass, and leave, perhaps, in a short time, little else than 
a skeleton. Herodotus (v. 1 14) speaks of a certain Ones- 
ilus, who had been taken prisoner by the Aroathusians and 
beheaded, and whose head, having been suspended over 
the gates, had become occupied by a swarm of bees; 
comp. also Aldrovandus (/>« Instct. i, 1 10). Dr. Thom- 
son (iMnd and Hook, ii, 362) mentions this occurrence 
of a swarm of bees in a lion's carcass as an extraordinarv 


thing, and makes an unhappy conjecture that perhaps 
"hornets," debtibir in Arabic, are intended, "if it were 
known," says he, " that they manufactured honey enough 
to meet the demands of the storv." It is known, liow- 
ever, that hornets do not make honey, nor do any of the 
family Vesjndtf, with the exception, so far as has been 
hitherto observed, of the Brazilian Nectarina mtitifica. 
See Beb. 

2. 3^5, ^ar6b, is the term applied to the fourth of 
the plagues (q.v.) of Eg\'pt (Exod. viii, 8-31 ; "divers 
sorts of flies," Psa. Ixxviii, 45; cv, 31). It is regarded 
by most interpreters as a species of nodjly, or tabanus 
(Michaelis, Supple.m, p. 1960), such as is still very troub- 
lesome to animals in Egypt (Forhkal, Descr. Anim. p. 
85; KUppell, Arab. p. 73). See Bochart, I/iaoz. iii, 
472; Werner, in the Miscell. Lips. Nov, iii, 201 sq. See 


Swayze, John J., a minister of the Metho<Hst 
Episcopal Church, was bom at Poughkcepsie, N. Y., 
Aug. 30, 1812. He was received on trial in the Pitts- 
burgh Conference in 1829, and labored with great accept- 
ability, filling the office of presiding elder nine succes- 
sive years. He took a superannuated relation in 1852, 
and died Feb. 18, 1853. See Minutes of Annual Confer^ 
enceSf 1853, p. 242. 

Bwayze, 'William, a ^Icth(Mlist Episcopal minis- 
ter, was born in Sussex County. N. J., Nov. 18, 1784. 




In hU youth he was led by a pious African to hear a 
Methodist preacher near Baltimore, was converted, and 
«oon after felt impressed that it was his duty to preach 
the Gospel, and labored as a local preacher to great ad- 
vantage for several years. He was admitteil into the 
New York Conference on trial in May, 1807, and for 
^i^ht years labored successfully within the bounds of 
that conference. " He became emphatically a ' son of 
thui)der,' attracting great crowds of people to his minis- 
try, and speaking with a power and pathos that few 
have ever equalled, moving and exciting many — some 
to tears, others to cry for mercy, while others would 
shout for joy" (Gregg, p. 177). In 1816 he was trans- 
ferred to the Ohio Conference ; in 1817 appointed to Co- 
lumbus Circuit; in 1818 to Deer Creek Circuit, includ- 
ing Chilicothe ; in 1820 presiding elder of Ohio District, 
where " his labors, for almost four years, were crowned 
with unexampled success." In 1824, by the division 
made by the General Conference, he fell in the l*itts- 
burgh Conference, and was ap[>ointcd to Erie District; 
in 1828 to Canton District; in 1830, conference mission- 
ary; in 1832, retransferred to Ohio Conference; in 1834 
to Pittsburgh Conference ; after which, he was super- 
annuated until death, March 29, 1841. See Minutes of 
Annual Con/erettces, iii, 238 ; Stevens, Hist, ofthtM. E, 
Church, iv, 339-341. (J. L. S.) 

Swearing (some form of H^K or 393^, o/aw/u), 
is an appeal to God in attestation of the truth of what 
one says, or in confirmation of what one promises or un- 
dertakes. The Latin term is jusjurandum or juramen- 
/7/m. Cicero (Z)« Officiis, iii, 29) correctly terms an oath 
a religious affirmation ; that is, an affirmation with a re- 
ligious sanction. This appears from the words which 
he proceeds to employ : " Quod autem affirmate, quasi 
Deo teste, proraiseris, id tenendum est. Jam enim non 
ad iram deorum, quw nulla est, scil ad justitiam et ad 
ddem pertiiiet ;*' which in effect means that an oath is 
an appeal to God, as the source and the vindicator of 
justice and fidelity. Hence it appears that there are 
two essential elements in an oath — first, the human, a 
declared intention of speaking the truth or performing 
the action in a given case ; secondly, the divine, an ap- 
peal to God, as a being who knows all things and will 
punUh guilt. According to usage, however, there is a 
third element in the idea which *'oath" commonly con- 
veys, namely, that the oath is taken only on solemn, or, 
more specifically, on juritiical occasions. The canon law 
gives all three elements when it represents juc/tWum, re- 
Httis^justitia as entering into the constitution of an oath 
—;/WtWtim, judgment or trial on the part of society; 
vtt-ifdSf truth on the part of the oath-taker; justitiUf 
justice on the part of GckI. 

The practice of taking oaths existed before the time 
of Moses. It is found as early as the days of Abra- 
ham, who made the oldest servant of his family swear 
lie would select for Isaac a wife of his own kindred (Gen. 
xxiv,*2, 3, 37). It is here observable that the oath is a 
private, not a judicial one; only that the authority of 
Abraham, as patriarch, must be taken into account* An 
oath was sometimes a public and general bond, obliging 
the parties who took it to a certain course — a case in 
which it appears to have been spontaneous and volun- 
tary; as when, in Judges xxi, the men of Israel swore, 
raying,*' There shall not any of us give his daughter unto 
Iknjarain t(j wife" (comp. ver. 5). From 1 Kings xviii, 
10, it ap|>ears to have been customary to require, on oc- 
casions of great conceni, a public oath, embracing even 
an entire " kingdom and nation ;" but whether taken in- 
dividually or by some representative we have no means 
of ascertaining. Such a custom, however, implying as 
it does a doubt of the public faith of a people, would 
hardly be submitted to, unless on the part of an inferior. 

Oaths did not take their origin in any divine com- 
mand. They were a part of that consuetudinary law 
which Moses found prevalent, and was bound to respect, 
since no small portion of the force of law lies in custom, 

and a legislator can neither abrogate nor institute a 
binding law of his own mere will. Accordingly, Moses 
made use of the sanction which an oath gave, but in 
that general manner, and apart from minute directions 
and express words of approval, which shows that he 
merely used, without intending to sanction, an instru- 
ment that he found in exiMtence and could not safely 
dispense with. Examples are found in Exod. xxii, 11, 
where an oath is ordered to be applied in the case of lost 
property; and here we first meet with what may strict- 
ly be called a judicial oath (Lev. vi, 3-5). 

An oath, making an appeal to the divine justice and 
power, is a recognition of the divinity of the being to 
whom the appeal is made. Hence to swear by an idol 
is to be con victcil of idolatry. Such an act is according- 
ly given in Scripture as a proof of idolatry and a reason 
for condign punishment. " How shall I pardon thee for 
this? Thy children have forsaken me, and sworn by 
them that are no gods" (Jer. v, 7; xii, 16; Amos viii, 
14; Zeph. i, 5). 

This appeal to Grod was in frequent use among the 
Hebrews, as a confirmation of both statements (Matt, 
xxvi, 74) and promises (1 Sam. xix, 6 ; xx, 17 ; 2 Sam. 
xix, 23; XV, 21 ; 1 Mace, vii, 35. For covenant oaths, 
see Gen. xxxi, 53 sq. ; Josh. Lx, 15; 2 Kings xi, 4; 1 
Mace vii, 15 ; Josephus, A nt, xiv, 1, 2. For oaths of al- 
legiance see 2 Sam. xv, 21 ; Josephus, ^ n/. xv, 10, 4) in 
both public and private life (e. g. Judg. xxi, 5 ; I Kings 
xviii, 10; Ezra x, 5 ; and Gen. xxiv, 37 ; 1, 5; Matt, xiv, 
7), as also before the Judges (Exod. xxii, 1 1 ; Lev. vi, 3, 
5) ; but the Mosaic law does not attempt to regulate its 
use. Perjury is forbidden (xix, 12), but on religious 
grounds, as a profanation of God's name. The usual 
oath was by Jehovah (Deut. vi, 18 ; comp. Gen. xiv, 22 ; 
Judg. xxi, 7 ; Ruth i, 17 ; 1 Sam. xiv, ^; 2 Sam. xix, 
7 ; 1 Kings i, 29 ; ii, 23 ; Isa. xix, 18 ; Ixv, 16 ; Jer. iv, 
2; xxxviii, 16), while the apostates swore by strange 
gods (v, 7; xii, 16; Amos viii, 14; Zeph. i, 5). S<.»me- 
times an oath was made by the life of the person ad- 
dressed (2 Kings ii, 2; 1 Sam. i, 26 ; xx, 3; comp. Euri{>- 
ides, IleL 835), by the life of the king (1 Sam. xvii, 55; 
XXV, 26; 2 Sam. xi, 11), or by his head, even when not 
in his presence (a common oath in Egypt, Gen. xlii, 15, 
and still used in Persia, Rosenmllller, Morgeid, i, 200 jhj. ; 
Morier, Second Journey ; comp. Strabo, xii, 557 ; Hero<l- 
otus, iv, 68 ; Curtius, vi, 11, 18 ; Lucian, Catapl, 1 1 ; Sue- 
tonius, Calig, 27 ; Vegetius, De. Re Afil. ii, 5; TertuUian, 
ApoL 52; Zom, Bihlioth, Aniiq. i, 812 stj. In the 6W- 
pel (tccordir^ to Nicodemus, Pilate swears by the safety 
of Ctesar ; comp. Rein, Rdm. CrimiruUrecht, p. 534). 
More rarelv, the oath was bv the head of the swearer 
(Matt. V, 36 ; comp. Virgil, -few. ix, 300 ; Ovid, Trist, i v, 
4, 45; Juvenal, vi, 17), by some important member of 
the biHly, as the eyes (Ovid, Avior, iii, 3, 13; TibuUus, 
iii, 6, 47; Plautus, Afeiifrc. v, 9, 1) ; by the earth (Matt. 
V, 35; Sil. Ital. viii, 105; Euripides, V/t>/>o/y/?/^, 1029); 
by heaven and the sun (Matt, v, 34; Talmud BabyL 
Berach. 65 ; comp. Kor. xci, 5 ; liii, 1 ; Ivi, 77 ; Virgil, 
^iCn. xii, 176, 197 ; ix, 429 •, Aristophanes, Eg. 705 ; IMu- 
tarch, 129; Euripides, AfetJea, 746; Pausanias, viii, 18, 
1; Philostratus, ffer, ii, 11; and Wettstein, i, 305); 
by the angels (Josephus, War, ii, 16, 4). It was a 
part of the punctiliousness of the later Jews to prefer 
rather to swear by the sun, the earth, or heaven than 
by God himself (Philostratus, ii, 271). Some swore by 
the Temple (Matt, xxiii, 16; comp. Lightfoot, p. 280), or 
parts of it (Matt, xxiii, 16; comp. Wettstein ad loc)j or 
by Jerusalem, the holy city (Matt, v, 35 ; Mishna, Kethii- 
bothf ii, 9 ; Lightfoot, p. 280). So among other ancient 
nations, the altar was touched in swearing (comp. Dough- 
tKus, A nalect, ii, 26 ; Lakemacher, Obserr. ix, 112 sq. on 
Sil. Ital. iii, 82. On the oath Corban [q. v.], see Jose- 
phus, Ajnotiy i, 22, 453). 

The form of swearing by Jehovah, always the most 
usual oath (see above), was very simple — "The Lord do 
this or that to me if I swear falselv" (Ruth i, 17 ; 2 Sam. 
iii, 9, 35; I Kings ii, 23 ; 2 Kings' vi, 31), or « As Jeho- 




act of the magistrate, to have objected to which would 
have brought on Jesus the charge of equivocation, if 
not of evasion, or even the denial of his " high calling." 
The general tendency of this article is to show how de- 
sirable it is that the practice of oath-taking of all kinds, 
judicial as well as others, should at least be diminished 
till, at the proper time, it is totally abolished ; for what- 
soever is more than a simple affirmation cometh from the 
Evil One, tic tov vovripov (Matu v, 37), and equally leatl- 
eth to evil. See Lydii Dim, de Juramento; Nicolai, De 
Juram. Iltbroeoruni^ Grcecorum, Romanorum, aliorumque 
Populorum; Seldeni Juramentig; Molembecii 
De Juramento per GetUum Principis ; Spcnceri Diss, de 
Jurainento per A nckuilum — all of which may bo found 
in vol. xxvi of Ugolino's Thesaurus A nHq, Sacr, See 
also Hansen, De Jurainent, Vett, in Graevius, Thesaurus; 
Carpzov, Appar, p. 662 sq.; Steinlcr, De Jurejur, Sec, 
Discip, Heb, (Lips. 1736); Purmann, De Jurejur, ex 
Mente Hebr. (Frankf. 1782) ; Valckenaer, De Ritib, in Ju- 
rejur, a Vet, I/ebr, et Grrec, Observ, (Franek. 1735; and 
in ()elrich*s Colled, I, ii, 176 sq.) ; especially Bassek, De 
Jurejur, Vet, impr, Rom. (Traj. ad Rh. 1727); I^uaulx, 
Ueb. d, Eid bei d, Gtiech, (WUrzb. 1844) ; Ueb, d. Kid bet 
d, Roin, (ibid. 1844); Otho, Lex, Rabbin, p. 347 sq. A 
more recent authoritv mav be found in StHudlin, Ge- 
schichte der VorsteU, s. v. " Eide;" see also Tyler, Oaths : 
their Origin, etc See Oath. 

SWEARING, Profank, was severely condemned in 
the ancient Church, and seems to have been a common 
practice. Swearing, or foolish or wicked adjurations 
by any creature or daemon, by the emperor's genius, by 
angel and by saint, were reprobated. Perjured persons 
were placed under special penance. Profanity is also 
punishable by the civil law of Great Britain, and by 
the laws of some of the states of the United States. 

S'weat (nrj, <ien. iii, 19; Sft*^, Ezek. xliv, 18; i^/owc, 
Luke xxii, 44) was one of the physical phenomena at- 
tending our Lord's agony in the garden of Gethsem- 
ane as described by Luke (xxii, 44) : "His sweat was 
as it were great drops (literally clot^), ^po/i/joi) of bUxKl 
falling down to the ground." The genuineness of this 
verse and of the preceding has been doubted, but is now 
generally acknowledged. They are omitted in A and 
B, but 'are found in the Codex Sinaiticus (X), Codex 
Bezie, and others, and in the Peshito, Philoxenian. and 
Curetoniau Syriac (see Tregellcs, Greek New Test,; 
Scrivener, Introd. to the Crit. oj* the Netc Test. p. 434), 
and Tregelles points to the notation of the section and 
cation in vcr. 42 as a trace of the existence of the verse 
in the Codex Alexandrinus. 

Of this malady, known in medical science by the term 
diapttle.nit. there have been examples recorded both in 
ancif nt and modern times. Aristotle was aware of it 
{De Paii. Anini. iii, 5). The cause assigned is gener- 
ally violent mental emotion. '* Kannegiosser," quoted 
by Dr. Stroud {Phys. Cause of the Death of Christy p. 
86). '• remarks, 'Violent mental excitement, whether oc- 
casioned by uncontrollable anger or vehement joy, and 
in like maimer sudden terror or intense fear, forces out 
a sweat, accompanied with signs cither of anxiety or 
hilarity.' After ascribing this sweat to the unequal 
constriction of some vessels and dilatation of others, he 
further observes: * If the mind is seized with a sudden 
fear of death, the sweat, owing to the excessive degree 
of constriction, often becomes bloody.' " Dr. Millingen 
(Curiosities of Medical Kxjterience, p. 489, 2d ed.) gives 
the following explanation of the phenomenon : " It is 
probable that this strange disorder arises from a violent 
commotion of the nervous system, turning the streams 
of blood out of their natural course, and forcing the red 
particles into the cutane4)us excretories. A mere relax- 
ation of the fibres could not produce so powerful a re- 
vulsion. It may also arise in cases of extreme debili- 
ty, in connection with a thinner condition of the blood." 

The following arc a few of the instances on record 
which have been collected by Calmet {Diss, sur la Sueur 

du Sang) J Millingen, Stroud, Trusen {Die Sitten, Gebr&u* 
che und Krankheilen d, alt. Hebr. [Breslau, 1863]), in 
addition to those given under Bixx>i>y Swkat. Si^hec- 
kius {Obs. Med, iii, 468) says that in the plague of Misc» 
no in 1664 a woman who was seized sweated blood for 
three days. In 1662 Conrad Lycosthenes {J/e Prodiffi- 
iSf p. 623, ed. 1667) reports, a woman sick of the plague 
sweated blood from the upper part of her l>ody. Ac- 
cording to De Thou (I, xi, 826, ed. 1626), the gov- 
ernor of Montemaro, being seized by stratagem and 
threatened with death, was so moved thereat that be 
sweated blood and water. In the Melanges d*//istoirey 
(iii, 179), by Dom Bona venture d'Argonne, the case is- 
given of a woman who suffered so much from this mal- 
ady that, after her death, no blood was found in her 
veins. Another case of a girl of eighteen who suffered 
in the same way is reported by Mesaporiti, a physician 
at Genoa, accompanied by the observations of Valisneri,. 
professor of me<iicine at Padua. It occurred in 17(>S 
{PhiL Trans. No. 303, p. 2 144). There is still, however, 
wanted a well-authenticated instance in modem times^ 
observed with all the care and attested by all the ex- 
actness of later medical science. That given in Cas- 
par's WochenschriJ^f 1848, as having been observed by 
Dr. Schneider, ap()ear8 to be the most recent, and re- 
sembles the phenomenon mentioned by Theophras- 
tus {Ijmdon Med. Gaz. 1848, ii, 963). For further ref- 
erence to authorities, see Copeland, Diet, of Medicine^ 
ii, 72. 

Swedberg, Jespkr, bishop of Skara. in Swedeiu 
His father's name was Jacobson, but, according to a fre- 
quent Swedish custom, the son, on taking his degree at 
the university, assumed the name of Swedberg. He was 
bom Aug. 28, 1663, in the province of Dalecarlia. Hav- 
ing received a university education, he was ordained in 
1686, and became successively court chaplain, professor 
I of theology in the University of U^isala (1692), and 
I provost of the cathedral there. He was a pious, elo- 
quent, and active man, a somewhat voluminous writer, 
chietiy on devotional subjects. He stootl high in hia 
native country, and many of his hymns are still among 
the favorite ones in the Swedish Lutheran service. He 
was the father of Emanuel Swedenborg. He was made 
bishop of Skara in 1702, about the time that he visited 
England. The Swedish Church in London and the 
Swedish congregations settled on the banks of the Dela- 
ware, in America, were placed by the king under his. 
episcopal supervision ; and his letters to the latter col- 
ony, still preserveil in the records of the Church at Wil- 
mington, show a warm interest in their affairs. From 
the information which he had obtained from this cur^ 
respondence he published a work concerning America^ 
a copy of which is in the librar}* of Harvard College. 
He also published a Psalm-Book (1694), which w^as sup- 
pressed as pietistic; and the first Swedish Gramtnar 
(1722). Bishop Swedberg died July 26, 1736. (W.B.H.) 

S'weden, a kingdom in the northern part of Eu- 
ro[)e. In conjunction with Norway it forms the Scan- 
dinavian peninsula, occupying itself the larger part of 
til is peninsula. Its geographical position is between 
I'U. ;V)^ 20' and 69^ N. and long. U'^ 10' and 24° 10' E^ 
aii«l it extends not far from 1000 miles from north to 
; south, and in its greatest breadth 300 miles from east 
I rx) west. It is bounded on the north by Norwegian Lap- 
land, east by Russia, south by the Gulf of Finland and 
the Baltic, and west by the Sound, the Cattegat, and 
Norwav. The count rv has the characteristic features 
of all northern regions. Many parts of it, especially in 
the north, are barren and unproductive. Its immense 
forests are a source of great revenue, the wood being 
used not only for fuel, but entering (}uite generally into 
the construction of the exterior as well as the interior 
part.4 of all buildings, and furnishing also a profitable 
article for export. All the grains peculiar to northern 
countries are raised in Sweden, not only in sufficient 
quantity for home consumption, but also for export. 




f some of the meUls it is very rich, and no small part 
ot€ the wealth of the country oomeH from the working 
yC iDinf« of gold, silver, iron, copper, etc. The descrip- 
:ion which has heen given of Norway, so far as the 
sAtural productions of the country are concerned, will 
^pply to Sweden, and renders any minute detail in this 
respect unnecessary. See Norway. 

The f^reat political divisions of Swetlen are three — 
C^othland, Svealand, and Norrland. Gothland has thir- 
ls «en subdivisions, Svealand eight, and Norrland five — 
K^lie whole giving an area of 171, 7dO square miles, and 
-tsaving a population of a little more than four millions 
^nd a quarter. The largest city b Stockholm, having 
^ population in 1874 of nearly 150,000. The only oth- 
«r city of considerable size in Sweden is (lOthenburg, 
^bich has a population of over G0,000; but there is 
c%uite a large number of cities and towns having a pop- 
ulation of over 12,000. 

I. Uittory, — The early history of Sweden is involved 
Vd great obscurity, nor do we tiud much in that history 
that will interest the general reader until we come 
down to the time of Gustavus Vasa, who, with great 
ben)inn,made an attack on Christian 11, and succeeded 
ia oUuning the throne in 152:^. The next character 
that Btinds out prominently on the pages of Sweilish 
history is Gustavus Adolphus, the great champion of 
the Protestant faith, and the powerful foe with whom 
Auttria had to contend during the important period of 
the Thirty Years' War. Gustavus was most fortunate 
in hi« couiu«llor8 and statesmen, especially in his chan- 
cellor, the wiite and good Oxcnstieni (q. v.), who, after the 
death of his S(»vereign at the battle of Lutzen in 1662, 
was iotrusted with the management of affairs during 
the minority of Christina, the daughter of (iustavus, 
who woceeded to the throne. Passing over a few years, 
^f come to the period during which the celebrated 
Charles XII sat on the throne, whose wontlerful martial 
«xpiuii« form one of the most brilliant pages of miMlern 
^f>ry. At the commencement of his reign the king- 
dom of Sweden was at the height of its power and of 
ii«{^-. When he closed his administration, and, by 
hia (ieath, Sweden came under the dominion of his sis- 
ter, Ulrica Eleonora, its prospects were far from tiatter- 
•Btf. She surrendered herself to the control of her hiis- 
^i. Frederick of Ilesse-Cassel, whose administration 
of the aiTairs of Sweden was most unfortunate and hu- 
miliating: In making terms of peace with the enemies 
*ith whom she had been at war for so long a time, 
^•^wwwof large territories which were once within the 
bMindaries of the kingdom had to be made. Ulrica 
<lyuig without issue, the throne passed into the hands 
<>f Adolphus Freiierick, in fulfilment of one of the terms 
^ peace prescribed by the empress of Kussia in the 
^'^y of 1743. His reign of twenty years was one of 
^^iMant commotion and trmtble. At his death, in 1771, 
^ ioo Gustavus III succeeiled to the crown and reign- 
^ twenty years, when lie was assassinated, and his son 
(•iwtaruN IV, a minor in age, came to the throne, with 
^ Qncle, the duke of Sodermainiland, as regent. For 
^irioiu reasons the young king, af^er a few years, was 
^(KDpeUed to abdicate, and his uncle, the regent, under 
tbe title of Charles XIII, became king. Upon his de- 
c**<w.Feb.5, 1818, the French marshal Denia<lotte was 
^ff^ king, Uking the title of Charles XIV. Dur- 
">? hia reign of twenty-six years, Sweden enjoyed a 
P'od degree of prosperity, and recovered, in considcr- 
*Uc measure, what she had lost under the reigns of hiA 
P'^deceftfors. At his death, in 1844, his son Oscar I 
iKOKded him and perfected the plans of his father for 
de%-rioping the resources of the country and adding to 
^ isateiial wealth. His reign laste<l fifteen ye&n 
(It44-59), during the last two of which, on account of 
Us iU-health, his son and successor had acte<l as re- 
Snt. This son, Chariea XV, was king for thirteen years 
(1859.72). During his administration, liberal ideas 
fuwd the ascendency, and the result was the intro- 
^Bctioo into the government of many constitutional re- 


forms. Charles died in 1872, and was succeeded by the 
present king, Oscar II. 

II. /f(7(7if>N.— ChriHtianity was first introduced into 
Sweden in the vear 830 bv Anschar, a monk of Corbev. 
Werttphalia. although the Swedish historians assert that 
many of the |HH>ple embraced the (Gospel still earlier, 
and that in 813 a church was erected at Linkoping by 
Herbert, a Saxon ecclesiastic. The labors of Anschar 
were followed up by his succeHsor, Kembert, who found- 
ed several churches, but gaineil few converts. Several 
of Kembert*s successors failed to prosecute the work, 
and Christianity l>ecame almost extinct: and it was 
not until 1026 that Sweden became a Christian state. 
The Reformation commenced in Sweden in 1524 under 
(iustavus I, who secretly encouraged the preaching of 
Lutheran doctrines, in order, when he had formed a 
party of sufficient strength, to seize the revenues of the 
d(»minant Church and abolish its worship. One of the 
most {)opular and able missionaries of the Reformat ion 
was Olaf Petri, who published the New Test, in the 
Swedish language. The bishops called upon the king 
to suppress the translation, who treated their pro|MM<al 
with indifference, and consented to a public disputation 
at Upsala between the Komish and Protestant parties. 
This controversy tendetl to oi)en the eyes of the people to 
the em>rs of the Komiith creed, and they welcomed the 
missionarieM to their houses. Gustavus seized at once 
two thirds of the whole ecclesiastical revenues, an<l au- 
thorized the clergy to marry and mix with the world. 
He also declared himself a I^itheran, nominated Luther- 
ans to the vacant sees, and placed Lutherans in the 
parish churches. In the course of two years the Kom- 
ish worship was solenndy and universally aboliitlied, 
and the Confession of Augsburg was received as the 
only rule of faith. John, who succeede<l to the throne 
in 1569, had married Catharine of Poland, a Koman 
Catholic, and soon displayed a decided leaning towards 
the old faith. In the fervor of his zeal he | repared a 
new liturg\', entitle<l " Liturgy of the Swedish Church, 
Conformable to the Catholic and Orthodox Church.'' 
This liturgy was rejected by the mass of the clergy of 
both churches, and even the fMipal sanction was re- 
fuseiL Still, the king so far prevailed as to induce the 
Swedish Church to revise its liturg}', and to declare all 
opposed to revision guilty of schism. On his death, 
his brother Charles became regent^ and one of his first 
acts was to induce the SyntMl of Upsala (1593) to abolish 
the liturgA' prepared by the late king ami de{M>se those 
eccIesiaHtics who luul defended it. Sigismund, hearing 
of these proceedings, came to Sweden an<l inau^rated 
violent measures in behalf of the Komish faitn; which 
were so generally opposed by clergy and people that 
he returned in disgust to Poland. Charles took up the 
work of reform, caused a decree to be published in WH) 
that the Confession of Augsburg should be the only 
rule of faith in Sweden, that all Komish priests should 
leave the country' in six weeks, and prescribing gen- 
eral conformity under |)enalty of banishment. Umier 
queen Christina the Church sank into a deplorable con- 
diti(»n of spiritual declension and decay. There was a 
religious awakening, however, under the preaching of 
l.'lstadius, who suffered for his zeal by a long imprison- 
ment. To put an end to what was called hi ridicule 
Piefitm^ an act was passed in 1713, and a still ni<»re 
stringent one in 1726. prohibiting, under heavy penal- 
ties, all private religious meetings or conventicles. 
These harsli measures and the desire for true spiritual- 
ity led a number of the people to seek }>emii2isioii to 
have the old Ijooks used in the churches of their par- 
ishes, or to have regidarly ordained pastors serve them, 
promising themselves to maintain them, in addition to 
imying all dues, as formerly, to the [Mirish priest. This 
was refus4?d, and they withdrew from the worship of 
the national l.'hurch, enduring many disabilities, as de- 
nial of marriage, tines, and |K'nalties. It was not till 
1873 that dissenting ministers were allowed to marry. 

The established Church of Sweden is Lutheran, all 




sects of Christians, however, being tolerated. The king 
nominates the archbishop and the bishops from a list 
of names presented to him by the ecclesiastical author- 
ities. The archbishop of Upsala is the head of the 
Swedish Church, liaving urnicr him eleven bishops. 
Ail ecclesiastical matters of importance are subject to 
the decision of the king. A revolution in religious 
matters is now going on in Sweden which cannot fail, 
in time, to make itself felt in its influence on the future 
destiny of the national Church. Especially prosperous 
have been the missionary operations of the Baptists 
under the labors of the Rev. Andreas Wiberg and his 
fellow-laborers. Thousands of converts have been gath- 
ered into Baptist churches, and the work of evangeliza- 
tion seems to be but in its infancy. 

In 1854 the Kev. O. P. Petersen was commissioned 
by the Missionary' Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church to open missions in the Scandinavian mission- 
ary; he had, as an assistant missionary, Peter Larssen, 
who went to Sweden and visited several families at 
Calmar. A mission was begun in 1864 at Wisby, in 
the island of Gothland, and from that time the work 
has been very prosperous. The General Conference of 
1876 ordered the Swedish mission to be organized into 
an Annual Conference, which was effected under the 
presidency of bishop Andrews at Upsala, Aug. 7, 1876. 
The following is a summary of the statistics of the mis- 
sion for 1879: Number of ministers, 54 ; local preachers, 
69 ; Sunday - schools, 138 ; teachers and officers, 505 ; 
Sun<lay-school scholars, 5500 ; members and probation- 
ers, 6800 ; churches, 38 ; probable value of churches, 

III. Education. — To the credit of Sweden it is to be 
said that she has provided most liberally for the educa- 
tion of the young. There is a common-school system, 
instruction being gratuitous, and children not attending 
the regular government schools are obliged to furnish 
certiHcates that they are under the tuition of private 
teachers. The result of all this careful and syst«matic 
attention to education is that seldom is a Swede found 
who cannot read and write. The higher seats of learn- 
ing are well patronized. The University of Upsala 
takes high rank among the literary institutions of 
Northern Europe. Its home is in the town from which 
it takes its name — Upsala, forty-five miles north-west 
of Stockholm, a place of some 12,000 inhabitants. The 
attendance of students is large, as high sometimes as 
1500, who gather here not only to pursue the regular 
course of collegiate study, but to listen to lectures from 
the pressors of theology, law, medicine, and philoso- 
phy. The university has a valuable librarj' of over 
100,000 volumes, several museums and collections, a bo- 
tanical garden, and an observatory. Both the army 
and the navy are well ^presented by schools, the for- 
mer having two well-conducted institutions, one at 
Carlbcrg and another at Marieberg, designed especially 
for the training of officers of the engineering and artil- 
lery dc|>artments, and the latter having a school for 
naval cadets at Stockholm. There are to be found in 
Sweden — as there are in all countries where the people 
are well eilucat«d — in all towns and villages, libraries, 
museums of art, etc., societies for the promotion of sci- 
ence and literature, publications in the form of news- 
pa|)ers and periodicals of many kinds, so that the diffu- 
sion of knowledge is wide-spread and healthy. 

IV. Litcratiirfi, — See Adlerfeldt, Histoire Militaire de 
Charles XII (Paris, 1741,8 vols. l*2mo); Brown, Memoirs 
of the Socereifpi of Sweden and Denmark (Lond. 1804, 
3 vols. 8vo) ; Anidt, Ki-imiernwftn aus Schweden (Ber- 
lin, 1818, 8vo) ; Dunham, History of Denmark^ Sweden, 
and Norteay (Lond. 1833-34, 3 vols. 12mo) ; Gall, Reise 
durch Schweden in 1836 (Bremen, 1838, 2 vols. 12mo) ; 
Uing, Tour in Sweden in 1838 (Lond. 1839, 8vo) ; Syl- 
vanus, Ratnbles in Sweden and GothUind^ with Etchings by 
the Way-side (ibid. 1847, 8vo) ; Tham, Beskrifung ofver 
Sceriges Rike (Stockh. 1849-56, 7 vols. 8vo) ; Marryatt, 
Year in Sweden and Gothland (Lond. 1862, 8vo). 

Swedenborg, Ehanuei^ the founder of the New 
Jerusalem Church (q. v.), was born in Stockholm, Swe- 
den, Jan. 29, 1688. His ancestry were not noble, bat 
of high respectability among the miners of the great 
Stora-Kopparberg, in the province of Dalecarlia. His 
father, Jesper Swedberg (q. v.) or Svedberg, married 
Sarah, daughter of Albrecht Behm, assessor of the Royal 
Board of Mines. Emanuel was their second son and third 
child. After the elevation of the father to the prelacy 
as bishop of Skara, the name was changed and the 
family ennobled by ((ueen Ulrica Eleonora in 1719. 

Reared amid pious intiuences, the accounts we have 
of his earliest years seem to indicate a childhood of un- 
usual thoughtfulness and susceptibility to religious im- 
pressions. He says of himself, " From my fourth to my 
tenth year my thoughts were constantly engrossed by 
reflecting on God, on salvation, and on the spiritual af- 
fections of man. I often revealed things in my discourse 
which tilled my parents with astonishment, and made 
them declare, at times, that certainly the angels spake 
through my mouth." Great care was bestowed on his 
education, which was acquired principally at the Uni- 
versity of Upsala, where he took his degree of Ph.D. in 
1709, in his twenty-second year. He then visited Eng- 
land, spending a year at Oxford and three more on the 
continent of Europe. At this time he was already a 
meml>er of the Royal Society of Sciences of Upsala, cor- 
responding with it while abroad. He sought every- 
where the society of the learned, and commenced pub- 
lishing works almost immediately on his return, some 
of them poetical, others mathematical His mind t4x>k 
an industrious and practical turn, and for many years 
he was almost wholly employed in scientific pursuits, in 
mining, engineering, and ph}'siological studies. His 
family connections were influential — one sister married 
Eric Benzelius, afterwards archbishop of Upsala ; an- 
other was the wife of Lars Benzelstierna, governor of a 
province, whose son became a bishop; while other mem- 
bers of the family rose to ecclesiastical and civil digni- 
ties. He had a large circle of friends among the nobility 
and higher classes, and enjoyed abundant patronage at 
court. His rank cntitle<l him to a scat in the Swedish 
Parliament, and about 1721 he was appointed by Charles 
XH assessor of the Board of Mines, which made him also 
a member of the Cabinet. In 1724 he was solicited to ac- 
cept the professorship of mathematics in the University 
of Upsala, but preferred the position he already occupied. 

Twelve years later we find him beginning to publish 
his philosophical works : first, Opera Philosophica et 
Mineralia (Leipsic and Dresden, 3 vols, fol.), under the 
patronage of the duke of Brunswick ; afterwards, his 
Principia: The Principles of Xatural Things, or Xew 
Attempts at a Philosophical Explanation of the Phenom- 
ena of the ElemetUary World: — then came Outlines of a 
Philosophical Argument on the Infinite and the Final 
Cause of Creation, and on the Intercourse betioeen the. 
Soul and the Body : — followed, a few years later, by the 
Economy of the Animal Kingdom (Amsterdam, 2 vols. 
4to) ; and the A mmal Kingdom (vol. i, at the Hague ; voL 
ii, Lond. 1745). There were many other tracts, essays, 
and volumes of minor importance, his last work of this 
nature being the Worship and Love of GmL These 
works are generally acknowledged as belonging to the 
highest order of philosophical thought. His declared 
object in all his investigations was to behold the wisdom 
and goodness of the Creator in all his works ; giving his 
life to the discovery of truths, determined to rise through 
their different degrees to those of the highest order, for 
the sake of doing something useful to mankind and ad- 
vancing the best interests of society. The accounts 
show him to have been at this period a man of solid 
virtue, piety, and decorum. These are the ^ rules of 
life*' which he wrote down and preser\'ed for his own 
guidance : 

1. Often to read and meditate on the Word of God. 

2. To submit everything to the will of Divine Prori- 




1. To obcenre in ererythiDg a propriety ofbehnvior, and 
dwar* to keep the conscience clear. 

4. To diecharve with fidelity the fanctions of my em- 
plorment and the duties of my office, and to render my- 
lelf io all things oseral to society. 

He was a member of the principal scientUic and philo- 
lopbical societies of Northern Kurofie. 

In 1745, at the age of (ifty-eeven— in the full maturity 
ef bis powers, in the enjoyment of honorable station, and 
of an enviable reputation at home and abroad for worth, 
learning, and extraordinary capacity — he ceased from 
his other labors and began to devote himself to theol- 
egy, to the promulgation of the doctrines of the New 
Jemaalem Church. Having been, as he declared, called 
by the Lord to be the messenger of a New Dispensation 
of Heavenly and Divine Truth, he was no longer at liber- 
ty to pursue his former courses of occupation and study, 
but thenceforward applied himself, with all the diligence 
of hia character, to the duties of his new office. The 
ffiUowing are some of his own words with respect to this 
**cair and mission, written to Rev. Dr. Hartley, rector 
of Win wick, England, in reply to inquiries. After speak- 
ing of the circumstances of his previous career, he con- 
tinue*^ ** But I regani all that I have mentioneil as mat- 
ters reM{>ectively of little moment; for, what far exceeds 
tbem, 1 have been called to a holy office by the Lord 
himself, who most graciously manifested himself in per- 
wn to me, his servant, in the year 1743, when he openc<l 
my sight to the view of the spiritual world, and granted 
roe the privilege of conversing with spirits and angels, 
irhich I enjoy to this day. From that time I began to 
print and to publish various arcaiui that have been seen 
by roe ur reveale<l to me — as, respecting heaven and hell, 
the (itaie of man after death, the true worship of (iod. 
tbe spiritual sense of the Woni, with many other most 
irofwrtiiit matters cf>nducive to salvation and true wis- 
<tem. The imiI y rea.^>n of my later j<»urneys to foreign 
OHimrif^ has Uren the desire of l)eing useful, by making 
kiHiwii the arcana intrustetl to me." At another time. 
l«t(r ill life, he write)*, to the landgrave of Ilesse-Danm- 
8t»lt, '' Tht; I>»rd, our Saviour, had foretold that he 
wuultl ci»mc fliT'iiii into the world, and that he would 
Wablish iht'W a new Church. lie has given this pre- 
diction in the A|>ocalypse (xxi and xxii), and alno in 
Kveral placcA in the evangelists. But, as he cannot 
C"D( into the world again in person, it was necessary 
that he yhould do it by means of a man, who shouhl not 
only receive the di>ctrine of this new Church in his un- 
d^Riianiling, but also publish it by printing: and so the 
l^rd bid prepared me f»»r this office fn>m my infancy ; 
^ bait manifetitetl himwif in person bef«»re me, his ser- 
^ sent me to till it. This t^wk place in the year 
1*43. He afterwanis opened the sight of my spirit, and 
thus intfiHluced me into the spiritual world, and grant- 
ed me III ^^ee the heavens and manv of their wonders, 
*<xlak) the hells, and to speak with angels ami spirits, 
*»*ithi<scnntintiallv fi»r twentv-seven vears. I declare, 
I" ill truth, that s^uch is the (act. This favor of the 
Li»ri| ill n-;rard to me has only taken place for the sake 
'*f ihe new Church which I have meiitione<i aljovc, the 
Jwtriiie of which is contained in my writings." Kx- 
^ in this chief object and in the chara<:ter of his 
^ritincs, his habits of life underwent no change. J lis 
iwtwanl demeanor remaine<l the same, with an increase 
^spiritual piety and prayerfulness, the same dignity and 
M*''^ uriMinity of manner marked his intercourse with 
"^berSfihe same solid sense and enlightened intelligr'iice 
charicterizetl his conversation. His intercourse with 
t^be»t »iciety of the realm and the most eminent men 
^itistime was uninterrupted. He retained his sent in 
^ Swedish Parliament, and became more prominent 
1* ^^Ute affairs tlian he had ever been before. 

^wedenborg^s first theological publication, and his 
Mgwt work, is the A ratna (Jalestia, or Heavenly Mys- 
'^^a commentary, in eight quarto volumes, on the 
^of Genesis, with a Urge part of Exodus; in which, 
*Uli oumy other observations and doctrines, the text is 

unfolded as to what he calls its " spiritual sense.** The 
design seems to be to discover a Christian meaning and 
application in all things of the "law and the prophets;** 
the methml pursued does not appear to be much unlike 
that of other Christian commentators, except in the ex- 
tent to which the principles of symbolism are carried 
and the results arrived at. He maintains that such a 
secondary sense runs through all the books given by 
immediate divine dictation — Law, Former Prophets, 
Later Prophets, and Psalms — and that these lK»oks art 
written according to a uniform law, called that of "cor* 
respondence," or the law of universal analogy between 
spiritual and natural things, which law it is one great 
object of his writings U) unfold. His citations and com- 
parison of Scripture texts are remarkably full and ex- 

From the time of his alleged "call," he wrote and 
published almost constantly until his death. The A r- 
cana was finished in 1756. His succeeding works are,- 
An A ccount of the lAist Judfftntntj and the Destruction 
of Babylon ; showing that all the Predictions in the 
Apocalypse art at this Day FulfiUetl: Being a Relation 
of Things Heard and Seen (Lond. 1768) : — Concerning 
/feaven and its Wonders^ and concerning Hell; from 
Things Heard and Seen (ibid. \7oS):—The Fovr Lead" 
ing Doctrines of the AVtr Jerusalem^ viz. Concerning the 
Lord, Sacred Scriitture, Faith, and Life (Amster. 1763): 
— Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine lAtre and the 
Divine Wisdom (ibid. 1763): — Angelic Wisdom concern- 
in// the Divine Providence (ibid. 1764): — The Aj>ocalypse 
IfevfaMf ichtrein are Disclosed the A rcana there Fore^ 
told, which have hitht-rto Remained Concealed (ibid. 1 766) : 
— The Apoctdypse Explained according to the Spiritual 
Sense; in trhich are Revealed the Arcana which are 
there Predicted and have been hitherto Deejdy Concealed 
(published after his death, in 5 vols. 8vo). a much larger 
and fuller work than the preceding: — The Itelights if 
Wisdom concerning Conjugal Love : after which follow 
the Pleasures of [nsanity conct-ming Scortatory Love 
(Amster. 176X). The True Christian Relif/ion, contain* 
ing the Universal Theology of the Xeir Church, Foretold 
by the fxtrd in Daniel vii, 13, 14, and in Revelntinn jrxi, 1, 
2 (tbi<l. 177n, contains his bo<ly of divinity, and is di- 
vided into fourteen chapters, under appropriate heads. 
There are also a numl)er of minor treatises and tracts. 
All these works were written originally in Latin, and 
were distributed by the author to the principal univer- 
sities and seats of learning. 

In addition to his philosophical acquirements, Swe- 
denborg was learned also as a Hebrew and (ireek scholar. 
He died in London, March 29, 1772, maintaining to the 
last the truth of his alleged disclosures. He did not 
attempt to collect congregations, nor organize a church. 
For an account of the followers of his doctrines, see 
Nkw Jeki'halkm Cnrncii. (\V. H. H.) 

Sxi^eet, Elisha, a minister of the Metho<li>t Epis- 
copal Church, was lM>ni at (lorham, Ontario C«»., N. Y., 
in \HU). He was admitted into the (ienesee (Joiiference 
in 18-17, in which conference and the Kast (iene.>ee he 
spent his ministerial lite, three years of which he was 
su|)erainmated. He died Sept. 7, 1869. Sec Minutes 
of .Annual Conferenctn^ 1870, p. 2M1. 

Sxi^eet, John Davis, a Itnptist niinister, was Imm 
at Kingst4m, Mass.. Oct. 10, 18;>«. He was the son of a 
Unitarian clergyman. P'rom his early life he devel- 
oped a marked taste for literary pursuits, and in Ins 
preparatory studies took hi^h rank as a scholar. In 
the fall of 18.')7 ho entered Harvard College, one year in 
advance, and distinguished himself by his application 
to his college tasks. Having overworked himself, he 
sought to recruit his health by f<»reign travel. Ketum- 
ing home, he embarked in business; but, his friends urg- 
ing him to direct his attention to the ministry, he aban- 
doned his secular pursuits, aiul was ordained as pastor 
of the Baptist Church in Hillerico, Mass., in October, 
1803, where he remained nearlv five vears— 1863-68^ 


securing in a marked degree the affection of his Church 1836, and was called to Gardiner, Me., where, after 

and the respect of the people of the village in which he preaching two years, he was dismissed, Nov. 8, 1888, to 

had his home. He was publicly recognised as pastor tlie pastorate of the Calvinist Church, Worcester, Mass^ 

of the First Baptist Church in Somer\'ilIe, Mass., May was installed Dec 19 of the same year, and remained in 

4, 1868. He had commenced his work in the new field this office until his death, having had a colleague after 

of hi« labor, and was prosecuting it with rare success, 1874. Here the great work of his life was done. He 

when he was stricken down by disease. One of the was a trustee of Leicester Academy and of Philli|)8 

last records which he made in his diar>' a few days l>e- Academy, Andover, from 1850, and president of the lat- 

fore his death was the following: ** In looking over my ter board from 1864. He was a trustee of the Worce»- 

ministry of nearly seven years. I feel I ought ro dn>p ter Free Industrial Institute and of Worcester Memorial 

on my knees and thank God that he ever called me to HospitaL He was also a member of the council of the 

this glorious work. Some are always speaking of the American Antiquarian Society, a corporate member of 

trials of the ministry ; but I can say, on reviewing the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 

;mine, that it has been one bright day, with few clouds sions from 1854, one of the vice-presidents of the Amer- 

•to dim the brightness. I love the work." He died in ican Home Mission Society from 1864, and president of 

August, 1869. See Warren [G. ¥,]y MemoricU Sermwu the Ameri{ian Education Society. From 1866 to 1873 

4[J. C. S.) he was overseer of Harvard College, during which time 

S'weet Cane See Cane. ^® published various Report*^ JSermorUf and Addresses ; 

' ' . also several articles in the Bibliotheca Sacra, He died 

Sweet Singers, a small Scottish sect, called from fj^m the effect of a spinal injury- and pulmonary disease 

their founder, John (Jib, the Gibbites (q. v.). They combined March 24, 1878. (W. P. S.) 
forsook all worldiv business, and professed to be entirely 

devoted to fasting and praver in the open fields. The Swell, in music, a set of pipes in an organ with « 

name *• Sweet Singers" was given to them from their separate key-board, and formuig a separate department^ 

habit of "wailing a portion" of the more mournful w*»»<^*» »^ capable of bemg mcreased or diminUhed in 

psalms. Thev renounced and denounced the use of intensity of sound by the action of a pedal on a series 

metrical psalms, the translation of the Bible, Longer ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ shutters overiappmg each other like Vene- 

and Shorter Catechisms, the Confession of Faith, the ^»a" wmdow-blinds, within which the pipes in question 

Covenant, names of months and davs, the use of churches ^^^ enclosed. On a weU-constructed swell a practiced 

and church-vards; all kinils of tolls, custom, and trib- performer can imiute not only a gradual crescet^ and 

lite, all sports, and, indeed, evervthing and evervbodv dimimietuio, but also a sformndo, a very small opening 

but themselves. Thev finallv undertook a pilgrimage sufficing to make an immediate burst upon the ear; 

t*> the Pentland Hills, where they remained some days, ^'**'K' ^**®" ^^® shutters arc closed, an imitation of an 

with a resolution to sit till they saw the smoke of the ^'^^ *s produced. 

desolation of Edinburgh, which their leader had pre- Swelling ('pXJi.^a^, "excellency," "pride," etc) 

dieted. They were committed to prison in Edinburgh ^f Jordan is a phrase occurring in the A. V. at Jer. 

along the banks, 

the 1 7th century, so called by some contemporar}- writ- lows, tamarisks, and cane, in which the lions once made 

ers. their covert; but has no allusion to overwhelming bil- 

Sweet Wine. See Wine. lows from a rise of the waters (Reland, Palast. p. 274). 

S^^eetman, Joseph, a Presbyterian minister, was ^ ' ^'^*^'^^' 

bom at Freehold, Monmouth Co., N. J., March 9, 1774. Swert (or Sweerta), Francis, a Flemish his- 

His mother was a granddaughter of Walter Kerr, who torian and anti(|uary, was born in Antwerp in 1567. 

was banished from Scotland for liis unwavering adher- He devoted much of his time to study, and published 

ence to Covenanter principles and his opposition to prel- a great many works which brought him considerable 

acy. When Joseph was about three months old, his reputation : Nanationes UistoricfB in Deorum Dea- 

parents removed to Charlton, Saratoga Co., N. Y. He rumque Cajnta, etc. (Antwerp, 1602, 4to) -.—LacrinuB in 

graduated at Union College in 1797, being one of the Funere Ab,Ortelii,cum Oiielii Vifa (1601,8vo):— i4/«li- 

three students that composed the graduating class, tationeii J.Cardiualis de Turrecrenuita in Vitam Chritti, 

and receiving it« first honors. He studieil theology rM»n I'i^a Cur^i. etc. (Cologne, 1607, 12mo): — Selector Or- 

privately, was ordained by Albany I*resbytery, and 6m rArM^ianrB Z)c/icmb (ibid. 1608, 1625,8vo). He died 

installed pastor of Salem Church, Washington Co., in 1629. 

N. Y., Sept. 17, 1800 On account of failing health, he q^^ BUshSL Pope, D.D., an eminent divine of 

resigned his pastoral charge ()ct.8,18I., and was never ^^e Presbvterian Church, was bom at WiUiamstown, 

again metalled pastor of a Cliurch, but from that time ^^^ ^ug. 12, 1792. His paternal grandfather was the 

tiU his death devoted himself to aiding young men in Hon. Heman Swift ; his father, the Rev. Seth Swift, 

preparing for the ministr>'. He was the founder of the ^^^ at one time of the Congregational Church in 

-Swectma.iSrholarship in Princeton Thec>logical^^^ WiUiamstown; and his mother was a descendant of 

inary, N. J. He died Dec 10, 18h3. Mr. Sweetman Rev. John Eliot, well known in the annals of American 

was vigonais n> intellect and eloquent ui manner. He ^jig^^ry as the "Apostle to the Indians." He graduated 

was a very l>eiievolent man: that he might have to ^j^^ j^^^^^ ^^ WiUiams College, Sept, 1, 1813, and at 

give, he was indiistnouH, ecnonncal, and prudent. See ^^e Theological Seminarv, Princeton, N. J., in 1816; was 

\\ ilson, Pre^b. HisL Alimnnc, 1863, p. ot ; also 18b4, p. Hccnseil by New Brunswick Preshvtery at Uwrence- 

^^^- ville, N. J., April 24, 1816, and on Sept. 19 of the same 

Sweetser, Sktii, D.D., a Congregational minister, year he met the American Board of Commissioners for 

was born at Newburyport, Mass., March 15, 1807. He Foreign Missions at Hartford, (!onn., and was accepted 

was prepared for college in Newbury |x>rt Academy, un- as a foreign missionar}*, though he was informed that 

der the tuition of Leonard Withiiigt<in, D.D., and grad- he could not l>e sent abnmd for some months. On 

uated from Harvard College in 1827. He then taught Sept. 3, 1817, he was ordained by a Congregational 

school for two years (1827-29) in (ieneseo, N. Y'., after council as an evangelist to the heathen, the late Lyw 

which he returned to Harvard College as a tutor, re- man Beecher, D.D., preaching the ordination aermon 

maining there until 1831, when he entered Andover in Park Street Church, Boston, Mass. The inteiral 

Theological Seminary, where, after a full course of three between his licensure and his entering a pennanent 

years, he graduated in 1834. He was ordained Nov. 23, Held of labor, a period of some two and « half yean^ 

SWIFT 55 bHIKl' 

■wna filled up with laboriixis efr»n> in behalf nf the fur- hie fainily in grest porcrty, ami tbiy were aupportn] 

«i^n minicKiaiT cau»r—i ravelling, fur the nrnst pirt, iin liy relaliven. Swih, when itix yrsni uhl, was Bent (o 

tooneback, preachiiip almust daily, coHeciin^' fiiinis, the »«huu1 of Kilkenny, and remained there nnlil re- 

thnaing auxiliary aocietie*, ami awakeninR the peiiple niuvcd lo Trinity <J»lk^. Dublin, which be entered as 

.everywhere to the claims of this ureal enterprise. At a pensioner, April *^4, IliS'J. He received hia degree 

J<ngth he was oLlige.1, ou accKunt of the want of funds nf A.R Feb. 15, teHb, hnt he remained in the colle({« 

.on the pan of the board, lu re1iii(|uiih histont^chetished until 1G8H, when he went to Kngland (n visit his moth- 

^■»<reof beingaroreiKnmiiqrinnary. In October, IKIH, he er, and was on hei renininiendiition admitted into tbe 

a>veame paMor of the l^butch in Dover, where he labored house ofSir William Temple. In 1694 he went lo Ire. 

^iligenlly, but under great diKOuragementsi in Xnvem- land, took orders in the Church — that of deacon OcL 18, 

.><er, 1B19, be was installed by a committee of the Bed- 1694, of priest Jan. 13, I695_and obtained a small liv- 

-^toiie Pnsbylery as paatoi of the Second Presbyterian ing, which he threw up in two years and returned to 

.Church ufPitUburgh,Pa.,and immediately eniereii upon EnglaniL He lired as a friend wilb Temple until (he 

3iis labora in that community, which he subaequently death of the latter, Jaiu 37, IRIM, and in 1G90 accom- 

^Ailomed and bleweil until be became secretary- anrl gen- panied lord Berkeley lo Irelaml a* hi* chaplain and 

.«tal agent for the Western Foreiifn Miasionary .Society, private secreUry. liciiif; depriveil of this irtBce, he was 

'Hatch 1, 1R33. '^Thia society," lo use bis own Ian- given the reclnry n( Agher, an<l the vicarages of Lara- 

fpiage," has since become, as it was intended at its very coi and KulhbegKan, worth allogether E'^-UI a year. Tba 

-ouUH it should, tbe Board of Foreign Blissimis of ihe 

^mitral .Assembly of the Presbylerian Church" (a bls- 

twy nf which is published In the Prab, Ilia. A Imiiitiir. 

for laoi). He was also deeply interested in theological 

Aliiaiion, and took an active part in »be establishment 

«(ibF Allegheny Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa. ; 

aid au connected with it from its inception until his 

ilcub, a period of forty yean. He was one of the Arst 

•litrnon, also an agent to collect fund£ and the first in- 

aniHuriu thenlocy, which office he held for aboiil two 

jtn and for which he declined to receive any remu- 

MtitHgL In Iti35 he received a unanimous call lo 

Iwinie the pastor of tbe First Presbyterian Church 

in All^beny, and afler about twelve months, during 

ilKtimiinucd efficiency of the Missionary Society, he 
•Ttpiat ihe invitation, and was installed in this, his 
Iw. Longesl, and moat important pastorate. He died 

April 3, 18l!5. Dr. Swifi was a man of uiu»mmon pow- prebend nf Uuidavin was bestownl upon him soon after- 

« "f intellect and unusual tetHlemess of heart. As a wards. He still continued lo reside with lord HerkelcT 

Cbristlju) he was pre-eminent for his humility and de- until I'OO, when the latter returned to Kngland and 

'Minn. He took a deep interest in all educational, Swift look poaaessiou of Laracor. He performed his 

(Wwtrnary, or Christian enterprisea, and was a pa- duties as a ouuniri' clA;yman with exemplary- dili- 

■iM ia tbe truest sense of the term. He was a leader gence. His appointment to the deanrrv of St. l>at- 

i°>D tl« various courts of the Church, mode so by tbe rick's was made Feb. 33, 1713, and early in June lie left 

froMi of his views, tbe wisdom of his counseK the Kngbnd to take possessinn. He siKiti returned to Kng- 

ini>i,Tiiy and lovcliuean of Ids character, and hia man- land on a |>olitical minHon, and agnin visiteil Kngland 

'^ freedom from all sillishness and ambition. [I to solicit the remission of the " lirx -fruits." In 1741 

ipinMuily. Sea Wilaou, J'reib. Hill. Almuruic, 186t'>. paired, and ho became subject lu vinleiii Hts of |iawion 

V-i't which soon lerminaled in furious lunacy. In 1742 lie 

a— jA. t 1- ^ .- 1 -  . 1 sank into a slate of quiet idiocy.aml died Oct. 19, 1745. 

8wlft,Job, a Congregational minister, was bom ,. u.„„.i t.i,«™~(/-_. ./A. i-^r i. /■ ,\  

M (u_j_7l fc* I ,- /y^ u \ ■-,« J . j>r. Samuel Johnson UAttt of lltt t.tttA%«h t'offfi gives 

K \ I' °; (0^a.).i.«..»cir."»yrt ,j^ „^ ^,.„;„ ^ f^ g,f„, Ml, .„ . 

cELTifk ?'. ™1. . Slil'r^.rTlil'1; '!••'•""'- nlli.n.lly mim; U, a™ml ll» i^.p.,- 

ST- 1  u ' Ti • P"'™™ »I nl.Bi"i , „,| „.,„„i„,j'n, |,^„, „, ,1,, ,,,„^ ' ,.,'„„ 

'nikin college. He stmlicd iheologv under Dr. Ilel- ,,-: .. j-. .  ■. . . , - ,. . , . 

luni- Ku rn™ui m nn. h in 1-t^.nrf in i-fiT h. Disseniers he did not wuh to infringe the loleratLon, 

, •> iicetDM in ptnin m i.oo,ann in wQi oe- i,ut he opiwsed their encroachments." To his duly as 
«« pswor of the Church in Richtnond, Mass. After ^, ^',. „,„. .„.„,i,, ,„ j,;. f.^„^^ ,„ „,J„„^ 

* PWutale of sei-en years he left Kichnvind, and, hav- ^ 
"4 Cached in difl^nt places for about a year, be- 

k itamreri in Manchester, VL, where he preached be- 

■*"■ maud three j-caia. On May 81, I7B6, he was ^^^ ^.^^^^_^ murm uium no -m ooi .. 

■"W over the Church in Benninclon, from which he "*,'^H"!i"^ J."'"""' '."?" "' ,'1*^'"- ""1. " 

■afena ■..,.. ■.It. oMnrx, mnA ..r^k pcnormed. I he suBpicions ol tllB im'llg 

mnymissionaryionrsinioineweMemananonn- , measure from his dreail of b 

^.T™' ^ "?' "f.^. ''"'"« I^"n'"«V>i' ■'""' ^' stea,! rfwishinit lo seem belter, he delid 

y attentive. In his Church li< 
weekly communion, and duilribuleil il 

i;, preached commonly ' 

; stcatlotw 

avers lest he si 

VU,i»..„ UK^H.„pUj,, .J„ ,^ ,„„V ,„ ^ . 

a Church iht 

"Miirlibor. He died on a missionary tout at Enoi- <"'' 

^*kl. ta, ItKH. Mr. Swift acted 

Ihe nnv during most nf the Revolutioomv nui. ckk , _ .. _  • , j ■.  . i- i-.- , 

»,__  , ," ,,, , n I :  »...■ cal matters, and, indeed, it is to bin imlilical 

'V*^, Amau nf the Amr. Pulpil, • '^'" -. t t i 

ndebled fur 

BwUt, Jonathan, D.D.,a prelate and satirist, was tion to Iheae works, somu poems, etc.. he |Hildis)ic<l sev- 
^ in Dublin, Nuv.itO,l6C7,«iid when about a yearuld erol tlrrmmu and Tindi upon religtiHis and ecclesias- 
■■• lutied by his nurse lo Whitehaven, Cumberlanil, tical matters. Of his works wveral oliiions liare lieen 
EBgland, where be was kept for three yeais. His fa- primed, that of Sir Walter Sootl. being rcHiMderrd the 
■Ixr. who died thiea montlia before he was bom, left best (Edinb. 1819, 19 vols. Ovo). Sec Allibonc, Dirt. ••/ 



Bnl.aiiilAmtr.AiilAori,i,v.; Chiinivn, Uiag. Dicl.t.-v. 

Eaglitli Cyclop.*, v.: UuMng, Cydap. UMiuij. &. \. \ which did 

Swift, Setll. brother of Job Swift, wm b Coiigrega- ! "' ' " 
tionil rainiswr. lie w« born in Kent, C..iin„ OcL 30, : ™^ 
1749,gr«duai*d at Y«le in 1774, xtudied thfolc^y under "*, 
Dr. Ikllamy, uid wu nrdiined [Mxtvr uT the Church in "™ " 
Wtlliunslown, Mua., Mij 27, 17TB, which cliarge he 
nuioed uiilil hia death, Feb. 13, 1807. He was Bteally 
beloved by hit people, aiid honored and revered by the 
whole commuHity. See Sprague, AmaU oftkt Amrr, 

Swift Baast. SeeCAMP.u 

Swlnden, Tohias, an English clergyman, was rec- 
tor orCuxton, Kent, in 1688, and vicar of Shorite in 1689, 
He died in 17l». He publUhed, ^n-mon on LnU 
Q7l3,avo'):^An Eaquiry mio lie .Valureai-dPlaa of 
//rl/, which lie located in the sun (Lund. 1714. Svoi 
lateil into French by Bioii [Amal. 1728, 8vu], am 
mill ), See Alliboiie, Via. »/ Bril. and A mer. A i 

general one which forbwle any of the m 

and the 

» of the deflnitJMi 
al," viz. that it wai to he a cloven- 
'Hie pig, therefore, though it divide* 
not chew the cud, was In be conaid- 
d consequenlly, inasmuch as, unlike 


e .leM 

Swine (""■'tn. aIiuiV.- Sept. Be, Bjioc, B«t; New 
Teal, xoipoc). Alluaion will be found in the Bible to 
these allimal^ both in th«r domeaUc and in their wild 
state. See Tristram, Ifal. IliH. of Vie Bibb, p. Ufi; 
W'.M(1, hOtr AttimaU, p. 292. 

1. The fleah of iwine was forbidden as food by the 
l.eviIieailaw(Lev.7ci,7i Deut.i[iv,8). The abhorrence 
which the Jewn as a naiiiin had of it may be inferred 
from Luu Ixv, 1, where some of the Idalatroiis people are 
repreaeiiteil as ■' eating swine's flesh," and as having the 
"btDlh of abominable thing* in their Tesaels;" see also 
lxvi,3, 17, and i Mace ri, 18, 1», in which passage we 
read that Kleaxar. an a;^ ■cribe,when compelled by 

ever, {irubable that dietelical eonsideraticiiis mav havft 
luAuenced Moses In his prohihitinn arawine's lle^h. U 
is generally believed that its uae in hot countries is li- 
able tu induce cutaneous diaordera; hence in a people 
liable to leprosy the necessity for the iib»iTance iif « 
strict rule. " The reason of the meat nut being ealett 

bidden u> the Jews and Moslems" (Sir U. Wilkinson's 
note in tUwIinson's llendntui, ii, 47). Ham. Smith, 

puted unwholesomenCM of swine's fleiA has been much 
exaggerated; and recently a writer in Colbuni't .Ve» 
MoHlhfy Magatint (July I, 1862, p. 266) has endorsed 
this opinion. Other conjectures fur the reasnii of the 
prohibition, which are more curious than valuable, mar 
he seen in Bochart {Hiem. I, 806 sq.). Callistratua 
(apiid Pluuireh. Sympat. iv, 6) suspected that the Jews 
(lid nut use swine's flesh for the same reason which, he 
says, influenced the Egyptians, viz. that this animal 
was sacred, inasmuch as by turning up the eanh with 
its snout it first taught men the art c^ ploughing (see 
Bochart, HUi-oi. i, 8(K, and a dissertation by Caaael. en- 
titled iJe Jadaaram Odio el A bnwnlia a Forrimi rjut- 
qut Ciiuiu [Magdeb.]! also Michaelis, CumwR/. on 'ke 
Lav of irota, art. 203. iii, 230, Smith's transl.). Al- 

have for "»■!■ 

aj^ars, was a pruverbial ex- 
pression, with which mar be 
compared th 
of Horace (Kp. i. i,36). Sol- 
omiiii's coroparison of a "jew- 
el of ({idd in a swine's sDout' 
ilhuut dia- 
!asion of our Lonl. " nei- 


tbMt oat Lord tat tbe dcFiLa iaio Lhe iwioe. lie mere- ' 
Ijpenniucd them logo, w Aquinas ■*yi,"quad *uMin 
porci ID mue prKcipiuti nint nun Tuii operaliu divini 
KUirAGalif Acd operatio diemoaum e permiuione diviiu;'^ 
*nil if ibtae Otiimicne vilUgcrs were Jews itid owned 

stiKt wbich tbey oughl out to have had at all. See 
Tacit. UiMl. v,4: Juren. Sal. iiv,98: Macrub. Hal. ii, 4; 
.Jvwpbu*, Ant. iMi,6,i; I'hilu, 0pp. ii, oSlj Miiboa, | 
Jliifci Kamu, rii, i; Talm. Kierot. S/utai. foL 47, 3; I 
ligblfoM, Hut. Ilti. p. SU aq.i Otbo, ij^c. AuA. p. 

2. The wild boar of the woud (Pia. Ixxx, 13) ia tbe 
commun Sta icn/u irhich ia frequently met with in 
she wuudy parta of Palestine, eB)wcially in Mount Tabur. 
The aUuuoR in the pHalm to tlie injury Ibe wild buir 
iiocs ui the vineyards is well bunie out b}- fact " It is 
jMcmishiag wbat haroc a wild boar is capable of effect- 
ing during a single nigbl; what with eating and tram- , 
filing DDderToot, be will destroy a vast quantity of 
Rnps " ( Hanlev, Ratarchri in Grtta, p. S84 ). See 

BwiiMItOIl. Aha V., a minister of the Methodist 
EplKxpal Church, was hum at Danven, Mass^ in 1802. 
lit joined the New England Conference on trial in 
1^1. When the Providence Conference was formed 
iu ItHl, h« continued on the dintrict of which he waa 
presiding elder, and thus bevaiue a member nf tbe lat- 
ter Cwifertnce. He continual to labor, with the ejt- 
crp(ion uf one year ( aupcmuroerarv ), until ISClt. hi) 
<ieuh taking place at Munumeiii. Mass., Oct. 12 of that 
rear. See .WtiMrW»n/H»ii.u/ Coo/mwvi, IWH 
Swlney. Saxi-el T., a minister of the Mi 
Kfuxnipal Church, South, was btmi in Weil Feliciana 
faii.h. La. Of the cin^umslanccs of convenion, etc., 
■e have no particulars, llejoinnl, probably, the Mi»- 
■iMippi (^inference in 1856, and after a number nf yean 
becuM sii)ieniumeraT7, and died Aug, 14, 1809, See 
Mu<iln nf Aniaal Caafhtnea of the .V. E. Ckur(h, 

Bwlnnock, nEOKfiR, an English clergyman, waa 
iiarurii(i!at Kymble, Bucka, from which he waa eject- 
ilbrmicv in iCti2, He afierwardu became 
.Isl one,' where he died ill IG79. His writ- 
rni mil ll'U Epilomiittt (Land. ItiaP.Kvu; 
inatlu):— /;*i-i(fvni .Uioii CaUing (in 3 pi*. 4tn: i, 
IiiC'>:ii.l6G3;iii,llilU):-alaa.Nci'Mai<>. See Allih>inr, 
l>^-'f Bril. ami 4n>rr. XMWr, a. v.; Darling, Vscbip. 

Bwloton, .loMX, an Engliah dii'itte and aiiliqiiary, 
■» bum ni IT03 at Hexlon. Cheshire. He was eilii- 
nim It Wadham College, Oxford, was chaplain to the 
^n«y SI l,eghom, atHi di«l A[>rii 4. 1777. keeper of 
•^wirenitv reomU at Oxford. He co|itrihii1ed vnK 
(lhe Lifr „f MrAamKtd and the //Mft.ry »f 


\- ' ori^n dS lhe old adage " If it rain on Sl Swithia'a 
n Day, there will be raiu more or lew fur forty auececd- 
li ingdays." In theyear 865 .Sl.»wiih<ii.l)iBhiip of Win- 
," eheoicr— to which rank be wan rai««l by king EtheU 
d wolf lhe Dane— waa canonized by [lie then pope. lie 
f was singular for hia desire lo be buried in Lhe opett 
V church-yard, aud not in the cbaiicel of the minster, as 
■; waa usual wilh other Lisbopa, which rei|ueat waa com- 
plied with; but the muiika, on hia being canoniiedr 
taking it into their beads Ihat it waa disgraceful for 
tlie saint lo lie in the open church-yard, resolved U> 
remove hia body iniu the choir, which was to have- 
been done with solemn procession on July 15, It 
rained, however, so violently mi thai day, anil fiir forty 
days succeeding, as hkd barilly ever been known, which 
made them set aside iheir design aa heretical and blaa- 
pheoMua; and instead they erected a chapel over hi* 
grave, at which many miracles are said to have been 
wrought. The value lo be placed upon the popular 
notion tbst if it rain on July Ifi it wUl do so for 
forty succeeding days may be learned from Ibe follow- 
ing facta from tbe (ireenwicb observatious for twenty 
years: It appears that Si. Kwithin'a Day was wei in 
IMI.and there were S3 rainvdays uplu Aug. 34; I84l>, 
■20 rKiny days; 1851, 13 rainy days; IH6B. 18 rainy days; 
I^. Iti rainy days; and in 1H56, 14 rainv dav&' In 
1842 and folkiwing vears St. Swilhin's Dav wasdry, and 
the result was. in IM!, 12 rainy daya; 1843, 1! rainy 
daya; 1844, SO rsinvda}-*: 1H4C 31 rainv davat IH4T, 
IZrainydays: I84X,3i rainy days; 184»,Zn ra'iny days; 
, 1850, 17 rainy days; 1853, 19 rai'iiv daya; IH55. 18 rainv 
I ilays; 1857, 14 rainy days; 1858^ 14 rainy dai-*; 1859, 
I is'rainy days; and in I8G0, 39 rainy days. Ilirse lig- 
show (he superstilioii tu lie fiHinded on a ' " 

enly ye. 

o have 


fallen upon the largest number of <lsy 

Kurupesn ''Ial['^ lying Ixiween 

d' K-alu-, lo tbe .V. 

"qiido. .Sec Allil.OD«, lUei. nf Hril. lad Anrr. An- 
""Mv.; Chalmera, «iO|». />kY. ». V. 

Bwithln. STm an English eccleiuastic of the 9lh cen- 
"T. "SI chaplain to king Egbert, and tiiUir to his nui 
l'-il>iln,ir. by whom he was made chancellor. He had 
'^ tliiri:e uf llie education of king Alfred, wbrnn be 
■"niuiinl to Rome. In 832 he was vonseoalcil 
l«"Hi.f Winchester. Willum of Malmesbury records 
''him Ihat he was "a rich treasure of all virtues, and 
iWin which he took moat delight were bumility ninl 
*«ily lo Ibe poor." The origin of the Irilwle calkiii 
"IHn'i pt^iice" (ij. V.) haa often lieeii assigned to 
^ildn, and be is aaid to have prorureil an act of the 
"itftagninte enrnrctiig, for tbe flrst time, the uiii- 
'"Ml obligation '■( paving lilhcs. Hwithin died Julv , , 
^*«. Set Mrs. Jaroowi, /.ffffnJ* '/«f J/«m(*/K Or- I ( 
*MiM. I 

BMtUn'* Dmjr. The following is said to be the < 

SWitkerluid, il 

of the smallest of lh< 

45° 49' and 47- W ! 

long., its extreme length from K. lo W. being 31') miles. 

and itsexlrentehrraibhniiirarrrnni 1411 miles, lifaasan 

area of nearly l*>,Ulll Knglish mil»>, ami \* U ded north 

by tiormany. fnmi which it is scparalvil l>y llic Kbine 
and Lake Conaianre ; ixi Ilic east by Austria, the valley 
nflhe Kbine and lhe Khsjtian A1|b being tbe dividing 
line lietweeii Ihn iwo rounlrii-s: on tlie soulb by Italy 
and France, and nti lli« west by France. It is the n»wl 
mountaiiHHis cnuiitry in Euniie.lx'ingi'nvrmllhroui:!!- 
oiit its entire extent by llic Aljis, wlilcli are gniu|>rd 
into several branchrs. ' 'Hie higliest and besi-known 
peaks nf the Al)» in Swilzerland an- Mallerborii. or 
Mont Cervin, Fimoer-Aarhom, and Jungfrau. tt.Hit 
Itlanc WIS mice inrinikd in lhe nii-unlaiii" of Swiixrr- 
land, but at ilir cbue <if tlw Fraiiro-lialinii war il waa 
transferred lo France. Tlie prim-i|ial biki-s of Switzer- 
land are I.ahp of N'eufidiiilel. Ijike of (Icneva. Ijike 
'I'biin, Lake Lucent 

I- Ithini 

IP KhcM 

m*. The giacicr- 

the great feeders oTiIicm; xn-a 

IIS and rivt-ns ami 

in theiwelves objvcis of gnat 

ilcre>.< toibi'lov 

uaiure. The climate of Swiise 

laii.1 in g..|i.-raliy . 

at might l« «x|ieclc<). the n-ui.i 

in Kuro|M'- li> •1"' 1o"lsndx s> 

i vull-v- lhe lenii 

be iir'-lociion. w 

gniw so liixurianlly in Italy ore 

lent II. lhe inhal.ii 

of ihii rouniry. There are soni 

carried wi which are proiluctit 

e, such as colloii. 

broi.h:ry, ami .ilk aliiffii oTvan 

una kimh.. The S 

nUn pay grrat atleiitiim lo the n 





alluded to in Roman history as the HelvetiL In those 
«arly days, not far from a century before the commence- 
ment of the Christian sera, they successfully resisted the 
attacks of the Romans. The CommerUaruts of Ceesar 
^ive us interesting accounts of the attempts of the le- 
gions under his command to subdue these hardy dwell- 
ers of the mountains and valleys of Helvetia. After 
many years, by degrees, the Roman arms brought these 
proud-spirited foes into subjection, and for several cen- 
turies the conquerors held dominion over the country. 
Invasions from the northern tribes of Europe laid waste 
many sections of the land. These barbarians of the 
North were at last all brought under the power of the 
Franks, and Christianity became the prevailing faith. 
Without tracing the political history of Switzerland 
through the various phases through which it passed 
•during several centuries, it may suffice to say that it be- 
•came a federal republic in 1848, and the people are now 
living under a revised constitution, which was accepted 
by them in the spring of 1874. This constitution guar- 
antees to the inhabitants of the twenty-five cantons 
into which Switzerland is divided those rights and im- 
cnunities which are found in all properly constituted 
republics. All citizens are equal in the eye of the law. 
Privileges of place or birth have ceased. Absolute lib- 
erty of conscience everywhere prevails. The press is 
free. The right of association is guaranteed, with the 
•exception that the Jesuits and organizations kindred to 
them are forbidden. The capital of the confederated 
states is Berne. 

II. Rfliffioiu — Christianity was first introduced into 
Switzerland about A.D. 610 by St. Gall, a native of Ire- 
land and pupil of Gdumltan. He was one of twelve 
Irish monks who labored to disseminate Christianity 
throughout Europe. They first took up their residence 
at the head of Lake Zurich, and, burning with zeal, set 
dre to the pagan temples, casting the idols into the lake. 
Driven away by the inhabitants, they settle<l at Bre- 
^utz, but at the end of two years were banished from 
this place also, and all left for Italy except St. Gall, who 
was too ill to be removed. He repaired to a sequestere^l 
ispot, and with a few adherents built the Monastery of 
St. Gall in the canton of the same name. After his 
•death, several of his scholars and monks from Ireland 
•continued his work, until paganism lost its bold and Ro- 
manism was substituted in its place. 

With reference to the Reformation, D*Aubign^ says : 
'''From 1519 to 1526 Zurich was the centre of the Ref- 
•ormation, which was then entirely German, and was 
propagated in the eastern and northern parts of the 
•confederation. Between 15*26 and 1532 the movement 
was communicated from Berne; it was at once Crerman 
and French, and extended to the centre of Switzerland, 
from the gorges of the Jura to the deepest valleys of the 
Alps. In 1532 Geneva became the focus of the light; 
and the Reformation, which was here essentially French, 
was established on the shores of the Lcman Lake, and 
gained strength in every quarter." The main instru- 
ment in commencing and carrying forward the work uf 
lieformation in Switzerland was Ulric Zwingli (q. v.). 
In 1513 he commenced the study of the Greek lan- 
.^uagc; and from 1516, when he began to expound the 
Word of G«)d as preacher in the Abbey of Einsiedeln, 
iCwingli dates the Swiss Reformation. The influence 
•«)f the pure faith was soon extensively felt, so that, by 
(he year 1522, we find Erasmus estimating *' those" in 
the cantons '* who abhorred the see of Rome" at about 
t2(K).()00 persons. Gradually changes in the mode of 
worship were introduced. In 1523 we find the Council 
■of Zurich requiring that " the pastors of Zurich should 
rest their discountes on the words of Scripture alone ;" 
the abolition of images in churches soon followed ; mar- 
riage was no longer prohibited to the clergy; and in 
1525 the mass was sufiersedcd by the simple onlinance 
of the Lord's supper. In Appenzell the Reformation \ye- 
gan about 1521, in Schaffhausen about the same time. 
The sacramentarian controversy between Luther and 

Zwingli, and their respective followers, was detrimental 
to the cause of truth in both Germany and Switzerland; 
and in the latter, as well as in the former, the rise of the 
Anabaptist body was both a source of injury and re- 
proach. In the year 1527 Berne became professedly a 
Reformed canton, and for mutual security allied itself, in 
1529, with the canton of Zurich. In 1530, at the Diet 
of Augsburg, when the Lutheran Confession was pre- 
sented, the Swiss divines presented another drawn up 
by Bucer, known, from the four towns it represented — 
namely, Constance, Strasburg, Lindau, and Meiningen — 
as the Tetrapolitan Confession. The two confessions 
only differed as to the sense in which Christ was under- 
stood to be really present in the Lord's supper. At this 
time, also, Zwingli individually presented a confession, 
to which we find Eck replying. The five Romish can- 
tons, having made ample preliminary preparations, de- 
termined by force of arms to check the further progress of 
Reformed principles in the confederation. The French 
sympathies of Zwingli, and his hostility to Charles V, 
deprived the Protestant cantons of German support 
in the approaching conflict The Protestant cantons 
formed a confederacy, and by a resolution adopted at 
Aarau, May 12, 1531, instituted a strict blockatle of the 
five cantons. Goaded on by the consequent famine and 
its attendant miseries, these last determined on war, 
and entered the field on Oct. 6 of the same year, the first 
engagement, taking place at Cappel, proving most disas- 
trous to Zurich and fatal to Zwingli. The Reformation 
now took the direction of Geneva, its opinions being 
first proclaimed by William Farel altout 1532. He was 
banished, but was succeeded by Anthony Fromment, 
who soon shared the same fate. The following year 
they were recalled, and the bishops fled. In 1535 the 
Council of the city pnx^laimed their adherence to the 
Reformed faith. The following year witnessed the arri- 
val of John Calvin, and on July 20, 1539, the citizens 
abjured popery and professed Protestantism. Prior to 
this, a reaction of the |H){)ish and conservative elements 
in the State led to such disHensions and opposition that 
Calvin and Farel were banished, but, nt the earnest en- 
treaty of the citizens, the former returned in 1541. 
Whatever difference of opinion there may be with ref- 
erence to the theological views of the great Genevan Re- 
former, there can be none as t^ his intellectual ability, 
and his wonderful organizing and executive power. 
His legal training (in early life he had studied law) 
qualified him to frame a civil code for (ireneva, the good 
effects of which were apparent in the improved stale of 
public morals. ** Through his influence," says Hase, 
" Geneva became a republic firmly established, govern- 
ed by an oligarchy, pervaded by an ecclesiastical spirit, 
and renowned in the historv of the world. Thither re- 


sorted all who during that age were {>er8ecuted for their 
faith, and it became the acknowle<lged centre of a Re- 
formed Church." See Calvin. For some years after 
the death of Calvin (1564), the religious history of 
Switzerland is closely identified with that of the Cath- 
olic reaction from the Reformation. Hopes which had 
been cherished with regani to the rapid progress (»f a 
purer form of Christianity in Germany and France and 
Switzerland were doomed to be disappointed. For 
many years the Roman Catholic power in the last of 
these countries seemed to have the predominance. 
Towards the close of the 17th century, the strife be- 
tween the two great religious parties, the papists and 
the Protestants, began to assume a more open character, 
and in 1703 the Catholic and the Protestant cantons 
took up arms against each other. A civil war was car- 
ried on for several years. At last, in 1712, a fierce bat- 
tle was fought at Villmergen, and victory was on the 
side of the Protestants. The Catholics were complete- 
ly routed, and two thousand of their number were left 
dead on the battle-field. See Reformation. 

At present, a majority of all the inhabitants of 
Switzerland arc Protestants. In eleven of the cantons 
the Catholics outnumber the IVotestants, although the 




«ecBesiaMical garemmcnt a in 

fonlrol of the cuiional gov«ni 

(rmpteil to ilo ceruiii things id ihe ipguUiinn uf the »f- ; even wiih Iht loft hand uf  pncticed iwrm 

rain of those over vhoiQ he cLiitna (0 exerciM juriMliv- I lie Kilheretl (inva a cumiiariwii ut i Sam. xx, ti-Vi 

[iiin, hut hii *cu have been declared illegal by the civil wjtb 1 Kiiip> ii, b. A Kl'>Mly |iicture is tbcrr i^rtm 

lUiborities, and they are null anil vniii. The "OM un of the munlered mau anil hia murderer, 'like uu- 

itTAthotica" have obtained paaiuFion of leveral pariah ruminate Atna>a actually disembowelled by the sin^'le 

-burchcs in three or four of tbe cantons. The present | Mn>k», and "wallowiiis" in his blood in the middle of 

Tonatilution of SwiUerlaDd granu complete and abao- ' the nod — tbe treachennu <luab alandinfc over him, he- 

|i«le Uberty of conarience and of creeii. No one can in- spatiereii fnim his"einll(!''tohia"iiboea"witbthe blood 

^UT anv penalti 

.^.inioL*. No one u l«uno 1 

|,Eiue9 of a Church to wbieh lii 

i..ns have the riKhl to mainli 

(Judg. iii, IG 
Ezek. xxi, 9'. 


doei not belong. Free 
mrriage i> compulwry, 
iia optional The can- 
in peace and order be- 
tween ninerent religioua communiries, and to prevent 
cocnachmeots of eccleiiaatical authoriliea u|)0n the 
li^hti of dtiiena. Bishops must receive the aj^woval 
ottlit federal government. Liberty of press, petition, 
anl luocialioii id guaranteed; but Jesuits, and all re- 
lli^oui unlers and associations which are afliliated to 
ilHiD,ire ptuhihilcd. Of late yean much evangelizing 

Hcibodiita. In IM49'tlie Uethuilixt Episcopal Chureh 
•TRUliMd the "liermany and Switzerland MiHioll," 
■kidi in IHjii wa« constituted the (ierman Bliision Con- 
fttnce.wilhSwilierlandasoiieofitsdistricts. Thelbl- 
kinng are iia siaiiitics for I8T9 : Number of preachers, 
IJ: iucal preachers, Ti Church nteinbera, 3441; pruba- 
iiuKn,6;a;Sunday-Bcboi>Ulli*; Sunday-achoul schol- 
•n,7iM; cburchn, 17; value of churthcis *I,268,«lti. 
Thoe ii also  Helhodisl Iwnk establisbmental Bremen 
-•DditlwolngicBl achoiil at ynnkfurt-vii-the-Maiti. 

iiN Mimmrtt rl HararamU publUt par la Sociilt 
iBMn li iTA rrtMuffit dr Gt^er (Geneva, imi-47. 
i n>t.t: Wibon, //uf. ofSicilztrliiml, in Lanlner*) CiAi- 
M CyhprJiti ; GaiUeur, Ln Suiur (ibiiL IH55-6«. i 
TikUn)! lnRlifi,.S'nVzeria>id(I.ond.l»W.8vo); Shaw, 
llHarj „/ Jtrilsfrbiiul (N. Y. 1876). 

Bword,in the A.V., is tbe usual rendering of 3'^<n, 
<fcni ifmn S^n, ic liiy icnttt), which was simply a 
Wi(iiii/>,aiitisTendeTe<]in Joah.v,2; Ezek. v, 1,2. 
I'M fmiurnt word* are ns~. reliaci, I'sa. xlii, 10 
(lll.«iTii»*(iis( or Duihreali ("alaughtcr," Eiek. xxi. 
^hTf)^,iiitaclk (Job xxxiii. 18 ; xxKvi,lZ; Joel ii, 
*i, > iiri, as elsewhere tendered ; N. T. ijoftfaia, a long and broad swonl (Luke ii, 35; Nev. i, 16) 
iU!, IK: vi, 8; xix, 15, 11); ebewhere iiaxaipa, a 
*i!W. or short swiwd. See Ahmor. 

1. Tic fir«t tnention of thu principal offensive weap- 
<" If Kble hiwory is in the narrative of the massacre 
•^ Sbtchemi when "Sinwin and Le\'i look each man 
tiitnini, and canw upon the city boldiv attd slew all 
1^* >Mie<' (t^n. xxxiv, S3). But there' is an allusion 
■"■tnbiiitlr ijrf.ire in a pasiM^^ undoubtedly of the ear- 
^dsie (Ewahl. i, 446, note): tbe expostulation of 
UUn with Jacob (tJen. nxxi, 36). After this, during 
*)■ woHint of the eniHiuest and of the tnonarehy, the 
"""lisi of the awoTtI ia frequent, hot very little can be 
plWl from the casual notice* of the text as to ita 
^ir- »ie, material, or mo<le of use. Perhaps if any- ' a doubl 
linns  to be inferred it u that the ckini was nut used foi 
dthH  htavy or a long weapon. That of Ehud wan j handle 
"" " " " [. eighteen inches, " 

which had siwuted from his victim ! 

The eAirrb was carried in a abeaCh (*^7P!, 1 Sam. 
xvii, &I; 1 Sam. xx, «, only; y^i, 1 Cbron. xxi, 27, 
only) slung by a girdle (1 Sam. xxr, 13) and resting 
u|»n tbe thigh (Psa. xir, 3; Judg. iii, 16), or upon the 
hl[is (.2 Sam. xx, 8). " Uirding on the aword" was a 
symliulical expreaniou for commencing war, the more 
forcible because in Umes of peace even the king in slate 
di<l not wear a sword (I Kings iii, •H) : and a similar 

viii, lU; 1 Chron. xxi,&). Other pbrasea, derived from 
the cAcreA, are, " to smile with the edge (literally 
'month;' comp. irru^a; and ciimp. 'ilcvour,' Isa. i, 20) 
uf the sword" — "slain with tlie sword" — " men that 

lix, 6), a 
i (Dent. 

'e occasionally refeireil tc 

There is no refer«nc« lo tbe malrrial 
of which it was composed (.unless it be Isa. ii, 4 ; Joel 
iii, Id) ; doublleMi it was of metal, fnim the allusiuiis to 
its briglituess and "glittering" (see the two passages 
quoted above, aud olhenj, and the onliuarj- word for 
Made, viz. 211?, "a flame." From Ibe exprewion (Josh. 
v,2,8) " aworda of tocli," A. V. '■sliarii knives," we may 
perhiqM infer that in early limes tbe maleiial was flint. 

■"< i»n»*led under his garment, and n 
" Iml to the inference that it was shorter tnan usual, 
* He 'dagKer' of the A.V. is without any ground, I 
"ilw it Iw a rendering of the pi^n^ta nf tbe -Sept. I 
lolnniBSBiiining that Ehud's Sword was shorter than 
n of the narratives in 2 Sam. i: 

""d the svoid of a man so much larger than hi 
a> liAuA <1 Sam. svii. 61 ; xxi, 9, lU), goes In 
■te Ae ettret was both a ligbtei and a shorter w 

2.- The Egyptian nword was straight and short, from 

ro and a half to three feet in length, having generally 

double edge, and tapering lo a sharp point. It was 

~ and thrust. They had ahui a dagger, the 

hivh, bolloweil in the centre, and gradually 

as lo have increasing in thickness at either extremity, wan inlaid 

mtikel of that worn hy llie king in his ginllewaa fre- 

eiitly (nrmiHiiiled hv one or two heads of a hawk, tbe 

nbul nf Phrah. or the Sun, tbe title given to the 

inarchs nf the Nile. It was much smallrr than the 

ilailewas about ten or seven inches in length. 

In breadth, frem one inch and a half 

inch, towards the point; 

I j ta|)ering gradi 
liow total length, 

ilh the 111 
The bl. 


. , . Id a fi«l w 
was bronze, thicket in th« 


middle than it ihe «lg«fi, and alightly groared in that 
part; and to eitquiuuly «H the meul worked that 
■ome retain their plialiilitj' aiid apring after a period oT 
Kvenl tboDMnd yean, aiid almoM reaemble ueel in 
eluiicity. Such ta the da^Ker of the Derlin cnllectinn, 
which wa* diKorered in a Theban tomb, together with 
it> leathern sheath. The handle is \Mti]y 

»onl» of 

seta), a 

nail pi 

of gold, which are piirpmely (hiiwn thronj;h suiubte 
opeiiinffn in the fnmt of the sheath ; but the upper ex- 
tremity consist!! solely of bone, neither omamenteil nor 
corcRtI with any metal casing. Other insliners of 
this have been finind: and a dagger in Mr. Salt's ool- 
lec^on, nnw in the British Museum, measuring eleven 
and a half inches in length, hail the haiHlle fiirmed in 
a Bmilai manner. There was also a falchii>n called 
sAupst, or khopik, re»eroblin(! in form aiid name the ro- 
wifi <•' •*"?!>"■■ or the ArRives, reputed to lie an Egyp- 
tian coliHiy. It was more generally used than Ihe 
swonl, being borne by light- as well aa heavy-armed 
troupsi and ihat it was a most efficient weapon is evi- 
dent as well from the siie and fbrm of the blaile as from 
its Height, the back of this bmnze or iron blade being 
IS cased with brwu (Wilkiitson, Anc. Kgfp(. i, 

side, BO as 10 draw them out of the sheath (ni^na, «>• 
\ivt) l>y pasaing the right hand in front of the body ti> 
uke bold of the hilt with the thumb next to the blade. 
The early Greeks used  very short sword. Iphicratea, 
who made various improvements in armor about B.C. 
400, doubled its length. The Roman sword was larger. 

Smith, Diet, of A ntiq. s. v. " GUdiui 
the most ancient times were made nf brass ur copper, 
hardened by some process now unknown ; and thb eon- 
tinned to be the case long subsequently with the Ureeka 
and Komans, as well as among the Phanicians (Killo, 
Piet. BibU, note at Nutab, xxxi, %). 

b. The award is the avmbol of war and slaughter 
(Lev. «vi,26; Ia».«xi'v, 6; Rev. xix, 17, 18), of di- 
vine Judgment (Deut. xxxii, 41; Psa.xvit,l3; Jer. xii, 
11; Uev. i, 16), and of power and authority (Kom. xiii, 
4). The WonI of God is called "the sword," i. e, the 
weapon or instrument, of the Spirit (Eph. vi, IT). 


generally on lamented 

ranged to form both handle and cruss-bat. The scab- 
bard or sheath was elaboratelv embossed or engraved 
(Layar.1, Xiunth, ii. 234). 

c sceptre*, a* neen on the 
several linns' hesds, ar- 

calleit 'Uvnnian Brethren of Ihe Snord. tn Viiil 1 
Order nflhe Teutonic Knights amalgamated with \\u 
and they together gradually subdueii all Che terriloi 

, surrouinling the (iiilf of Kiga. (See illustration on 1 
p<«ile page.) 

Sword - dance, in Hinduism, is a religious ilai 

I performed by Ilindfl bayaderes •* ' 


' great skill. Swords are fasieneil, edge 11 
I lung poles, which are inclined against 1 
form two half-ladders. The bayaderes an 

iward, tc. 

4. The Greek and Roman swoid (gtiditti, C'VdC' form, 

poet, aop, fi^afoi', a glaive, by the Latin poeth blades 

calleil nuu) had generally a straight two^dged blade, dancer 

rather broad, and nearly of equal wiilih from hilt U' unfreii 

point. The Greeks and Romans wore them on the left fonnaiice. 

ibying inimitable skill and grace of b 

ay be exceedingly difficult, the reward < 
is correspondingly great, m that they ar 
enily enriched by the receipts from a ungli 


8«ord Brother. 
8«roids and I ducal cap are bk«eil on CliriMinaii 
(vc, at ihc midnight man, bj tha pofw, in order tn 
be MD( to Urond kinfm ai Edward IV, U7»i Henry 
Vll, 1605; HcDi; VIII, IMT. The laxt dift of thio 
kind vai made bf Leo XII to the due d'Atigoulfme in 

Sivomistedt, Lerdt, I proDiinent mininter ot the 
HethodiV EpiKxpal Church, wu boni in Maryland 
Oci.t.1T9S. When eighlcpii yean o{ age he profetaed 
fniimion, and was licen«eil lo preach Jan. 2, 1818. 

'Ilii« Confennce in Augunt. I81S. He wai ontuned 
dnmi in ItffiO, and elder in [822. In 1830 he waa sp- 
^i/iNtA prsBding elder, and occupied that office until 
t'lntti udMant agent of the Wealem Book Cuncem, 
Ahci Glling thia pcsition foi eight yean, he was elected 
Fndpil agent in 1844, and conliuoed to be nucb until ' 
IW.wben he louli a laperannualed relation. Anei ' 
ibii ^ dtclined rapidly in health, and died Au^. 27, ^ 
1^ Hr. ^normatedt wae a man uf vigoroue health. I 
■mpilniily punctoal, an energetic and melhodical ' 
|n«ber, and a rigid disciplinarian. See Mimila o/ I 
-iiwd CM/msBWJ, 1868, p. 144. ' 

Sragillia, St., a French prelate, waa bom at Autun 
•>»« 530, oT * Gallo-KonMn family, and waa rained to 
itu (fjacopal aae of Autun about SCO, being ordained by 
'^'TBun, biaiiop of Paris. Ilia hnuae was a kind of 
"'wl, where toiny distinguiahed ecclesiaaticawere ed- 
'"I'i; and he founded likewise a hospital, and adoined 
''I'tburches of ihe same cily. He deeply sympathized 
"■h ibe conquered Franks. He was scdve in the ec- 
<><MiiJcBl affain ot bia lime, and died Aug. 27, 61)0. 
S" H*ffer, NoMT. Hiog. Ornfralr, s, v, 

Brbiils. in (ireek mTtbolngi-, was a muneter who 
"Tlpitd a cave on Pamasma and devastated Ihe land 
f™i By the command of the oracle a youth was u, 
him, and the taak fell br lot upon Alcy- 

Sycamobe. The sycamine ia tb 
nii\ as is evident from Uinncfiridea, Theophrai 
/>. i, 6, 1; 10. 10 J 1.1. 4. el c), and various other Greek 
writers (ice Celsius /tttrob. i, •IKf). A form of the 
aame word, ffUEa/iqi-pa, ii stiU one of the namea for 
the malberry  tree lu fireece (see Ileldreich, Xtiit- 
ji^oHieH (TrKvAni/iind) [Athens, 1862], p. 19: "Mo- 
ms alba L. and M. Nigra L., li Mopfi, Moiipy^o, 
and Meiipj/a. alio luicnfiipv^ ; pelaag. niuii" >. In 
bis learned eaaay on the Trra and fikruit n/ihr An- 
cinlt (18tt5),I>r. Daubeny adopts the disiinciion |»iinl- 
ed out by Uodicua and confirmed by Kraast iIh' igni- 
monis of the Knmsns, the avtviiopov or atiiofii^'oi (tf 
Ai'TUiTT^i) of Dioscoridea, the aptdtiifot Alyvtrtia <•( 
TheopbrastuB, ia the sycamore-fig, ur Airui lyn-miirui 
of modem bouny. On the other hand, the owrii/iiKDc 
of the Greeks, used Nmply and without the qualilk-a- 
tion " Egyptian," Ihe min^iqi'tn of Dioscoridr*, is ihe 
mom of the Romans— our midberry. Dr. Sibthorpe, 
who travelled aa a botanist in Greece for the exjiren 
purpoae of identifying the plants known to the tireeka, 
■ays that in Greece the white mulberry-tree ia called 
fiavptiti the black mulberry - tree, at'Kafifvia- Not 
only ia it the apeciea whose fruit is prized, but it may 

m of Dioi 


k^htlolhecave; but, charmed w. 

.voitK of Ihe victim, Enrvbatus took the garlaml, wi'iit 

i°'"lk«cav(,fought themonstet,andburlc<litdownB 

,Byo«mliio (««criM>"C; Vulg. moru.) i. mention- 
*' IM only is tbe Bible, rii. in Luke xvii, li, " If ye 
^ 'lith aa a grain of moalard-aeed, ye might say to 
(^■■•rcunm^^rec. Be thou plucked up," etc There ia 
■ortiioB todonbt that tbe avsaiitvoi ia dietinct from 
l^nnfw^uiB of the same evangelist (xix, 4), at- 
i^h we iearii hum Dioacoridea (i, 180) that Ihia 




b« qu«ationed whethvr tbe Moral aOm had round iU 
wsy into those regioiu baton the introduelinn or Che 
•ilk-wonn h«d made its favorii* food an objoci of oulli- 
valiiHi. Iklieved to li« > native of Perwa, the mid- 
berry, comnionlf M called, Miirat twfm, \a now apread 
over the milder regions of Europe, and is conliiiually 
mentioned by tnvellera in tiie lloly LaniL As tlie 
mulberry-tree ia comnii'n, m* it ia lofty and afforda 
■hade, it i* well calculated fur ilie illualratiun of the 
above passage of Luke. Kee Tristrim, Nat. Ilul. of Ike 
BiHe, p. 396) Tbomion, Laud <md Book, ii, 2%. See 


Syoamora ie the invariable reitdering, in the A. V., 
of the Hsb. riQplB, ikikmah' (vhich, however, oceura 
in the nng. only in the Talmud, Sjleh'trA,iK,3; the Bi- 
ble employa indifferently tbe maac plur, B'<S^1^,(tuk- 
nin,l Kings X, 27; 1 Chron.xivii,:i8; 2 Cliran. i,IB; 
iK,37; Isa. ix, lOj Amoa vii, 11 1 and [he fern. plur. 
nSsl?V, thikmAlh (Paa. Ixxviii, 47), and of the Greek 
(niEOfiufwia (Luke xix,4). The Sept. alwaya tranaUles 

the Heb. word bv nuiafui^c. sycaniMf, meaning doubt- UicnraiHC Pig and Leat 

le™ the Egyptian tree, the ^.^p.-oc Alyyj^ia of Th^ j^ ^^^^ ^^^ -^ ^^^ ,^ „^^^_ ^^_, ^^^^ ^^^ 
onaes. i. j^^^^ ^^ ^^y ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ country as wpll m 
Palestine enonnoua ijuantiiies are consumed. The » 
' of the tree, though very porous, is exceedingly dun 

n avtov.fy. 

able, each fruit, three or four days befo 
must, it ia aaiil, be punctured with 
or tlie diiger-iiail (comp. Theophraitus, De Cai 
 i IIUl.PL iv, 2, 1; Pliny, //, A'. ' " 



ophrastuB, whii 

180). See Ge 

mllller, AUrrtkumtkimdt, iv 

810), The tytmort, or Jt 

and fiipov, mulberry), is in Egj'pt 

sungs, and in dusters Lke the arape. To make it eai- ^, , , ./• , . ^ , ,. .. , 

7."^ .... . °. ' . . . . mentioued BB one of the heaviest of tgypls calam 

' tliat her svcamorea were destroved by hailstoties ( 
li,47). The modem Haipha waa the citv of 
a (S<Komi«o«, Keland, Patat. p. 1024),'and 
.kil,W./W p. ,82).Thia-w«the original em-j^^^^^^^^^ 
ployment of the prophet Amoa, aa be aay. vi>, 14 ("a „f j^richo thatZacfh«ua climbed in oT,ler to get a a 
galherar," C5l2,S*pMi'i;o,v. the exact icrm employ- if jg„, pjg,i„g bv (Luke xix, 4)i and at the bn 
e<lh}-Theophraatus). HBaselquist(rruir. p.260; Lond. ' aqueduct of llcrod'a Jericho Mr. Tristram lately ft 
1766) Bays, "The fruit of this tree taace* pretty well; ^ "a line olil aycamore lig-tree, perhaps a lineal dean 
when quite ripe it is soft,watery,«amewhat sweet, with ant, and nearly the last, of I hat into which Zaccl 
a very little pimioit of an aromatic last*." It appenrn, ' climbed" {ImkiI ofUiarl, p. S09). That which id i 
however, that a species of gall insect [i'l^ipt tytomori) I ed sycamore in North America, Ihe (lecidmlal pita 
often spoils much of Ihe fruit. "The tree," llaasclquisl bai/<m-tBOal tree, has iio resemblance whatever to 
adds, " is wounded or cut by the inhabitants at thv lime sycamore of the Dible. The name ia also applied 
it buds, fur without this precaution, aa they aay, it will I gpecies of tuaple (the Atrr pitadn - piataimi, or j 
mil beat fniif (p. Wl\ In form and smell and inward plaar), which is much used by turners and millwriji 
structure it resemblea the fig, aud hence iu name. The I See Mayer, /)e ^jrimoru (IJps. IC1<4); W'amekroa, j 
id bears fruit aeveral times in iVoT. -tyCDmori, in the Septrt./Sr bibl. Lil. xi, 224 
seHBomi. and is xii, 81 sq.; Tristram, Xiit. Ilitl. of Ihi BUJt, p. : 
  iThumBon, /,iW(W«oot, i,«aq. See Fiii. 

Syceas, in Creek mylhok)gy, was on 
the Titans wliom, when Jupiter pur>.ued 
his mother, Karth, received into her womb 
Bj'ctMa(lvxap in X, A,C, I>; but rer. 
Iixdp with B; Vulg. Siriar; hut Codd. 
and Fnld. S^har; .Syriac Socar), a | 
named ouly in John W, 5, as " a city of Si 
ria callni Sychar, near the ground wliich 
cob gave tn Joseph hii »>n; and there wu 
wellof Jacoli." Sychnr »iu either a nami 

dependent place. 

1. The first, of these allemativea is nov 
most iinivcrsallv accepted. In tbe word 
Dr. Robinrwn (/TiU. H.-i. ii, 290), "In n: 
quence of ihe hatreil which existed beli 

to their idolatry, the tuwn of Sichem recei 
arooni; the Jewish common people, the 

8yeamor« (ncru symnwrtu) 

Aahkelon. {Prom n photograph 




of nickname (perhaps firom "IJ^V, shekeTf " falsehood/* 
apoken of idols in Hab. ii, 18 ; or from "^ISPf shikkdr^ 
** drunkard,** in alloaion to Isa. xxviii, 1, 7), such as the 
Jews were fond of imposing upon places they disliked ; 
and nothing could exceed the enmity which existed be> 
tween them and the Samaritans, who possessed Shechem 
(John iv, 9). It should not be overlooked that John ap- 
pears always to use the expression XfyofifvoCy "called/' 
to denote a sobriquet or title borne by place or person in 
addition to the name, or to attach it to a place remote 
and little known. Instances of the former practice are 
xi, 16; XX, 24; xix, 13, 17 ; of the latter, xi, 54. The 
son of Sirach speaks of " the foolish people that dwell 
in Sikima** (1,28). See Lightfoot, Operas ii, 586 ; Lange, 
Life of Christy ii, 337 ; Uengstenberg, On St, John »r, 5. 
Jerome, in speaking of Paula's journey, says, " She pass- 
ed Sichemj not, as many erroneously call it, Sichary 
which is now Neapoiis** (Epist. ad Eustoch, in 0pp. i, 
H^, ed. Migne). In his questions on Genesis he says 
that, according to Greek and Latin custom, the Heb. 
Sick€9H is written Sicima; but that the reading Sichar 
uui error: he adds that it was then called Neapolia 
{0pp. ii, 1004, ed. Migne). So Adamnan writes to Ar- 
Cttlf, who travelled in the 7th century : " He visited the 
tOK-n called in Hebrew Sichem, but by the Greeks and 
Latins Sicimti^ and now more usually Sychar" (^Early 
TntrtU, Bohn, p. 8). In the 12th century Phocas says, 
** Sichar was the metropolis of the Samaritans, and was 
afterwards called Neapolis** (Reland, Palast. p. 1009). 
(>n the contrary, Eusebius {OnomusL 8, v. ^vxap and 
AovJ^a) says that Sychar was in front of the city of 
Neapolis ; and, again, that it lay by the side of Luza, 
which was three miles from Neapolis. Sychem, on the 
(»th«r hand, he places in the suburbs of Neapolis by the 
tomb of Joseph. The Bordeaux Pilgrim (A.D. 333) 
dencribes Sechtm as at the foot of the mountain, and as 
containing Joseph's monument and plot of ground (villa). 
He then proceeds to say that a thousand paces thence 
ivas the place called Sechar. Moreover, had such a 
mckoame been applied to Shechem so habitually as its 
oocun^nce in John would seem to imply, there would be 
some trace of it in thoee passages of the Talmud which 
refato the Samaritans, and in which every term of op- 
I^riQm and ridicule that can Ije quoted or invented is 
J^ttped on them. It may be affirmetl. however, with 
cstainty that neither in Targum nor Talmud is there 
vij mention of such a thing. Lightfoot did not know 
''fit. The numerous treatises on the Samaritans arc 
nlent about it, and recent close search has failed to dis- 
<»verit. See SiiKCiiKM. 

Bot Jerome's view soon became the prevailing one, 
and has continue<l to be so. Robinson adheres strongly 
to it; and in regard to one of the chief objections urged 
^ the other side, that Jacob's well, which sunda at the 
entrance into the vallev where Shechem or Nablds is 
Mtuated, is about a mile and a half from the town, so 
that a woman would hardly have gone so far to draw 
Mttr, since there was plenty of g<K)d water near at 
^**^, he thinks that the town probably had extensive 
^borbs in the Gospel age which did not exist in the 
time of Eusebius, and might have approached quite 
'^^ to the well of Jacob— just as Jerusalem anciently 
extended much farther north and south than at the 
P^went day (Kesearchety iii, 121). Porter takes the 
**^ general view, and says, in reganl to the distance 
^ the well, that persons ** who use such argumentr< 
l^now little of the East. The mere fact of the well 
haring been Jacob's would have brought nuniliers to it 
^ the distance been twice as great. Even indepin- 
'^t of its histor}', some little superiority in the quality 
^ the water, such as we might expect in a deep well, 
*^ have attracted the Orientals, who are, and have 
■'•tya been, epicures in this element" {Handbook /or 
^oL p. 342). It may be added that there b no need 
^ apposing this well to have been the one commonly 
^ne&ted by the people of NablAs. The visit of the 

woman to it may have been quite an occasional one, or 
for some specific purpose. 

2. It has been thought that Sychar may be identified 
with the little village of Askar^ on the south-eastern 
declivity of Mount Ebal (Van de Velde, Memoir, p. 350 ; 
Thomson, Land and Book, ii, 206). The etymologj'^ 
however, is against it, and also the topography. Our 
I»rd was on his way to Galilee. The great road runs 
past the mouth of Wady NablC^s. Jacob's well is on 
the southern side of the opening ; and Askar about half 
a mile distant on the northern side. The main mad 
passes quite close to both. Our Lord sat down by the 
well while the disciples tunie<l aside into the city to 
buy bread. Had Askar been the city, this would have 
been unnecessary; for by continuing their route for m 
short distance farther they would have been within a 
few paces of the city. There is, besides, a copious spring 
at AjBkar. In the Quarterly Statement of the '' Pal. Ex- 
plor. Fund," for July, 1877, p. 149 sq., Lieut. Conder 
gives a further description of the village of Askar, and 
some additional reasons for identifying it with Sychar; 
but they are not conclusive. 

Sy'ohem (Acta vii, 16). See Shbchem. 

Sy'chemite (Judith v, 16). See Shechehite. 

Sycites, in Greek mythology, was a surname of 
Bacchus in Lacedaemon, as having been the first to 
plant the fig {avKij), 

Sydesmen (more properly Synodtmen) are Church 
oflicers, anciently appointed to assist the church- war- 
dens in making presentments of ecclesiastical offences 
at the bishop's synods or visitations. By the 90th 
canon, they are to be chosen yearly, in Easter week, 
by the parish priest and parishioners, if these can 
agree; otherwise they are to be appointed by the 
ordinary of the diocese. Of late years this oflUce has 
devolved on the church - wardens. The old English 
term for sydesmen was *' sithcondmen," or "sithcund- 


Sye'loB (Sv^Xoc V. r. 'HaviiXog and 17 <ntvodoQ\ 
a corrupt Greek form (1 Esdr. i, 8) for Jehiel (({. v.) of 
the Heb. (2 Chron. xxxv, 8). 

Sye^'nd (Heb. Seventh, naip ; Sept. ^vfjvTi ; Vulg. 
Syene)y a town of Egypt on the frontier of Cush, or Ethi- 
opia. The prophet Ezekiel speaks of the desolation of 
Egypt "from Migdol to Seveneh, even unto the lx>rder 
of Cush" (xxix, 10), and of its people being slain " from 
Migdol to Seveneh" (xxx, 6). Migdol was on the east- 
em border [see Migdol], and Seveneh is thus rightly 
identified with the town of Svene, which was alwavs 
the last town of Egypt on the south, though at one 
time included in the nome Nubia. Its ancient Egyp- 
tian name is Sun (Brugsch, Geoyr, Inschrift, i, 155, tab. 
i, No. 55), preserved in the Coptic Souan, Senon, and 
the Arabic Antdn. The modem town is slightly to 
the north of the old site, which is marked by an inter- 
esting early Arab burial-ground, covered with remark- 
able tombHtones, having inscri|)tion8 in the Cufic char- 
acter. Champollion suggests the Coptic derivation na 
"causative," and vni-u or oniii, "to open," as if it signi- 
fied the opening or key of Egj'pt {VEgypte, i, 161- 
166). anil this is the meaning of the hieroglyphic 
name. It is the natural boundary of Egypt at tl»e 
south (Ptolemy, ix, 5; Pliny, Hint, Nat. v, 10; xii, «: 
Strabo, p. 787, 815), being situated at tlie foot of tlie 
first catjirnrt on the Nile (Murray, llandlxtokfor Ef/ypt, 
p. 463). Sec Jour. Sac. Lit, Oct. 1851, p.* 158. See 

Sycne is represented by the present Asir/in or />- 
SuuH, which exhibits few remains of the ancient city, 
except some granite columns of a comparatively late 
date and the shrine of a small temple. This building 
has been supposed by late travellers to have contained 
the famous well of Strabo {(ieoy. xvii, p. 817), into 
which the rays of a vertical sun were rei>orte(l to 
fall at the summer solstice — a circumstance, says the 



gcflgnpher, thit prorea the place "(« lie under the 
tropic, the gnomon al miildi; canting no ■hailaii'." Btil 
although excavations hare been carried on coniidera- 
bly beluw the paccment, which has been turned up in 

aulta have been obtained than that this shrine was a very 
impmbable site Tor tucb an observatory, even ir it ever 
existed; and that Strabn was sliangely miginformeil, 
since the Egyptians themaelvea could never in his time 
have imagined thii city to tie under the tropic ; for they 
"Were 1>y no meana ignorant of astronomy, anil Syene 
vas, ei'en in the age of Hipparchus (B.C. 140, when 
the obliquity of the ecliptic wai about 23°5r 10"), very 
far north of thailiiie. The belief that Syene was in the 
tropic waa, however, verv (general in the time of the Ko- 
mana, and is nolicnl by' Seneca, Lucan, Pliny, and oth- 
ers. But, aa Sir l.G. Williinson reInRrk^ "a well would 
have been a bad kind of obaers'atory if the sun had been 
really vertical ; and ir 8tniba saw the meridian sun in a 
well, he might be sure he wa« not in the tropic" (Mod. 
Egypt and Thrba, ii,^S6). The same writer adda, " Un- 
fottunatply, the observations nf the ancient Greek wri- 
ten on the obliquity of the ecliptic are not so saliafac- 
tory as might be wiihed; nor are we enabled, eapecially 
aa L^ (irange'atheory ofthe annual change of obliquity 
being variable is allowed " ' . - . . 

might h. 

■h, perhaps, nrig- 
inaled the erruneoui aaieTtion of Strabo.'' The latitude 
«f Aswan is Used bv Wilkinson al ■>*'=■ F,' 30", and the 
longitude is usually given as Sl° W. 

Bygn, in Norse mythology, was one of the female 
asas, guddesB of justice, who takes charge of decisions 
and preventa any one denying anything. She guarded 
the doors of the palace of Wingolf, so that foreigners 

Bykas, Artinu Aable;, an English divine, was 
lioni in London about 1CH4. lie was educated at St. 
Paul's School, and was admitted to Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Cambridge, 1701, taking his degree of A.B. in 
1TO4-5andA.M.inlT0R. After leaving college he served 
as assistant in St. Paul's Schnol, hut was collated to the 
vicarage of (lodmcrsham, Kent, in 1712-- ID, by arcli- 
bixliup Tenison. In April, 1714, he was instituted tu 
the rectory of Diy-Dray ton, Cambridgeshire, and in the 
August fulluwing resigned the vicarage ortiodmeisham. 
He waa instituted to Che rectory of Ksyleigh, Essex, 
November, 1718, and resigned the living of Dry-Dny- 
tun. In December following he was appcnnted after- 
noon preacher of King Street Chapel, Golden Square, a 
chapel of cose to Su James's, Westminuer. The morn- 
ing preachenhip becoming vacant in 1721, Mr. Sykes 
was appointed to it In January, lTiS-2i, he was ap 
pointed to the prebend ofAlton-BorealiB, Salisbury, am 
three years after became precentor of t lie same cathedral. 
He also received the following ^ipniiitments : aHsisunt 
preacher at St. James's, Wcstniinnlvr, April, 1725; dean 
of St. Burien, Cornwall, Fcbniarv, 1739; prebendary of 
WincbMter,Oct.l5,1740. lie died Nov. 15, 1766. His 
pHhlinhril works number sixty-three, of which we no- 
tice, .In tjioig upon the Truth «flhe Cktvlian Religion 
(Knaproii, 1725, 8ro'. 3d ed. 1775, Rvo) ■.—Prinri/iln and 
—riflibilUs ./ iliineiM and RrrrUtlion (1742, Hvo) :- 
Kitag-R Surrijint (\'iH,iS\o):—Srriplun Doclrmt of 
Bflnapliim of Man bg Jau> CkritI (1753, 8vo) :^Piir- 
tiphnut ami Xola vp"n tie EpiitU to the Htbreiit (_li&li, 
4to). See Allibone, />t>t. '//tiiV. nnd^Nwr. AuHori, 
H. V. ; Chalmers, Biog, Did. t. v. 

Syk«B, Oliver, a ministcT of the Methoilist Erda- 
copal Church, was bom at 8u(nelil,C<>nn., 177(1, He wis 
converted in his twenty-second year, and in IWIfi was 
received on trial into the Kew York (inference. In 
IHIO he became superannuated, and held tliat relaiiim ' 
through most of his life. He died Feb, 1 1, 1853. He j 
left property, about 62600, tu tho Missionary Society, | 

for the benefit of the China Misdon. See Miimtm sf 
Armaul Can/tmoa, 1853, p. 212. 

Sylea, in Greek mythology, wis a daughter at king 
Curinthiu and wife of Polypemon, to whom she ban 
tiiiiii, the pine-trse bender, a notorious robber. 

Sylena, in Greek mythology, was a tyrant of Auli» 
who compelled all foreignen who eniereil his domiiiiuas 
to labor in his garden. Hercules kitlod him, together 
with his daughter Xenodice. Another daughter was 
etiucated by her brother Duaeus; she fell in luve with 
Hercules, and died of grief because she could not be hia. 
He also loved her so deeply that he was with difficulty 
restrained from casdng himself upon her funeral pyre. 

SyllSbae enthionistJlND (DuUa^ai Iv^pottan- 
rni), circular letters written by bishops recently installed 
to foreign bishops, to give them ao account of their faith 
and orthodoxy, that they might receive letters of peace 
and cummuniuii from them. See Bingham, Ckriit. .-jn- 
tiq. bk. ii. ch. xii, § 10. 

SyllfibaB, an abstract; a compendium containing 
the heads of a lecture ur sermon. 

SYLLABUS (Gr. nuXXa^oc, a coUrriion, i. e. enla~ 
lugaf), Patai., is the title given to the appendix U> the 
encyclical letter issued by pope Pius 1.^, Dec. 8, I8M. 
It was "a list of the principal errors of the day pointed 
out in the consistorial allocutions, encyclical and other 
apiatolical letters of pope Pius IX," and enumerating, 
under ten general heads or sections, eighty of these er- 
rors, TheaetenaectionBOferrorsareentitletl,"L Pan- 
theism, Naturalism, and Absolute Rationalism;" "II. 
tloderate Rationalism;" "III. IndilTerentism, 'Tolera- 
tion;" "IV. Socialism, Commnnisoi, Secret Societies, 
Bible Sodetics, Clerico-libcral Societies;" "V. Errors 
respecting the Church and bGi Righta;" "VI. Eiron 
of Civil Society, aa much in themselves aa cunaidered 
in their relations to the Church ;" " VII. Errors in Nat- 
ural and Christian Morals;" " VIII. Errors as to Chris- 
tian Marriage;" "IX. Errors regarding the Civil Power 
nf the Sovereign PontilT:" "X, referring to Mod- 
em Liberalism." Some of the specifications under these 
general heads have respect to religious freedom, the sep- 
aration of Church and State, the civil contnu-t of mar- 
riage, education outside of the contml of the Roman 
Catholic Church, the conflict between the civil law and 
the spirilust authority of the Church, the immunities 
of the clergy, the cessation of the pope's temporal power, 
etc. Much excitement was created by the appearance 
of this bull atid syllabus, especially in France; JuIm 
Baroche, minister of public wotship, forbidding the bish- 
ops to publish the ayltabua and the doctrinal |iart uf the 
. biilL Elsewhere the civil governments did not interferti 

For literature, ace Schulte, Thr Powr oftht Rmumt 
I orrr P.mct, Cauntriei, etc (1871) ; Fessler, Truf iuhI 
Faltf InfaUUnlil!/ of the Popa (Vienna, 1871 ; Loud, 
and N.y. l«75)i Gladalone, The V<ilienn Decrert is their 
Jieariiu, on VinU A IkgiaiCf. ( 1874). with replies by New- 
man, Manning, and others. 

SylllB, in Creek mythology, was a nymph beloved 
by Apollo, and the mother by him of Xeiixippua. 

SyllitnrgtW (SiAXiirotTiyDc). a Greek term to 
designate the assistant during the offering of the Cbria- 
tian sacrilice. 

Sylpha, in the fantastic system of the ParacelNsti, 
are the elemental a|iirila of the air, whu, like the other 
elemental siririts, holrl an intermediate place between 

move alnut, beget children, and arc subject to inlinDi- 
ties like men; but, on the other hand, they resemble 
spirila in being more nimble and swilt in their motions, 
while their bodies are more diaphanous than those of 
the hutnan race. They also surpass the latter in their 
knowledge both of the present and the future, but hare 
no soul; and when they die, nothing is left. In form 
they are ruder, taller, and Urunger than men, but stand 
nearest to them of all the elemental spirits, and aa « 


4a>nsequence hold intercourse with human creatures, peror Henry III held, in December, 1046, a council at 

When they have children by marriage with mortals, Sutri, when the three popes were all deposed, and 

Alie children ha%'e souls, and belong to the human race. Clement II was elected. 8ee Pope. 

Oriffinallv masculine, they have come, probably by the a«i««««.^««« • .» r j «• l 

^v 1-* »• e » . I -J A r *• • Sylvestriana is the name of an order of monka 

i^tberealizationofpoeta, to be considered as feminme. f«..„.i«.i i „ c. i .. » t^ i • u i ' ,\2Z 

* ^ foundeil by Sylvester Gozzoloni, who was bom m 1170 

Sylvester Gozzolonl See Sylvkstrians. (or 1177) at Osimo, in the Papal Sutes. He was edu- 
Sylvester I, pope, was bom in Rome about the cated at Padua and Bologna, and received a canonry at 
r 270, and was the son of Kutinus and St, Justa. Osimo, which he renounced about 1217, in order to de- 
thirty years of age he is said to have been onlained vote himself in solitude to a contemplative life of ascet- 
l^y bitfhop (pope) Marcellinus, and on Jan. 81, 314, he icism. I'upils and followers gathered about him, with 
«vas chosen to succeed Melchides in the pontificate. His whom he founded a monastery in 1231 on Mount Fano, 
^udministration is celebrateti for the Council of Nicasa in which the Benedictine mlu was adopted, coupled with 
^q. v.), held in 325, which, however, Sylvester did not a vow of rigid poverty. Innocent IV confirmed the 
^^tteiid, on account of his infirmities; and he was repre- foundation (1247), and the order spread, particularly in 
^»«nted by two pnesta, called (vuy and Vincent, while Umbria, Tuscany, and Ancona. It was united with that 
-<>BttB, bishop of Cordova, presided in his name. He is of Vallambrosa in 1662, but again separated from it in 
4 he author of several rules to the clergy. The account 1681, and was endowed with new constitutions by Alex- 
^vcnofthedonation tohimof the cityofRomeby Con- ander VIII (1690), which provided for the celebration 
tftantiue is wholly apocryphal. He died in Kome, Dec of matins at night, for reciprocal and also self-inflicted 
31,336, and was succeeded by Maircus. flagellations on every Wednesday and Friday in Advent 
Sylveater II, one of the most learned of the «> J Le"t, and for alitincnce from the use of flesh, milk, 
fwdiieval popes, originally called Gerbert, was bom at *"^ ^^f^ <>" ^^^'y ^"*1»>' *"^ ^^'^^Y ^'hurch festival. 
Aurillac, in Auvergne, early in the 10th centur\-. He ^ considerable number of convents, of nuns as well as 
WIS educated in the monastery of his native village, ™"nks, belonged to this order in its flourishing period; 
imt went eariv to Spain, where he leameil mathemat- ^^^ >^ " ""^ msigniticant. Leo XII punwsed to dis- 
i«, «id afterwards to Rome. He was appoint«?<l abbot ^^^'<^ ^*>« «"^**«*" *»^ mcoqwrate its members with other 
oftheMonasterv of Bobbio. where he taught with much organizations; but it has, nevertheless, been preserved 
<lirtinction andsiiccess. At a Uter period he went to ^ °"*' ^*'"®- ^^ ^'^^^ ^^ female Sylvestrians exists in 
Oermanv as preceptor of the young prince Otho, after- ^^rugiA. The direction of the order is pUced in the 
wards (jiho II, and ultimatelv became secretary to the ***"^ ^^ * general and a procurator-general, the former 
archbishop of Kheims, and director of the cathedral ^"»e chosen for four and the latter for three yean. 
achool which became eminent under his care. The '^^^^ ^**^»' " comiwseil of a gown, scapuUrj-, cowl, and 
archbishop having been deposed, Svlvestor was elected "»anlle; its color is dark brown. The general wears 
to the archbishopric; but he was afterwards set aside, ^'*<*^<^'» *"^ »** privileged to bear the pontificalia (q. v.). 
the deposition of his predecessor having been declare<l Herzog, RfAtl-tncyklop, s. v. 

ioTalid. In the year 908, however, he was appointed Symsethis, in (4roek mythology, was a Trinacrian 

archbishop of Kavenna, whence he was calle<l to the nymph, goddess of the river of the like name, beloved 

pontifical throne, April 2, 999, as the successor of (ireg- of Fauiius, to whom she bore Acis. 

«yV. He renounce<l the liberal tendencies of his ear- o,,.«i,^i /r -. * i j'w ^ ji j *i • 

l«ry«m, confirmed the judgment of John XV with , Symbol (from »,,j, and ^aXX.,,roMrjnrroj^rt5r, i.e. 

«priTthe Svnod of Kheims and establUhe^l Amulph ^> ,T.' '?• °\. ^- "-"Pf"'''"™- « "B" or 

i«hUcchb«h;pric; convened. ......Klin 1001 atRome, represcntato. of «.raeth.nKmoral.b.v he figures or prop- 

bich place.1 the Convent of (iandersheim nnder the "'"* "' "''f™' t'''"«»- . "™'^« »'■"''"'» "« <>f vanous 

»UylS,i003,andwa« .acceed«l bv John XVIII. He •V'^'Vy (Edmb. 1853); F.irbaim Tm>>. of Scrip,., 

-^. ' 1 .. f* u- IT /^rt/. am/ /or. A ra/i. /ft r. 184it, p. 395. ^)ec Symbolism. 

*» a man of rare acquirements for his age. He was ^ * 

tnadept in mathematics and in practical mechanics and SYMBOL ((ir. 2»''/i/ioXo»', sign^ 1okcn\ a title an- 

«rom«ny, in which departments his attainments ac- ciently given to the Apostles' Creed ( Cyprian, Ep, 

<l«ii*dfor him, among his contemporaries, the evil repu- 76; Hutinus, l>e ifymbolo ; Augustine, Ih Fidt tt Sj/m- 

tation of a magician. He is also believed to have been f^lo: and Hilary, /> 7W«. cup. xii). The ecclesias- 

««quainted with Greek, and perhaps with Arabic. Of tical origin of the term is much dii*puted. but its most 

*ll his worksj which were numerous, his letters (printed pn>bable meaning was that of a contract, or bond of 

•jy DnOhesne in the //M^orw»w«//>a«<y) have at tract- our faith. One rea^Mm f<»r the name derives it from a 

«d nwst notice, from their bearing on the history of an Greek word signifying a throwing or casting together, 

****we period. His literary remains have l)een pub- «"»d alleges that the apOHtlcs eacli contributed an article 

li«htd by Masson and others, more recently by Pertz, to form the Crce<l, putting their joint opinion or counsel 

though not complete. See Richeri Hint, Lib. »r, in ii» an abridge<l Hha})e. The other is the opinion that 

^Wi. Mmnrn, Germ, Huitorica Script, (Hanov. 1838), this Creed was used in times of persecution as a watch- 

toffl-iii; Mabillon, Vet,Analecta (Paris, 1723), p. 102 sq.; word or mark whereby Christians (like soldiers in the 

^^'^(Jtrbert od, Paptd Sylvester II u, sein Jnhrhundert army) were distinguished fn»m all others. 
Owona, 1837). See also Budinger on the scientific and The term symbol, importing an emblem or sensible 

P'>l>tical importance of Gerbcrt (CJasscl, 1851); Herzog, representation, is also applied in the holy eucharist to 

^wtotytfop. 8. v.; Hoefer, Nouv, Biog, (i^nerale, s. v. the sacred elements, which there set forth the body and 

Sylvester in, antipope, was bom in Rome, May *'^^^* of Christ. 

1)1^; and while known as John, bishop of Sabina, he 
^** aet on the fiontifical throne through the influence 
<^ the consul Ptolemieus, in place of the juvenile Rone- 

Symbolical Books. This title designates the 
public confessions of faith of the different Christian 
^ churches or denominations; in other words, the writ- 

"*J^IX,irho had been expelled for his vices. Sylvester ings in which an ecclesiastical communion publishes to 
'^Hjned but three months, when the counts of Frascati the world the tenets that bind together its memlxTs 
[**knp arms to replace Benedict. The latter, seeing and distinguish it from other communions of l)elievers 
°* *as despised by the clergy, sold the tiara to John or unbelievers. For the idni of a symbol we refer to 
^''itian, whom he crowned as Gregor}' VI. The em- the article Symbolics. 





The only symbol which finds universal acceptance in 
the Church is the Apostles' Creed. As the Church creed 
KQT i^oxh^i it is distinguished from the Scriptures upon 
which it is based, but also, on the other hand, from the 
private writings and confessions of the teachers of the 
Church, however greatly the latter may be esteemed. 
The later symbolical books differ from the briefer sym- 
bolical ybrmu^*, which alone served the purposes of the 
Church before the Keformaticui, in being more extensive 
and detailed, and in constituting the confessions of par- 
ticular churches only (symbola particvUiria)^ while the 
great creeds (Apostles', Nicene, Athanasian) have oecu- 
menical value. The phrase Libri Symbolici originated 
in the Lutheran Church, and was first applied to its own 
confessional writings when they appeared in the Book 
of Con^rd; but its use extended, and has long been 
current in all the churches and sects of Christendom. 

Considerable diversity of opinion has existed with 
reference to the importance and value of symbolical 
writings. The Church of Komc regards the symbol as 
the immovable and unchangeable rule of faith, and 
therefore as the binding norm of doctrine. This docs 
not, according to Thomas Aquinas (^Sumimi TheoL ii, 2, 
1, 9), detract from the supreme authority of the Script- 
ures, because the symbol is merely an extract from 
Scripture. In substance there is but one symbol ; each 
additional formula is simply an exiK)sition and closer 
determination of the original creed. Variations are to 
be understood as different aspects of tlie truth, assumed 
in view of the varying oppositions it has to encounter. 
The Church is accordingly competent to formulate a 
new symbol for the exposition of the truth, though not 
to set aside, or even to alter, the traditional creed (Thom. 
A(piinas, vt sup.). 

The Church of the Reformation asserted the sole au- 
thority of Holy Scripture in matters of doctrine; and al- 
though it received the wcumenical symbols, it deter- 
mined their character as being testimotmt Jitlei simply, 
i. e. testimonies certifying ttie understanding of the 
Word of God current in the Church at a given time. 
The worth of confessions is accordingly ma<le to de|)end 
on their agreement with the Scriptures, and they may 
be altered and improved. The author of the .4 ugusUiiui 
repeatedly undertook a thorough revision of his work ; 
Luther did the same with the Smalcald A rticUs ; and 
the evangelical estates not only approved of Melanc- 
thon's Variata^ but in 1537 directed their theologians 
at the Convention of Smalcald to revise the confession. 
The beginnings of an obligatory support of the confes- 
sion are, however, apparent at an early day. Subscrip- 
tion to the Auffshurtf Confession was occasionally re- 
quired during the fourth decade of the 16th century, 
and in 1533 the theological faculty of Wittenberg were 
required by statute to teach sound doctrine as contained 
in the ancient creeds and the A ugsburg Confession, A 
growhig dis|K>sition to insist on uniformity of teaching 
became manifest, and it was this which gave rise to the 
Osiandrian Controversies (<j. v.). In the middle of the 
16th century the various corpora doctrines began to ap- 
pear: in 1560 the Corpus Doctr, Philijtpicum; in 1561 
the C. D. Pomeranicum; in 1567 the C />. Pruthenicum, 
etc. The conclusion was made in 1576 with the For- 
mula of Concord (q. v.), and this names the writings 
to which symbolical authority is given by reason of a 
unanimous approval of their teachings, and is itself in- 
cluded among them. A rigid subscription was demand- 
ed in the countries where these writings were received 
by the civil government. The dispute with Calixtus 
(q. V.) led the Lutheran theologians to postulate a me- 
diate inspiration, and consequently a divine authorit}', 
for theaymbolical books; but the distinction between the 
canon of Scripture and such standanis is nevertheless 
constantly preserved in word, if not always in fact. In 
reality, the symbolical books were regarded as a Kavwv 
r^i' iricTTHoQ throughout the 17th century side by side 
with the Scriptures, inasmuch as the faith was grounded 
directly on the symbol rather than on the Bible. 

The Reformed churches have produced no written 
symbol which has formal authority over them all; but 
they have cherished a very definite conviction of con- 
fessional unity among them, as may appear from the 
fact that the different Reformed confessions, and partic- 
ularly the more important of them, tlie Helcetica, GalU-- 
camif ScoticGf BelgicOy etc, are received in all such 
churches as embodiments of the pure type of doctrine, 
and from the further fact that the members of a Church 
holding to one of these confessions may pass beyond the 
territory within which such confession has authority, 
but cannot pass from one confession to another by join- 
ing a Church which adheres to another of the Reformed 
confessions. All such persons are regarded simply a» 
members of the Reformed Church. The number of Re- 
formed symbols was influential also in directing atten- 
tion upon their substance rather than upon the formu- 
lated letter, it being conceded that with resi)ect to the 
latter the confession is not infallible and incapable of 
further improvement. Such changes, however, are not 
to be needlessly undertaken, nor may individuals sub- 
ject the confessional standards at will to experiments in 
the interests of noveltv. Great care has ever been ex- 
ercised to preserve the purity of the confessional sj'ra- 
bols, in some instances carried to the extent of requiring 
the subscription of the clergy and the officers of state to 
doctrinal standards settled by law. (Basle and (leneva 
even required such subscription of the body of their citi- 
zens. The Reformed Chnrcli of East Friesland alone 
never re(]uired subscription to its symboL") The 17th 
century produced symbols in this body also, e. g. the 
Canons of Dort and the Ilehetic Consensus^ both of 
which go beyond even the Formula of Concord in 
scholastic rigidness. The beginning of the 18th cen- 
tury saw a reaction, however; Spener already ventured 
to doubt the necessity of symbols, since tlie Church had 
so long existed with<nit them, and expressed his dissent 
from tlie doctrine of their inspiration and infallibility. 
A century afterwards it was conceded that obligation to 
adhere to the svmbol holds only with reference to ea- 
sentials; and a majority of critics asserted that the un- 
essential, not directly religious and merely theological^ 
which deserves no place at all in a creed, was greatly in 
excess over that which is reallv essential. The conflict 
with rationalism caused manv modifications in the views 
of the churches; but subscription to the creed was gen- 
erally insisted on, though the obligation thus assumed 
was often but lightly felt. In the present period, the 
reaction against rationalism has occasioned a revival 
of 17th-century confessionalism in many quarters: and, 
on the other hand, a liberal tendency requires a break- 
ing- away from the authority of symbols as being 
simply monuments of the faith of our fathers and evi- 
dences of former conquests, and also as being adverse 
to the genius of Protestantism. Sec Confession of 

The abstract right of the Church to require submis- 
sion to its standards is evident, but it is a question 
which must be answered, May the Pnotestant Church 
assert that right, and, if it may, then to what extent? 
It is evident that the more recent symbols, as being 
more restrictive and separative in character than the 
older confessions and cree^ls, are of inferior authority. 
It is also clear that the spirit and substance of a confes- 
sion have greater importance than attaches to the form 
or letter. Neither the Aur/sburg Confession nor the 
Hevltlbcrg Catechism constitutes the Protestant Confes- 
sion of Faith, and must be regarded simply as essays 
towards formulating the body of Protestant doctrine, 
which may be tested bj' criticism and revised. Doctri- 
nal purity in the concrete is, after all, a relative thing, 
and the Church is under the necessity of persisting in 
the work of grounding its teachings more solidly on the 
Word of God and of developing them further towards 
their ultimate consummation. A distinction must ac<> 
cordingly be admitted between heterodoxy of a more or 
less serious type, which consists in departing in some 





liointA from the accepted standartls of a Churoli. and 
hereby, which removes the fouudations and destrovA tlie 
faith itself. It is none the leu certain, however, that 
TrrrfeMantism requires an inner unity and a durable 
liasiii of character. Every 8tep of its progress roust be 
in harmony with its fundamental principles, which are 
laid down in the confessions formuUteil bv its founders. 
Tbojte symbols attest a faith which belongs equally to 
<iur fathers and to us. The liberty of teaching^ more- 
over, needs to be guarde<l, lest it degenerate into license 
and anarch V contrary* to the Wortl of Gixl and the order 
tiflhe Church. Protestantism certainly has the right 
to protect its tnith against neologizing antichristianity, 
and also against un-Protestant Uomanism— in a woi^, 
against manifvst perversion. The subscription to sym- 
briLi required of its accredited teachers can hardly, how- 
ever, be without conditions. Perhaps the utmost ex- 
tent to which such rerjuirement should l)c pressed is a 
cnitlial acceptance of principles upon which the confes- 
sions arc boscfl, leaving particulars to be determined by 
the cuuscience of the subsiTiber. In any case, the sym- 
bol arc entitle<l to respect 8o far as to make them the 
Mbject of earnest and loving study, and to protect them 
agiinftt abuse from professeil adherents. 

Utera/urf. — Early Pn>testant writers have no sepa- 
rate locv* for symbolical books, and but few treat of i hem 
even incidentally (see Hasc, I/utterw Bedirir, p. 116, 
no<e 1 ). Among later doctrinal writers, see T west en 
(1826), i, 50 8*4.; Ilase (.-W ed. 1«42), p. 498 scj.; Mar- 
ten^n, p. 74 «i\. Controversial writings arc partially 
given in IJase, ut tup. A comprehensive monograph is 
Juhannsen's IViweMchnftl. t/, hi*f, Unters, iib. d, Itirht- 
MOfiitjktit d, VerpHicht. hm/* fymh, Jiiicher, etc. (Altona, 
1K13). See also itL Avfantff dfs Symht^lzH'fmgs^ etc. 
(Uips. 1R47); Matthes, *l>r]y/tftcA«MA? SymMik (ibid. 
lM3),p.2 sq.; Schenkel, Ur^prungl. Wrhaltn.d, Kirch f 
:iM Stattt^ in the Stud, u, KHt, 18,')0, ii, 4.'i4 sq. ; Hiifliug, 
Iff Humb. Satuniy AVtvjviVn/f, Avctoritateytt i'gu (Krl. 
1835); Bretschneidcr, Vnzuliufiffkeit d. Sjfmhtdzvauii*^ 
*tc. (Uips. 1841) ; Hudelbach, Einl. in d. A vgnh. f'nn/rM- 
fvm,th\ (Dresd. 1841); Sartorius, A'oMtr. u, Verhindl. 
iHrrhi aUinfMVJthfkinntuiiUie (Stuttg. 1845); S<hlei<T- 
BMchfir, Ktffetdi, Werth . , . rf. *gmb. Hucher^ in Iff/. A lin. 
ffrtnkf. 1«10). p. 385 sq.; id. St-ndschr, an r. Colin it. 
''<^«/:, in the »S7ii//. m. Krif. IKJl, i, 3 sq. ; itl. rrakt. 
TkftJiuji,^ p. r»2*2 s<j. ; I>e Wette, Lehrfinheit d. ermi. 
AW, in the Stud. u. Krit. 1831, ii, 221 8f|.; nimann, 
^M.h'rrhL Awffl. etc., in the Stud. v. Krit. 1840, ii; 
^lH»n*r, hifi Prim-ip. u, fakt. Strlluvg d. fchweiz.-ref, 
A'tfc4^, etc., in the Vfrhawll. d. srhwriz. PreditferfftgtUsch. 
^* StjJalUfi, 1844 ; IHf- fjftffnir. Krisi* d. kirchl. /^bfnf, 
«<'.t<ioit. 1854): Petri. HtUucht. d. gfdt. Dtnhchrij}, 
"'^•(Hanov. 1854); Erkldrunq der Dfnk«chr, ((iiitt. 
^^)\ Nilzsch, Prakt. Theol. \! 

Among efUtions of Lutheran symbolical writings, 
th«e of Kechenberg, Concordia, etc. (Lii>s. IfiTH, 8vo, 
ind often; last ed. 175«»>,and of Hase, Libri Sumb. Kcri. 
'''■• ptc. (ibitL 1837), de8er\-e mention. The Reformed 
tj'tfewons have not been gathered into a single coll<*c- 
hon, the best and most complete collection lieing that 
of Xiemeyer, CoUect. Conf. in Keel. lief. PuUirot. (ibid. 
IWO), cum A|if>end. Other collections are by Augusti 
(KlbeifeU, 1827), (German by Mess (Neuwied, 1828, 
l^J. 2 pts.; comp. Schweizer, Rpf. Gltmbenil. i, 122), 
»nd Hq)pe, B^kentUnifWchrifien d, rff. Kirchen J>eut*chl. 
(Elbwfeld, 1800). The Libri Symbolici Kcri. linmano^ 
(^otkolicm were edited by Danz (Vimar. 1836) and 
S^ieilwolf et Klener (Gfitt, 1837 sq.); the LibH Symb. 
f'^^OrienttiliM by Kimmel (Jena, 1843; cum Append. 
»l*L IWO). For the symbolical books and writings of 
pttticnlar churches and denominations, see the respec- 
^f* trticlea. — IIerz(»g, Real-Encyklop. s. v. 

Symbolics. The meaning of this term will vary 
^h that assigned to the original word from which it 
^ derived : ovft^Xov (from <Fv/i/3dXXf tv) has a pri- 
^^ reference to the fitting-together of two separate 
"^'iMMf e. g. the parts of a ring or of other " tessera hos- 

pitalitatis.'* £i'/i/3oXov (related to trrfpa) next came te 
denote every mark or sign by which the connection of 
individuals to a whole, o. g. a coqM>ration or association, 
might lx> indicated. Such were the badges which se- 
cured admission to a bantjuot, the *' tessera niilitaris,*' 
the Hag, the password, etc. In lime, %\hatever might 
be employed to illustrate abstract or suiK'rscnsual ideas 
to the senses came to be terme<t a svuiImiI. and tlii.** mav 
be regarded the current meaning of the wi»ril lo-dny. 
As (Uiristianity, like all religions, has its syndM>K it is 
as proper to S|)eak of Christinn *t/mMirs as of heathen 
(or ancient). A rich symlsiliMm runs through the whole 
of Christian liturgies, e. g. the symlKdisni of the cross, 
etc.; but in the organism of theological study the term 
ttymlKilu'» has no reference to such symbols. The refer- 
ence is rather to the formulated and written cimfviniout 
of the Church, which, more than any Uidge, are suited 
to indicate the union of individuals in one and the same 
ecclesiastical organization. Of tliese symbols the most 
ancient are baptismal confessions, from which the Sym- 
botnm Apostoliciim was developt'd. which forms the ral- 
lying- |H)int of all who are adherents of Christianity. 
Heretical tendencies afterwards comfM'lled the ('hurch 
to formulate the great cn*eds— the Nicene. the Niceno- 
Constantinopolitan,' and the so-caHcd Athanasian — in 
which the marks of orthodoxy were <leterinined and 
made prominent; and. in addition to the foregoing so- 
called oFCumenicitl tymlndft, oXhiW minor creeds and con- 
fessions were called into being by the force of events 
from time to time. 

The rise of Protestantism furnished a new class of 
symliols which were intended to serve as marks of dis- 
tinction l>etween the old papal and the new evangelical 
churches. Of these the first was the A ugnburg Couj'ts- 
Mon (q. V.) of 15i)0, and the supplementary symbolical 
books of the Lutheran Church, cUtsiiig with the Hook 
of Concord in 1580. The Keforme<l churches framed 
distinct symbols of their own— the Zin'ttglian, the T*" 
trofuditunn^ etc. < >f this class the Thirty-nine A rticUs 
of the Church (►f England, the I/tidtlbtrg Calt-chifm, 
and the second //ilrefir ConJtMton (see the respective 
articles) acquireil especial prominence^ The liomish 
Church, f«ir its part, was obliged, by the rise of Pn>tes- 
tantinm, to formulate its faith anew with a view to 
marking the features {Kruliar to its teachings, which 
was done in the Prift-j^m) Fidei Tridentina and the ( '<iff' 
rhitmu* liomanu* (see the corresponding articles). The 
accumulation of tliis wealtli of material has operated 
decisively upon symlMdics, so that the term has come to 
denote tht scifnc*" irhich in t^nployed vjwh thf doctrines 
that di*tinguiih the. ntnral couffAsimi* of Chrinttndoni. 
Its mfthul may be historical, statistical, [Hilemical. or 
irenical ; but the gr«>und upon which it 0|>erates can 
oidy be that of comparison of dogma"*. 

Like the historv of doctrines, to wliich it stands re- 
lated, symbolics is a mo<lern branch of theological Si>i- 
ence, but is poss<'Ssed of so much individuality as to 
necestiitate a separate treatment. The foundation for 
the science was laid in the preliminary works of Walch, 
Sfmlcr, Planck, and others (see below, JAteratnre). while 
its ai'tual beginnings date to Winer and Marheineke. 
The former drew up tables in which he simply present- 
ed to view, side by si<le, the differences existing in the 
various confessions, while the latter sought to exhibit 
the internal unity of each separate confession. It is 
evident that the trt>atinent of symbolics requires the use 
of lM>th these meth<Hls, and will var\' according as the 
writer occupies the ground of one confession or another, 
or as he places hims4'lf aln)ve all cmif'tmon*. It was 
because of this fact that Mohler's Symboliky from the 
Homan (*atholic [M>int of view, dn'W forth the famous 
work of IJaur fn)m the Evangelical position (see Iwlow). 
The science sj)eedily developed the necessity for examin- 
ing its material, not simply in the letter of the symbol- 
ical books, but in the spirit of the confessions. Every 
detail has acconlingly been made the subject of earnest 
study ; and the ethical, social, political, and artistic bear- 


iDgs and differences of the various sv'mbols have been blem of redemption. The dove is a symbol of the Holy 
, examined. This fact gives rise to the question wheth- Spirit (Matt, iii, IG) : issuing from the mouth of the 
er the term symbolics is adequate to the thing it is in- d^^ing, it is an emblem of the souL The olive-branch is 
tended to represent ; but all attempted substitutes have an emblem of |)eace (Gen. viii, 11); the palm, of mar- 
been so clumsy that they failed to win their way into tyrdom (Kev. vii, 9). The lily representa chastity ; the 
favor. In Great Britain and America the subject is lamp, piety (Matt, xxv, 1-12); tire, zeal or the suffer- 
usually included under dogmatic theology (q. v.). ings of martyrdom ; the flaming heart, fervent piety 
Literature. — Walch, IntrocL in Libros St/mb. Ecci. Ltdk. and spiritual love ; the peacock, immortality ; the crow, 
(Jen. 1782); Semler, Apparat. ad Libros Symb, EccJes, victory: on women, it signifies the bride of Christ. The 
Litth, (Halle, 1775) ; Feuerlin, BibL Symbolica (Gott. sword, axe, lance, and club indicate martyrdom ; the 
1752, 1768); Planck, Gesch. d. Entstehung^ d, Verdnde- skull and scourge, penance ; the chalice, faith ; the ship, 
rvmgen^ u. d BUdung des prot, Lehrbegriffi (Leips. 1791- the Christian Church ; the anchor, faith (Heb. vi, 19). 
1800) ; id. H%$t. v. vergUichende DarsteUung d. vemchie- Each color also has a symbolic meaning in art, for whicli 
denen Dognu-Sysleme, etc. (Gott. 1796; 3d ed. 1822); see article C'OIX>r. In Koman Catholic art, also, each 
Winer, Comparative Darst, d. I^hrbegr. d. rerschiedenm apostle has his own symbol, as follows : Peter, the keys, 
Kirchenparteieti, etc. (Leips. 1824, etc. 4to); Marhei- or a fish; Andrew, the transverse cross which bears his 
neke, Sgmbolik (Heidelb. 1810, etc.) ; id. Irut, Syntboiica name; James the Greater, the pilgrim's staff"; John, the 
/>f*c/rtVwr«w, etc. (Berl. 1812, etc) ; Marshy Comp, Viete eagle, or the chalice with the serpent; Thomas, a 
of the Churches of EwjUvui and Route (Lond. 1841, 8vo); builder's rule; James the Less, a club ; Philip, a small 
Mohler, Symbolik (Mayence, 6th ed. 1843) ; Baur, Gegeu" cross on a staff, or crosier surmounted by a cross ; Bar- 
satz d, Katholicismus u, ProtestatttismuSj etc. (Tub. 1834). tholomew, a knife ; Matthew, a purse ; Simon, a saw ; 
See in connection therewith Sack, Nitzsch, etc. ; Koll- Thaddeus, a halberd or lance ; Matthias, a lance. The 
ner, Symb. alter christl, Conf. (Hamb. 1837; 1844, 2 various monastic orders have also each its own symboL 
vols.); Guericke, AUgem. christl, ASymhoL [Lutheran] See Jameson and Eastlake, History of Our I^rd as A>- 
(Leips. 1839); Kudelbach, Reformation^ Luthnihum und emplijied in Works of A rt (Lond. 1864, 2 vols.) ; Didn>n, 
IJnitm (ibid. 1839); (iobel, Lutherische u. ref Kirche Christian Iconography^ or History of Christian Art in 
(Bonn, 1837); Schncckenburger, Lutherisch, u. ref the Afiddie Ages {ibid. \Sb\, ed. Bohii). 
Lehrbegnffe (Stuttg. 1855 posthumous) ; ™er8ch, A'ri- Symb61um (^vpfioXov), a Greek term for (1) the 
thol. u. Protestantismus [lectures J /B-rl. 1848, 2d ed.) ; ^dv eucharist; (2) a creed ; (3) a bell. See Symbou 
Schenkel, irM<^M/./'ro^e*/a»/tffnM/^(SchaffT)au8en, 1846- * '^^ '^' 

52, etc. ). See especiallv Schaff, Creeds of Christendom Sjrmd. m Greek mythology, was a nymph, daugh- 

( N. Y. 1877,^ vols. 8vo).-Herzog, Real-Encykhp. s. v. ^««" "^ lalymus and Dotis. She was beloved of the ^^' 

See Symbolical Books. *^* Glaucus, who carrieil her off to an island near 

Symbolism is that svstem which represents moral Klnxles, on the coast of Caria, which received its name 

or intellectual qualiries bv external signs or svmbols. f»^n> ^er (Athenieus, vii, 296). By Neptune she bore 

It iM «!haracteri8tic of the ^rlicr an<l ruder stages of de- ^hthonius, who colonizcil the island from Lmdus. 
vclopment, when the mind and moral nature have not Symeon the Stylite. See Simeon, St. 
yet gn.wn to the age which takes direct cognizance of Symmachia, in Greek mvthology, was a surname 

mental and moral quahties, or takes cognizance of them ^f y^,^^^ ^^ Mantinea, in Arcadia, 
only through external signs that bear a real or a con- a \^x n> 

ventional resemblance to them. Tlie Old Test, is full SymmacWana. The term designates the mem- 

of svmboli«m ; the Jewish Temple, like the Tabernacle ^« ^^ * ^^ mentioned only by Philaster (//rrr. Ixiii). 

which it superseded, though no image of the Deity was ^e descnbes them as adherents of Patncius, who taught 

perraitt4;d in it, was it.self a svmbol of the soul of man, t^«' <^^« *»""»»»» ^^V "^'^ "^^ ^^i^^ed by God, but by 

in which God abides, if it l>e holy and ready to receive **»« **«^i*- *"^* ^^^^ >' «*»«"1^» ^ ^^""^^ »" ^^'«0' powi- 

hini ; and all its utensils, as well as all its sen-'ices, were ^^^ ^«>'' ""»<^*^^« «^'«» *>«»"« regarded as allowable. The 

svmlK.lical. See Type, and the various articles on the Svmmachians asserted also that every vice and fleshly 

Old-Test, ceremonials and sacred objects. Svmbolism ^»«' »^»«"1** command the .ibedience of mankind, and 

was also naturally characteristic of the Church of the ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ "" *^"t"'« judgment for the race. It is 

Mid<lle Ages, which undertook to carrv home to the ^"^^ probable, however, that the Symmachians were 

eyes, minds, and hearts of the people spiritual truths il>8C»Ple8 of Syramachus (q. v.) of Samaria, a Jew who 

through external svm!)ols. The origin of some of these ^^a*"^ * Christian, consorted with the Ebionites, and 

it is now difficult to discover. Manv naturally suggest furnished a Greek version of the Old Test, which stands 

the correlative truth to the mind; others make the sug- ^^""^ t^»«<^ ^^ Theoilotion in the Polyglot, but is of 

ge^ion through historical «.r scriptural association. The more recent date than the latter. Petavius (in Xotfs 

f.)llowing is a partial list of some of the principal svm- '"^ Epiphamus, n, 400) endeavors to trace their origin 

bols in use in t he Christian churches, for a fuller account ^« V*"^ another Sy mraachus ; and Valesius (on Euseb. vi. 

ofwhich the reader is referred to Clements [Mrs.], //tfndL *') «»>'« that a Jewish-Chrisiian sect onginated with 

hmk ofUffendary and Mythological A rt. The glorv, an- ^^^ Ebionitc Symmachus, of whom Ambrose states, in- 

reole, and nimbus all represent light or lightness, aiid are « conimentarj- on the Epistle to the Galatians, that they 

svmbols of sanctitv. The nimbus surrounds the head ; ^^escended from the Pharisees, kept the whole law, call- 

t'he aureole the b<^<lv ; the glory unites the two. The ^^ themselves Christians, and followed Photinus in the 

nimbus attaches in 'Roman Catholic art to all saints; belief that Christ was merely a man. The Manichasan 

the aureole and glorv onlv to the pers4)ns of the God- F«"stus (see Augustine, Contra Faust, xix, 14), on the 

head an<l to the Virgin M'ary. The fish is an emblem ""^^^^ *>»"**' describes the Symmachians as Nazarene^ 

of Clhrist. Sec Ichth vs. The cross, in its various forms, «"d Augustine adds {Contra Cresconium, i, 31) that they 

is also an emblem both of Christ and his passion. See ^■«»"« ^"^ ^^"^ »" number m his time, and that they 

Cross: Ckucifix; Labarum. The lamb is a common practiced both Jewish circumcision and Christian bap- 

svmbol of Christ. It derives its significance from the ^>»"™- ^^ Fabncius [.loann. Alb.], Philastni de Haresi. 

fact that it was one of the chief sacrifices of the Jewish f^ Liber, cum Emend, ei ,\otu (Hamb. 1^25), p. 12o.— 

Temple, and from the words of John the Baptist, *' he- "erzog, Real-EncykloiK s. v. 

hold the lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the Symm&chuB, pope from A.D. 498 to 514, is noted 

world" (John i, 29). The lamb is often represented in because of his conflicts with the civil power, and his 

art bearing a cross. The lion is another symbol of endeavors to heighten the imptirtance of the Koman 

Christ, who in Scripture is called "the Lion of the tribe see. At the time of his election by the Roman party, 

of Juda" (Rev. v, 5). The pelican, which is said to bare the imperial party had elected the archpresb3rter Lau- 

0[)en her breast to feed her young with blood, is an em- rentius, who was pledge<l to sign the Ilettoticon (q. v.). 




For philological purposes, Syramachus is ju»t as use- 
ful a^ the other (jrreek translators. Biblical crilicLsm 
may also derive some advantage from the translation, of 
course, by exhibiting the greatest care. Thus l^sa. 
XXX, 13, Syramachus reads as our text, "ll^S, and so 
also the Chaldee, Jerome, Syriac, and Tbeodotion, 
against the "^11 33 of the Sept., Vulg., and Arab. ; in 
Ixvi, 13, our t€xt has n'^1">b, but Symraachus, the 
Sept., Syr., and Chald. seem to have read nni"^b. 

The fragments of Symmachus's version of the Old 
Test, are given by Flam. Nobilis in Vet. Te»t, sec. LXX 
I Alt, Redtlitnm^ etc. (Rome, 1587); Dnisius, Vfterum 
Intfi-pretum (iratatrnm in Totum V. 7*. Frnymenta Col- 
lecfOf etc. (Arnheim, 1G22); Bos, V, T. tjr Version. LXX 
Interp. efc.^nec non FragmentU Vfrgwnnm AquU(ry Sym- 
viachi ft Theoilotionis ( Franek. 1709); Montfaucon, 
Hexiiplorum Ory/eiiis qua Supfrmnty etc. (Paris, 1713; 
in a later edition with notes by K. Bahrdr, Ix:ips. 
and LiU)cck, 17G9-70). The fragments on single books 
were eilited by Trendelenburg, ChreMonuithm HexopUirii 
(LUbeck and Leips. 1794) ; S|K)hn, Jeremias Vnttst; Ver- 
itiow JwUnorumj etc. (Lips. 1794, 1824); Segaar, Daniel 
sec, LXX ft Tetnipiis Oritjenis, etc. (Trier, 1775) ; Schar- 
iQwhfiT^y Aninuidnrsiones qnibus Fragmentn Versumum 
V\ T. Euiendantur (Lips. 1776-81), spec, i et ii; Schleus- 
ner, Opuscula Critica ad Versioiies Gnrais V, T, ( ibid. 

Literature, — Eichhom, FinU-itung in ilas Alte Tes- 
tament (4th ed. ). i, 531 S(|. ; Carpzov, Critica Sacra, 
p. 566 sq. ; Keil, Introduction to the Oid Testament^ ii, 
233 s(j.; llvrhHt y Finleitung, i, 16<); Kaulen, Fitdtifung 
iu die heilif/e Svhrijt (Freiburg, 1876), p. 79; Field, 
Origenis Hejraplnrunt qu<e Suftermunt, etc. (Oxonii, 1871), 
p. xxxiv; Fllrst, HiU. Jud. iii, 399 stj. ; Thieme, />w- 
putatio de Puritnte Symmachi (Lips. 1755); Geiger, 
Jiidische ZeifschrijH (fjreslau, 1862), i, 39-64, and his 
i\achf/eias*ene SchrijUn (Berl. 1877), iv, 88 sq. ; Theoh- 
gisches I'nivtrsat-Lexikon, s, v.; Ileidenheim, Viertel- 
jahrsschrijX (1867), iii, 463 sq. See CiKKEK VEitsioxs. 

Symmachus, Quinti's Aukki.iuh, a prspfect, pon- 
tiff, and augur of Home in its declining age, remarkable 
for his eliHjuent appeal against the ruin threatened by 
the triumph of Christianity ; he is the auttior of Fpistles 
still extant. His zeal for the ancient faith of Rome 
exercised throughout life a marke<l influence uiK>n his 
character. He was chosen by the senate to remonstrate 
with Gratian on the removal of the altar of victory (A.D. 
382), from their council-hall, and for curtailing the an- 
nual allowance to the Vestal Virgins. The emperor 
banislicd him from Rome, but in 384, having l)een ap- 
p<iinted praefect of the city, he urged in an epistle to 
Valentinianus the restoration of pagan deities. In this 
he was uUHuccessful, but without personal loss, being ap- 
pointed consul under TheiMlosius in 391. 

Symmes, William, D.l)., a Unitarian clergy- 
man, was born at Charlestown, Mass., in 1731, and grad- 
uated from Harvard Gdlege in 175(), where he was a 
tutor fn»ra 1755 to 1758. He began to preach in the 
North Parish in Andover, and was ordained its pastor 
Nov. 1, 17;>8, and continueil in that relation until his 
death. May, 1807. Dr. Symmes was a gotui scholar, of 
extensive reading, and an able divine. He published, 
TharJcsgiving Sermon (17t>8) : — Di^amrsv on the Duty 
ami Adrantages of Singing Praises to Gwl (1779) : — 
Sermon at the General Flection (1785). See Sprague, 
Amuils of the A mer. Ihilpif, viii, 35. 

Symmes, Zachariah, a Congregational preacher, 
was born at Canterbury', England, April ,'», 1599. He 
was etlucated at Cambridge, and after leaving the uni- 
versity was employed as tutor in several distinguished 
families. In 1621 he was apftointed lecturer at Atho- 
lines, in London, and in September, 1625, he became 
rector of Dunstable. Embarrassed by his Nonconform- 
ity, he emigrated to New England, where he arrived iii 

August, 1634. He was admitted to the fellowship of 
the Church in Charlestown, Mass., Dec 6, and on the 22d 
of the same month was elected and ordaine<t teacher of 
the same Church, Rev. Thomas James being pastor. 
About a year afterwards he succeeded to the office of 
pastor, which he filled until his death, Feb. 4, 1671. See 
Sprague, A nnals of the A mer. Pulpit, i, 47. 

Sympathy {avpira^uayftllmc-feeling) is the qual- 
ity of being affected by another's affection. It waa orig- 
inally used, like pity and compassion, to signify our fel- 
low-feeling with the sorrows of others, but now it is 
used to <lenote our fellow-feeling with any passion what- 
ever. Sympathy with sorrow or suffering is compassion, 
with joy or prosperity is congratulation. 

Sjrmphony {avp^i»tvia) originally signified the 
union of several voices in a chant, but by motlern mu- 
sicians it is applied to an instrumental coni)x>sition. gen- 
erally used as a kind of introductory movement to an- 
thems and other pieces. Symphonies are intriMluced 
with gooii effect in the interval of the voices, and are 
called /ir^/Mf/**^ when playetl U'fore the psalmody, in/*r- 
luiUs when thev mark the distinction of verses, and 
jtost-ludes when introduced at the close of the psalm. 

Sjrmphori&nus, a (iallic martyr at Autuii in the 
reign of Aurelian. He was cited Ix-fore the pnefect 
Heraclius liecause he had refused to lionor the statue 
of Berecynthia, and rejected the intiuence of af>[>eals 
and scourgingH. His mother sup|K)rted him with her 
exhortations to fidelity. He was beheaded without the 
town walls and burie<l in a cell in the fields. His grave 
became so remarkable for cures and miracles that it 
compelled the reverence even of the heathen. The 
narrative in the Acta Beati Symph., as here outlined, 
seems to involve something of fact. The worship <»f 
Berecynthia among the ^Edui is a historical fact. (Greg- 
ory of Tours mentions Symphorianus and the miracles 
wrought by his relics {l)e <iU)ria Mart, c. 52). I^ter 
tradition says that a church was, in time, built over his 
grave. The story cannot, however, date further back 
I than the days of (iregory, as is evident from the ch«»s- 
en and even pompous language and the legendary con- 
clusion. The death of Symphorianus is variously fixeii 
in A.D. 180 (the reign of Aurelius), 270, or 280 (Aurelian). 
He is commemorated on Aug. 22. See the Acta SS, 
8. V. — Herzog, Real- Fncyklop, ». v. 

Symphordsa, the Christian widow of a martynnl 
tribune. Hadrian had built a temple at Tibur (Tivoli), 
and was al)out to dedicate it with religious ceremonies 
when he learned that Syraphorosa was a zealous Chris- 
tian. He caused her. with her seven sons, Uy be sum- 
moned, and sought by (>ersuasion to induce her to 4»ffer 
sacrifices. On her refusal, t he em{)eror threatened her, 
and had her carried to the Temple of Hercules at Tivoli, 
where she was beaten with fist«i, hung up by the hair, 
and afterwards taken down and ilrowncil. Her broth- 
er Eugene, a councillor of Tivoli, recovered the body 
and buried it in the suburbs. On the following day 
her sons were brought l>efore the same temple and im- 
paled in various miules, after which their boilies were 
thrown into a deep pit, which subsequently became 
known as the f»it ad septcm biothanatos. The persecu- 
tion then rested for a year and a half, during which pc- 
riwi the remains of the martyrs were interred on the 
Via Tiburtina and honored as they deserved. The na- 
talities of Symphorosa and her sons are observed on 
July 18 (see Ruinart, Acta Primorum yfartyrum^ p. 
18). The legend exists in manuscript form among the 
writings falsely a*H.'ril>ed to Julius Africanus, and may 
have originated in the third centur}*, though the con- 
tents do not harmonize well with the known ordinary 
conduct of Hadrian. Ruinart sup|)oses the probable pe- 
rio<l of the occurrence to have been A.D. 120. See ailso 
the .4 eta SS. sub July 18. — Herzog, Heal-Fncyldop, s. v. 

Symposia ( ovpTTiHtiay Ixtnquets ) is a word oci*a- 
iiionally used by ecclesiastical writers to describe the 
ancient agaiue (\\, v.). These symjMsia were held at the 




^ave« of ihe mart\Ts; and the fetitival was denigned to 
he, nut only a memorial of the deceased, but, acconling to 
Origen, "an otlor of a Bweet smell in the sight of (iwl;" 
ioT the pour aii<l needy, the widows and orphans, met 
it^ther, and were refreshed by the charity of the rich. 

Sympson, Citiibert, a layman and a deacon of 

the C4>ugregational Church at Islington, of which Kufl 

<or liough) wad pastor. He was arrested Dec. 13, 1557, 

4uid tortured, being racked three times to make him 

-<iivulge the members of the Protestant Church of which 

he was deacon. He was eventually burned at Smith- 

tiel.l, March 28, 1558. See Punchanl, JJist, of Congre- 

jfatioMaiumj ii, d'2(>, 347. 

SynaffOgue (mfvayuiyi) ; other equivalent terms 

ate TTpomvxn or TrpotrfVKTtipiov, i. e. chii/H I; I leb. '13?'113 

^H,ar asu^mUy o/GihI; Aramaic Xrr:3 "^2, Xrr23), 

the Jewish place of wori^hip in p<>?<t- Biblical and nifKl- 
tm time:*. However obscure the origin of these cstal>- 
lishinentt, they eventually became nn impiirtant and 
<haracteri»tic as to furnish a dcdiguation of the Jewish 
Church itself in later literattire. 

It may be well to note at the outset the points of 
cwuact between the history and ritual of the svna- 
gitj^uc^ of the Jews, and the facts to which the inquiries 
of Ihe Bii)lical student are principally directed. 1. 
Theymevt us as the great characteristic institution of 
the later phase of Judaism. More even than the Tem- 
ple aiul its servit^es, in the time of which the New Test, 
^wai^they at once represented and determined the re- 
ligious life of the people. '2. We cannot separate them 
from the most intimate connection with our l^)rd's life 
«n<l miui:«ir\'. In them he worshipped in his youth 
wd in his manhiMxi. Whatever we can learn of the 
ritual which then prevailed tells us of a worship which 
JJ** rwigniscd and sanctioned; which for that reason, 
jf for no other, though, like the statelier services of the was dehtine<l to jmiss away, is worthy <if our 
"biwi anil honor. They were the scenes, too, of no 
''Ball portion of his work. In I hem were wrought some 
^Hiis mightiest works of healing (Matt, xii, 9; Mark 
\ii; L4ike xiii, 11). In them were s|K)kcn some of 
tlw must glorious of his rec«irde<i words (iv, 1<> ; John 
^'. o9); many more, beyond all reckoning, which are 
not recordctl'rMatt. iv,'2:i; xiii, 54; John xviii, 2(), 
*f<*.'. 3. There are the questions, leading us back to 
« ft'moter past. In what did the worship of the syiia- 
g'Jlk'in' originate? What type was it intended to repro- 
duce? What customs, alike in nature, if not in name, 
"^nwi as the starting -pi»int for it? 4. The syna- 
S^^.with all that l>elouged to it, was connected with 
*•»« future as well a^ with the f>ast. It was the t»rder 
^ith which the !ir»t Christian iK-lievers were most fa- 
"•iliar, frura which they were m(>st likely to take the 
<>ntline!Sor even the details, of the wt»rship, organiza- 
t'tHi. and government of their own society. Widely 
■•liverKent ai» the two words and the things they rep- 
'^nieil afterwards became, the ecclesia had its start- 
JOfl'Point in the synagogue. 

1. Siintf and ifn Sit/tnjicatinn, — The word (Tvyaywyt), 

*hich literally sigiiitios a fjatherwff, is not unknown in 

€l»ical (;reek (Thutyd. ii, IS; Plato, Rrpufd. b'>i\ D), 

^^ became prominent in that of the Hellenists. It 

•Ppears in the Sept. as the translation of not less than 

twenty-one Hebrew words in which the idea of a gath- 

^"''g is im))lied (Tromm, CvnconUtnf. s. v.). Hut, al- 

^•^gh the word is there used to denote any kiud of 

^Afo*;, hrapf nuiMf or assemUof/*', such as a yalher- 

^i' fruits (for the Heb.qOK, q'^DX, Exod. xxiii, 1<>: 

«xiv, 22), of water (0^pT3, Hip^, Gen. i, 9 ; I.ev. xi, 

^).« heap of stones (bj, Job viii, 17), a band, ofswfjrrs 

(^'Ht:, Jcr, xxxi, 4, 13), a mass or multitude of people 

Offoldiers (HBOSC, i'^H, Isa. xxiv, 22; Ezek. xxxvii, 

JO), a tribe or family (r'^S, 1 Kings xii, 21), etc., yet 

<^ prrdominant usage in this version is to denote an 

appointed meeting of people either for ciril or religious 
putposeSf thus being synonymous with tKKXrjma. This 
is evident from the fact that the Sept. uses (Tvvayioyff 
130 times for the Hebrew T^iy. and twentv-tive times 
for 5H|?, which in seventy instances is rendered in the 
same version by tKKXijcria, The synonymous usage in 
the Sept. of these two expressions is also seen in Prov. 
v, 14, where tKKXrjma and trvvayioyi) stand in juxta- 
position for the Hebrew bnp and niy. In the books 
of the Apocrypha, the word, as in those of the Old Test., 

retains its general meaning, and is not use<i sftecidcally 
for any recognised place v»f worshif). For this the rc- 
ceivetl phrase seems to be tottoc irpomvxiii' (1 Mace, 
iii, 40; 3 Mace, vii, 20). In the \ew Test., however, we 
find (Twayutyri, like iKKXiima, used metonymically, more 
especially for an appointed and recognhied Jewish place 
of worship (Matt, iv, 23 ; vi, 2, .5 ; ix, 35, etc.). Some- 
times the word is applied to the tribunal which was 
connected with or sat in the synagogue in the narrower 
sensti (Matt, x, 17; xxiii, 34: Mark xiii, 9; Luke xxi, 
12; xii, 11). Within the limits of the Jewish Church 
it perha|»8 kept its ground as denoting the place of 
meeting of the Christian brethren (James ii. 2). It seems 
to have Ix-en claimed by some of the psc*u<Io-.Judaizing, 
half-(inostic sects of the Asiatic cliurches f«»r their 
meetings ( Kev. ii, 9). It was not altogether (»bsolete, 
as applied to Christian meetings, in the time of Ig- 
natius (A/>. ad Trail, c. v; ad Polyc. c. iii\ Even in 
Clement of Alexandria the two words appear united as 
they hail done in the Sept. {iiri rfir nvt'ayiuyi)v tKKXrj- 
rricif, Strom, vi, (kJ3). Afterwanis, when the chasm l>e- 
tween Judaism and Christianity became wider, Chris- 
tian writers were fimd of dwelling on the meanings of 
the two words which practically represented them, and 
showing how far the synagogue was excelled by the 
ecclesia (August. Knarr. in Psa, Ixrr ; Trench, Syno- 
nyms of X. T.^ 1). The cognate woni, however, (ti't- 
a^iC* was formed or a<lopted in its (dace, and applied to 
the highest act of worship and communion for which 
Christians met (Suicer, Thesaur. s. v.). 

More dehnite than the (ireek term synagogue is the 
ancient Hebrew name, beth tephilldh ( n^BH n^3, 
TOTTO^ 7rpo(Tfi'\i;c, or simply Trpotrtvxij ) =^ house of 
prayer (Acts xvi, 13, for which the Syriac rightly has 
Xnbs n^3 ; Josephus, Lif^ 54), which is now obso- 
lete, or Iteth hak ' kenenth (rC2SM n^3)=Ao»/«^ of 
assemUyj which has superseded it. This definite local 
signiticiition of the term synagogue among the Jews 
has necessitated the use of another expression for the 
members constituting the assembly, which is XPTU^SD 
or ""1328, to express our secondary sense of the word 

II. History of the Origin and Development of Ihe 
Synagt>gue.—\. According to tradition, the patriarchs 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob instituted the prayers three 
times a day (lierakoth, 2G b),and had places of worship 
(comp. the Chahlee paraphrases of Onkelos, Jonathan 
l)en-rzziel, and the Jerusalem Targum on (ien. xxiv, 
02, fi3; XXV, 27). We are informed that there were 
synagogues in the time of the pious king Hezekiah 
(Sanhednn^ 94 b) ; that the great house (bn*ia H^S) 
was a stupendous synagogue ; that the many houses 
of Jerusalem (D"*bwTi'i "^na ) which Nebuchadnezzar 
burned (2 Kings xxv, 9) were the celebrated 480 syna- 
gogues that existed in Jerusalem (Jerusalem Mtgillah, 
iii, 1), and that in Babylon the synagogue was to l>e 
seen in which Daniel used to pray {Hrnbhi, 21 a). Wc 
have the testimony of Benjamin of Tudela, the cele- 
brated traveller of the Middle Ages, that he hinwlf 
saw the synagogues built by Moses, David, Obadinh, 
Nahum, and Ezra ( Itinerary, i, 90, 91, 92, 100, hW. od. 
Ast^her [I»ndon, 1840]). It is in harmony with this 
tradition that James declares ''Moses of old time hath 


in every city them that preach hiro, being read in the et'a answer is that it was not so. Jehovah was as truly 
ti>'nagogae8 every Sabbath day*' (Acts xv, 21; comp. with them in their "little sanctuary'* as he had been 
Philo,ii, 167,630; Jo8ephus,i4/>M7n, ii) 18; Baba Kama, in the Temple at Jerusalem. His presence, not the- 
82 a; Jerusalem 3/«^»^^i iv, 1). But these are simply outward glory, was itself the sanctuary (xi, 15, 16). 
traditions, which love to invest everything with the The whole history of Ezra presupposes the habit of sol- 
halo of the remotest antiquity. emn, probably of periodic, meetings (Ezra viii, 15 ; Neh, 
2. In the Old Test, itself we find no trace of meet- viii, 2 ; ix, 1 ; Zech. vii, 5). To that period, accord- 
iiigs for worship in s^'nagogues. On the one hand, it is ingly, we may attribute the revival, if not the institu- 
probable that if new moons and Sabbaths were observed tion, of synagogues, or at least of the systematic meet- 
at all, they must have been attended by some celebra- ings on fasts for devotion and instruction (Zech. viii,. 
tion apart from, as well as at, the tabernacle or the 19). Religious meetings were also held on Sabbatha 
Temple (1 Sam. xx, 5; 2 Kings iv, 23). On the other, and fasts to instruct the exiles in the diWne law, and to 
so far as we find traces of such local worship, it seems admonish them to obey the divine precepts (Ezra x, 1- 
to have fallen too readily into a fetich religion, sacri- 9; Neh. viii, 1, 3; ix, 1-3; xiii, 1-3). These meetings^ 
fices to ephods and teraphim (Judg. viii, 27 ; xvii, 5) in held near the Temple and in other localities, were the 
groves andonhigh-placeSfOffering nothing but a contrast origin of the synagogue, and the place in which the 
to the " reasonable service," the prayers, psalms, instruc- people assembled was denominated roasn r.*^a, the 
tion in the law, of the later synagogue. The special ^^^^ of assembly; hence, also, the sj-nagogue in the 
mission of the pnests and Levites under Jehoshaphat ^. , / -^.r ^he eldere of this svnaffo/ue handed 
(2 Chron. xvii, 7 9) shows that there was no reguUr ^hTutt^The-high prfi^^^^^^^^^ 

provision for reading the "book of the law of the Lord" •• ^ o^ ., , • *:. -a /tr -j l\ . i 

' . , I 1 •» I Ki ^1 * *u 1,. vu, 7, 8), aided in the sacnnces (Tamtd^ v, 5), took 

to the people, and makes It probable that even the rule x. l i,\. ^ % ..^x. v .ctx i 

, . . *^ ' '..^ . .._ . .. r 1 1 I 1 _ charge of the palms used at the teast of Tabernacles 

h ^ th t h been a life analo oiw in man" ^ ^^® ^^^ ^""^ occasion of Psa. Ixxiv, there mu«t. at 

ofTu feitu^T ToThat'^of the"later''E^nrand Thera- "^^^X '"^r"' ^"l"^' *"*'" *^" * ^'^*',cti<Hi 

peutaj, to that of the c^^obia and monasteries of Chris- «^ ^^« buildings, and a consequent Buspension of the 

It 1 .V I 1 * . r .u !•» r r — 1 Services. It is, at anv rate, stnkmg that they are not 

tendom. In the abnormal state of the polity of Israel . ^ . /•».». P u- . • i 

.4, , , . . • J / •<■ • in any way prominent in the Maccabwan hi8tor\', either 

under Samuel, thev appear to have aimed at punfvmg u- , A .. i. n • • . cac * i 

,, , . , ^. • u • u 1 r • 1 1 » - . ° as objects of attack or rallving-pomts of defence, uule«« 

the worship of the high-places from idolatrous associa- •' ^ ... »v • i-»i . i i 

, *^ ^ ^ ", V , .« J I 1 we are to sec in the iratheniii; of the persecuted Jewa 

r^m1x"l2 " 5) T^s^neTflm x^^li »' ^^^P^' (^'^P-^^' - -^ » " P»«- ^^^^ ^»»^>' P->-^ 

(1 .^ain. IX, U , X, 5). i he scene m i Jiam. xix, /u-^4 ^^^^^j^^ j^ ^BtMy. ^1 j^,^^^ jj. ^^^ ,„,^ ^^j ^ ^^^j, 

indicates that the meetings were open to any worship- f» u » i i i u . .u 

. . u * u * II - «*u iiiscence of its old glorv as a holv place, but the contm- 

pers who might choose to come, as well as to " the sons - \ » * wu »u * * i 

^ .u 1. . .» ^u u ^i r .u J *u 1 uance of a more recent custom. When that strugicle 

of the prophet," the brothers of the order themselves. ^. . u i t^ t % 

«,. \ *^ ' ... . . ... * • 1- * was over, there appears to have been a freer develop- 

The only prc-exilian instance which seems to indicate ^ r u » i n j u • • • 

^. , . ''.^ . , , • .u u U-. r .• ment of what may be called the svnagogue parochial 

that the devout m Israel were in the habit of resorting . _ »u i r t> i .* j .iT 

, , r 1 1 • I • t *• i. *. 1 system among the Jews of Palestine and other coun- 

to nious leaders for blessings and instruction on stated J. r^i • u r i i n >i 

• . ..If 1 • o t" • no u »u tnes. The mniience of John Ilvrcanus, the growiiiir 

ST*""'* !f .'" i:* I""";' '" ^ YxX ; • "!■"''»" power of the Ph.ri»ee^ the .uthoritv of Uie Scril«^ the 

Sh.mnmm.te» hu,ban.l Mk,, "Wherefore thou i:e,„pie,prob«blv,«f the Jew8of the "Uu.per»io.r (Vi- 

go to him (Klisha) to-dav? It is neither new moon , . _j ,, *^., -' ..,^v 1 1 n » i • •u \«« 

43 uu .u .f V * rt v' •• o . o r«u tnnga,Z>« »SjwfM/v. p. 42b), would all tend m the same di- 

nor Sabbath.' ^et 2 Kings xxii, 8, etc. ; 2 Chron. T^ «' n • V * -u ^ u i -. 

,. , . »-r 1 1 » ji • » \u • * rection. nell-nigh everv town or village had lU one 

xxxiv 14 etc., testify undoubtedly against the exist- ^^ ^^^ synagogues. Where the Jews were not in suf- 

ence of places of worship under the monarchy. The fl^^^^, numbers to be able to erect and till a building, 

date of Psa. Ixxiv is too unceruin for us to draw any t^ere was the Trpomvxh, <>r pl«ce of prayer, sometimes 

inference as to the nature of the "synagogues of God" open, sometimes covered in, commonly by a nmiiing 

(bx '^17?.'i^t meeting-places of (lod), which the invaders stream or on the sea-shore, in which devout Jews and 

an* represented as destroying (ver. 8). It may have proselytes met to worship, an<l, perhaps to read (Acts 

belonged to the time of the Assyrian or Chaldaean in- xvi, 13; Josephus, Atit, xiv, 10, 23; Juvenal, Hat. iii^ 

vasion (Vitringa, I)e Synag, p. 396-406). It has been 296). Sometimes the term irpoakvxh i = ^^^^ ^"^5) 

referretl to that of the Maccabees (De Wette, PscUmen^ was applied even to an actual synagogue (Josephus, 

ad loc.\ or to an intermediate period when Jerusalem At/e, § 64). Eventually wc tind the Jews posAcssing 

was taken and the land laid waste by the army of synagogues in the diflfcrent cities of Syria, Asia Minor, 

lt;igoses, under Artaxerxes II (Ewald, Pott, Buck, ii, Greece, Egypt, aud wherever tliey resided. We hear 

308). The "assembly of the elders," in Psa. cvii, 32, of the apostles fre<i(ienting the synagogues in Datnas- 

leaves us in like uncertainty. cus, Antioch, Iconium, Thessalonica, Berea, Athens, 

3. During the Exile, in the abeyance of the Temple Corinth, Ephesus, etc. (Acts ix, 2, 20 ; xiii, 14; xiv, 1 ; 

worship, the meetings of devout Jews prolmbly became xvii, 1, 10, 17; xviii, 4, 19; xix, 8). There were nu- 

more systematic (Vitringa, /^ «VyM//^. p. 413-429; Joat, merous synagogues in Palestine: in Nazareth (Matt. 

Judt^ifhunij i, 168; Boniitius, De Sytuigog, in Ugolino, xiii, 64, Mark vi, 2; Luke iv, 16), Capernaum (Matt. 

Tfwsaur. xxi), and must have heljKMl forward the xii, 9; Mark i, 21; Luke vii, 5; John vi, 69), etc. ; and 

change which appears so conspicuously at the time of in Jenisalem alone there wltc 180 (Jerusalem Meffiilahy 

the Ketiirn. The repeated mention of gatherings of the iii, 1 ; Jerusalem Kethuboth^ xiii) to accommodate the 

elders of Israel, sitting before the prophet Ezekicl and Jews from foreign lands who visited the Temple, 

hearing his word (Ezck. viii, 1 ; xiv, 1 ; xx, 1 ; xxxiii, There were synagogues of the Libertines, Cyrenians, 

81), implies the transfer to the land of the Captivity of Alexandrians, Cilicians and of the Asiatics (Acts vi. 9; 

the custom that had originated in the schools of the comp. Toriphta MttjUUthy ii ; Babylon MegUlahj 26 a), 

prophets. One remarkable passage may possibly con- When it is remembered that more than 2,50O,0(H) Jews 

tain a more distinct reference to them. Those who came together to the metropolis from all countries 

still remained in Jerusalem taunted the prophet and his iu celebrate the Passover (Josephus, Ant. vi, 9, 3; Pt-- 

companions with their exile, as outcasts from the bless- mchim^ 64 a), this number of synagogues in Jemsalenn 

ings of the sanctuary, "(iet ye far from the Lord; will not appear at all exaggerated. An idea may be 

unto us is this land given in a possession." The proph- formed of the large number of Jews at the time of 




Christ, when it is borne in mind that in EgA'pt alone, 
from the Mediterranean to the border of Ethiopia, there 
resided nearly a million of Jews (Philo, Againitt Flac- 
<*v«, ii, 523); and that in Sjrria, especially in the me- 
tropolU, Antioch, the Jews ooostituted a large portion 
of the population (Griltz [2d ed.], iii, 282). 

UL Site, Structure, Internal A rrangement, Ute, and 
Sanctity of the Sytagogue. — 1. Taking the Temple as 
the prototype, and following the traditional explana- 
tion of the passagea in Prov. i, 21 and Ezra ix, 9, which 
are taken to mean that the voice of prayer is to be 
raised on heighu (2(*^pn 192("i3), and that the sanctu- 
ary was therefore erecteil on a summit (PM Dd*)b 
d'^bM n^S), the Jewish canons decreed that syna- 
gogues are to be built upon the most elevated ground 

in the neighborhood, and that 
no house is to be allowed to over- 
top them ( Tosiphta Mepiiliih^ iii ; 
Maimonides, Jitd Ha'Cheztika 
HUchoih TephUa, xi, 2). So es- 
sential was thid law deemed, and 
so strictlv was it observed in Per- 
sia, even after the destruction of 
Probable Representa- ^^e Temple, that Kab (A.D. 165- 
tion «>f au Ancient ,. ._v %. • . . • r 

Sjuagoffue. ( From 247) prophesied a speedy nun of 

A i*li>ne in the mined those cities in which houses were 
«Tnagv»gne at Tell permitted to tower above the 
™*' synagogue, while rabbi Ashi de- 

cJ[a.Ted that the protection of Sora was owing to the ele- 
vatced »ite of its synagogues {SabUuh, 11a). Lieut, 
iv. i cclieiier, however, states (Quar. StateTiitnt of the ** Pal. 
Elacplur. Fund,'' July, 1878, p. 123 sq.) that the ruins of 
1 1^«; fourteen specimens of ancient synagogues extant in 
E^aalestine (all in (ialilee) do not correspond to these Tal- 
Da utdical requirements as to location, nor yet to those be- 
lo>w as to position ; for they are frequently in rather a low 
AX («, and face the south if possible. Failing of a cora- 
■xx funding site, a tall pole rose from the roof to render it 
croaispicuous (I^yrer, in Herzog's Rrul-Kneyklop. s. v.). 

The riverside outside the city was also deemed a 
^Kx I table spot for building the synagogue, because, be- 
xixj^ removed from the noise of the city, the people 
<=<»«jld worship <vO(l without distraction, and, at the same 
t a noe, have the use of pure water for immersions and 
o^tier religious exercises (Acts xvi, 13; Josephus, Ant, 
^ici V, 10, 23 ; Juvenal, Sat, iii, 12, etc ; see also the Chal- 
•^^« venions on Gen. xxiv, 62). See Pkosruciia. 

The building was commonly erected at the cost of 

district, whether by a church-rate levied for the 

,or by free gifts, must remain uncertain (Vitrin- 

[)e Synagog, p. 229). Sometimes it was built by a 

?"h Jew, or even, as in Luke vii, 5, by a friendly prose- 

^. In the later stages of Eastern Judaism it was 

H □ □ 

 □ B D 

□ B Ga □ 

O B 

□   A 

Plan of Rained Synagogue at Tell H&m. 

often erected, like the mosques of Mohammedans, near 
the tombs of famous rabbins or holv men. 

2. The size of a synagc^ue, like that of a church or 
chapel, varied with the population. We have no rea* 
son for believing that there were any fixed laws of 
proportion for its dimensions, like those which are 
traced in the tal)ernacle and the Temple. 

The building itself was generally in the form of a 
theatre; the door was usually on the west, so that, on 
entering, the worshippers might at once face the front, 
which was tunied towards Jerusalem, since the law is- 
that **all the worshipiiers in Lsrael are to have their 
faces turned to that part of the world where Jerusalem,, 
the Temple, and the Holy of Holies are" (Berakotky 

30 a). This Uw, which is deduced from 1 Kings viii,. 
29 ; Psa. xxviii, 2, and the allegorical interpretation of 
Song of Songs iv, 4, also obtained among the early 
Christians (Origen, Horn. r. in Num. in Opp, ii, 284) and 
the Mohammedans (Koran, c. ii). See KEiiLAH. Hence 
all the windows are said to have been generally in the 
eastern wall, so that the worshippers might l(K)k towards 
the holv citv, in acconlance with Dan. vi, 10. 

Like the Temple, the synagogue was frequently with- 
out a roof, as may be seen from the following remark of 
Epiphanius: "There were anciently places of prayer 
without the city, both among the Jews and the Samar- 
itans; . . . there was a place of prayer at Sichem, now 
called Neapolis, without the city in the fields, in the 
form of a theatre, open to the air, and without cover- 
ing, built by the Samaritans, who in all things imitated 
the Jews" {Contr, Hares, lib. iii, h«r. 80). It was tliis, 
coupled with the fact that the Jews had no images^ 
which gave rise to the satirical remark of Juvenal — 

**Nil prsBter uabes et cceli nunien adoraui." 

{SaL xlv, 98.) 

In some places there were temporary summer and 

irinter synagogues ; they were pulled down and re-erect- 

c<l at the beginning of each season, so that the style 

of building might be according to the period of the 

year (Baha Hathra^ 3 b). 

3. In the internal arrangement of the synagogue we 
trace an obvious analogy, mutatis mutamiis, to the type 
of the tabernacle. At the wall op)HKsitc the entrance, 
or at the Jerusalem end, stoo<i the irooden chest or ark 
(n^ri) containing the scrolls of the law. It stood on 
a raised base with several steps (bDDD^«u6W/i»m,. 
Xft"!^, Jerusalem MegilUihy iii, 1), which the priests 
mounte<l when they pronounced* the benediction (Numb, 
vi, 24-26) upon the congreg^ion. Hence the phrase 
■p^lb nby, which was retained after the deatructioii 
of the Temple to describe the act of giving the bene- 
diction to the people by the priests {Rosh Ha-Shnnahj 

31 b; Sabfnithf 118 b). It is necessar>' to bear in mind 
that the ancient name for this ark is i^^H (romp. 
Minima, Berakoth, v, 3, 4; Taanith, ii, 1. 2; Me- 
f/illnh, iv, 4. etc.), the name afterwards given to it 
(•(■^-K) being reserved for the ark-of-the-covenaiit 
table, which was wanting in the second Temple. 
There was a canopy (Hb'^S) spread over the ark, 
under which were kept the ventments used during 
the service (Jerusalem Afcf/Uinhf iii). In some 
places the ark or chest had two compartments, the 
upper one i^Mitaining the scrolls of the law. and the 
lower the synagogical garments of the officers of 
the rommunitv. The ark was not fastened to the 
wall, but was free, so that it might easily be tak- 
en outside the d«M)r of the synagogue in case a 
death occurred in tlic [dace of worHhip, in order 
that the priests should be able to attend the ser- 
vice; or be removed into the streets when fasts 
and days of humiliation were kept (Mishna, 7a- 
atiifh, ii, 1). Sec Fast. In later times, however, 
a recess was made in the wall, and the ark was 
kept there. This recess was called the Sanctuary 

(br'^H, t'l^p). The same thought was sometimes 






rt'rliipcd Blill furl 


nf Knpirirlli. oi 

le veil whii'h hung Man it (ViuiiiRa, p. ISl). I>ii 
certain ocouuiin lh« ark was reniuvnl fruoi the rnvm 
aiid placed oii Ihe nwtrum (n^''a=fJ(ipnj in Ihe mi.l- 
die of the i>vnai;uKUC ( Tim'piln Mrgiltnt, iii ^ Mumw>- 
iilKh Airf l}a.Cb,:<ihi llOchulh Lalab, vii, ■&). See 
Taukunkci.kij, Kkaht <ik. U'iilitii ihe «rk. u alwve 
irtileiUwere the tnWa iif tlic xarrcil Imuk*. Thr rollrra 
Tounil wtiiKh liicy wnv wiiuiiil were uftpn eiabimlvly 
ilraonilFil, Ihe c««e fut tlirm wnbmiilercd or enamelled, 
sreonlini; to tlieir nutirial. Such casfs wtre curtnmary 
4ilftrili({« (him the rii'h wlieii t.lipy bniu$;ht their infant 
cbililreii mi the liral tiiniveruiry uf their liinhday to be 
Ueaaetl by Ihe raliln uT the tn-nngntrue. 

In frm'it nf Ihe aik was the desk af the leader of 
the divine vtunhlp; anil a* the place uf the ark was 
■mphilhVBlral. Ihe lienk was sometimes iuwer and some- 
limes higher ilian ihr level uf the room. Htnee Ihe 
iiiterchaugcalilr ph[aiu'B''Ar vho daandt b--fiire Iht ark" 
^na-rn --JEb n-ivn) an.l " he h-Ai. ammh U/orr Ihr 
nrk" (nn'rn ^:tt iSlrri) naetl to designate the 

T<tmilli,\\,ii Hrrnt»lh. v,i: Roik Ha-Skaauh,iv,~ ; 
.Wnjittijl,iv, 3,5,7, ele.), 

tnim or |>lair<irm (>•? V?|l?, TVS'i= flifiia, X"IJ^'1>, 
capable nt cuntainint; several persons (Neh. riii, 4 : ix, 
4i Jiw|ihus, Attl. iv, 8, 12). On ihia plalfunn the les- 
sous froin Ihe hw ami the propbcu wen ten), itis- 
<uun>e»ileliver>xl, etc. (Mbhni, Holni, viii,8; Uabvlnti 
S«kk,ih,hl\>;.V^ill,ik,1Si\,). See IIaPXTAHMI. There 
were nn arrangrmeiita nimle at first fur laying duwn Ihe 
law while reailiii)(. nmt Ihe one npoii whom it devulved 
t<> read a iiortion uf the pcrinipc had to hnkl the ndl in 

lii'veil him of it, AfleTwanl^ however, there w«» a 
reailing-deik (*,^l''V;M = ni'nXn7t[o>'1 on this iiUlfiirm. 
and lite mil of the law was laiil down during piuaed, 
t)T yitnn Ikmrlhargrmm (TDl^TC^iirferprfffr) was 
nedlini; in the vernacular of the counCrv the piirti(>ii 

read {Yoma, 68 I 
UrgUUik.iGbi ^^n 
MrgUlah, iii 
The readi ng-desk was 

(StO^B), which va- 
ried in eustlinen ac- 
curding to tlie cir- 
a or the 
congregalion (M.gO- 
luk,-Kby When Ihe 
editice wat large lids 
platfurm was gener- 
aUy in the centre, aa 

synagi^ue at Alex- 


I shipper was invited (James ii, 2, 8). They were jilai-ed 
in frcmt of the ark containing the law, or at the Jeru- 
salem end, in Ihe iippprmnst part of Ihe synagiigue, and 
ihesr distinguirheil pereous sat with their faeea to 
' Ihe pr«\ile, while the congregatimi »Io.«l fscinK hoih 
' Ihese hi>noraWe ones and ihe ark (Titiphlii Mriplhh, 
! iii). In Ihe «ynagcq;iic at Alexandria iliere were sev- 
' eutf-one gohleii chairs, acennliiig lo Ihe inimlier of the 
; membersiiTtlietireat Saiihiilrim fSvHvk,h\ b). See 
S.iMiRiiKiM. In the Bi-nagiigue of Itigdad "the as- 
cent to the tidly ark was ciimpuseil of ten marble sleiis, 
on the npperm<wl of which were the stalls set apart for 
the prince of Ihe Capiivity and the other princes nf the 
house of David" (Ik-njamin of TudeU, llinruiy, i, 10.% 
ed.Ascher, Lund. IS40). 

There wa^ moreover, a perpetual lij-ht (H^rn "■:>, 
which was evidenlly in imilation of the Temiile light 
(Kxod. xxviii, !!)). This sacred light was ndigi.niply 
fed by the people, and in case of any Sjiecial meri-y 
vouchsafed to an individual, or of threatening danger, n 
eerUin quantity of oil was vowed fur the perpetual lamp. 
This light was llic syinhol of the human soul (Prov. 
XX. 37), of the divine law (vi, 33), and of (he manifes. 
taiiou of Coil (^>ek. xllii, a). It must, however, lie re- 
marked tliat though the perpetual lamp forma an ea- 
•ential part of the synagogieal furniture to the present 
day, and has obtaiiie.1 among Ihe Indians, (iri^eks Ro- 
mans, and other nalirms of antiquity tKosenratiller,. Vor- 
gfnlaml. ii. IM). yet Iheie is no mention made of it in 
. the Tahnuil Other lanipis brouglit by deviHit wonhip- 
pl■r^ were ligbteil at the beginning of the Sabbath, i. e. 
on Friday evening (Vitringa. p. \W). 

As part of Ihe Httings, we have also to note (1) an- 
other ehesl for the llaiihlurotk, or rolls of the prophets; 
(2) Alms-lmxea at or near Ihe <Uior, after the pattern of 
Ihose at the Temple, one for the piiit of Jcmsalem, the 
other for local chatiiiea; (.t) Nolice-boania, on which 
were written the names nfoliendera who had been" put 
out of the oynagiigue ;" (-t) A chest for trumpets and 
other muHcal instruments, used at Ihe New-Yeam, Sab- 
baths, and other festivals (Viiriiiga, Leyrer. hr. til.). 




«n on the other, a low partition, fi%-e or six fwt hijjli, ' ami had the principal voice in the decision and dis- 
mnning between ihem {VhiiOf iMt V'if.CvtUrmpi.i'uATtt). tnbiition of the other orticoj*. Ili<i two judicial col- 
The arrangements of rootlern Hynago^ueis for many ccn- leagues aided him in the admini.stration of the law. 
tunes, have made the sefuiration more complete by See AKC'Hl-SYXA«M.KJt:KH. 

placing the women in low hide-gallerii'!*, .screened off by | 2. The Thrtt Almownt (np'l^ ^^Z^ = ciaKovoix Pliil. 
laiticc-w<»rk (Leo tif M.Hlena, in I'icart, Crrrm, Rdiy. i)- , j, 1 ; 1 Tim. iii, 8, 12; iv, 6).— The oiiioe of almoner was 
4. Besides meetings for worship, the synajcogues, or, j^^^jj y^^, ^esfM»n^ible ami difficult, as the iM>or-taxes 
More properly, the nwms connected with them, were ^ ^.^.^e of i thmble nature; and in iHrimlically collecting 
lU) u!»«l as ci»urt8 of justice for the Wal Sanhedrim j^„j| aistributin^' the alms the almoner had'to exercise 

(Ttirf/HM JvmithaH on AnM« v, 12,1.'); Jerusalem A'<m- ^^^^^ discretion from wlumi to demand them and to 

hrdriH, i, 1 ; Jerunalem Btihti Mf1*iv^ ii, H ; Babylon A'*- 

ihuh^h, i> a; Sitbbiith^ loO a), and in it the beadle of 

the 9ynag«>gue administered the ft»rty stri|)e« save one 

lu ihosc who were sentenced to be beaten (Mishna, 

Makhtth, iii, 12 ; comp. Matt, x, 1 7 ; xxiii, 31). Travel- 


whom tf) give th<*m. There were, lirht, th^ tihns 0/ the. 

dish (•'in^P). consisting «)f arti<'les of ftiod which had 
to be collected bv the iit1i(rials dailv, and distributed 
every evening, and to whirh every one ha«l to contrib- 

V^rs, too, found an a.Mlum in the svnag.>gue; meals were, "t^ ^^»'" ^^''*'**^'«* *»"•••>' ''«>« '" *'"« l'^^^*'? «"'* ^»"^^*^ 
««en in it (/VwrAiw, 101 ; HrrfshUh Rabbit, c. xlv >, | were, sicenilly, th: alms oj the b*ix CHB^p), consiMing 
and children were instructed therein (Kidthtithwj^) a; of money which was collected every Friday, was dis- 
iiah<i Bnthrn, 21 a; Taauithy 24 b; lUrakoth^ 17 a; tributett weekly, and to which every one had to (;on- 
>'t6rimo/A, 05 h). This, however, did not detract from _ tribute who resided ninety tlays in one place. Two au- 
ItssuKtity ; for the synagogue once usitl for the divine , thorized persons had to collect the former and three the 
wo^h»p was only allowe<l to be stdtl <mi certain condi- j latter. They were obliged to keep tog«'ther, and were 
lioDsiMishna, MryilUih^ iii, i, 2). When the building not allowed to put into their p«K'kets any money thus 

was fiimhetl. it was set a|»art. as the Temple had been, 
l>vai«pecial f>rayer of dettication. P'n»m that time it 
had a cMnsecratetl character. Tlie common acts of life, 
-*ach a!) reckoning up accounts, were forbidden in it. No 

received, but were to throw it into the |><K)r-l>ox. The 
almoners had the power of exempting from these p<M)r- 
rates such |KM>pIe as they U'lieved to Ik? unable to pay, 
and to enfi»rce the tax on such as pretended not to \ye 
'Mtevxsto pass through it as a short cut. Even if it in a p<»sition to contribute. They had al!>o the {)ower 
i-eai^ilto be useil, the building was not to be applied to to refuse alms to any whom they deemed unworthy of 

any \asi^ purpoj^ — might not be turned, e. g., into a 
•■ath, a laundry, or a tannery. A scra()er stmnl outside 
«W door that men might rid themselves, before they 

them. All the three almoners liad to be prcMiit at the 
distribution of the alms. The greatest care was taken 
by the rulers of the synag(»gue and the congregation 

«nernl. of anything that would be detiling (I^yrer, /oc. | that those elected to this otlice should lie "men of hon- 

o^^aiui Viiringa). 

IV. Th (fjficfrg nml Gorernmrnt of the. Syfuujffffue. — 
The !«ynigogues of the resfM-'Ctive towns were governed 
Kv th« elders (Sr^T, irpkOiMiTtpoi^ Luke vii, :)), wlio 
ifOstituteil the local Sanhe<lrim, consisting either of the 
twfcDtv-three senators or the three senators assisted bv 
f'Hir principal memlwrs of the congregation {MtfiUlah^ 
'^'. Jiwephus '^ «'' »^'« **?!■*; '*'<"*• "t '"^^ •'* J ^^^'^'^ ^'"; ^ i 
^xi,8}, as this de|>ended up(»n the size ami population 
^if the place. Sec Sanhkdhim. lleiure these author- 
ised a<iiuini;*trators of the law were alternately denomi- 
nated AephfnJs (S^p2'70 = 7roi^*r*C> Jerusalem /V(iA, 
viii: Babylon ChattigahM) ; SaUxith, 17 a; Act* xx, 28 ; 
El'h. iv, 11), the ruler* of the ittpt(t;ft>fjue^ and the chirfg 
•rsssn ■:SX"^ = «jt>\i«n'»'rtywyoi, do^^oiTfc, Matt, ix, 
1^23; Mark v, 22; Luke viii, 41; Acts xiii, l.'i) and 
'/w»fr»t2T'^:5 - TTtwtariuTii:, Mishna, Ttimvlj %', 1). 

The president of the Sanhedrim was (x ojfficvt the 
head or chief of the synagogue, and was therefore, kut 
*ioxiiv,th( riiirr nf'th*r *ynay(tyue (Mishna, I'oi/m, vii, 1 ; 
•^tWiiA, vii, 7 i. while the other memliers t)f this btxly, ac- 

esty, wisilom, justice, and have the conti«lence of the 
people" (//«6f I Hathni,H; Abiula Saro, 18; Tannithrl'^', 
Maimonides, lad Hii't'hezakn Hilrhoth Mtitheimth An- 
yim, ix). Bn»thers were ineligible to this office; the 
almoners (Hp'lS •'Xra •"CS^B) were not aUowed to 
be near relations, and had to \\o eh-cted by the unani- 
mous voice of the people (Jerusalem /Va//, viii). 

3. The Ltynte of the t^mffreytition^ or the I.fuder of 

Dirine Wonhip (."^''S^f H^V"? " "y>*Xof turrXijtriaf, 
ciiroffroXoc). — To give unity and harnn)ny to the wor- 
ship, as well as to enable the congregation to take part 
in the responses, it was absolutely necessary to have 
one who should lead the worship. Hence, as s<Hin as 
the' legal number recpjired for public worship had as- 
sembled ("i^S^), the ruler of the synag<»gue (CS^B^ 
Troi/i»/v), or, in his aljsence, the elders (C^2pT — tt/ukt- 
/^iTfpoi), delegated one <if the congregation to go up 
before the ark to con<luct flivine s<'rvice. The function 
of the apr)stle of the ecclesia ("^'^-S H'^bT) was not 
permanently vested in any single individual ordained 
for this pur|M>s<», but was alternately conferred ufion any 

o>riliiij{ to tlieir various gifts, dis<.-harg(*tl the diflfennt , lay member who was supp<ised to |m)ss<*s.s the <)unlitica- 

fuiiction.H in the synagogue (1 Tim. v, 17), as will be seen 
fnim the foUowing classification. See ili(;ii-i>KiK8T. 

tions necessary for offering u|> prayer in the name of 
the congregation. This is evident fri)m the reiterated 

1. Tht Ituler of the SytMyotfue (rWlH CX"i = rtO\t- declarations lK)th in the Mishna and th<; Talmud. Thus 

^Tn-aynfjrOf) and hi» two AMOciatef. — Though the su- 
pretne official, like the two other members of the local 
^-'wirt, hail to be duly examined by delegates from the 
^"fat Sanhedrim, who certified that he possessed all 

we are told that anv one who is not under tliirteen 
years of age, and whose garments are not in rags, may 
officiate before the ark (Mishna, Mtf/il/ah, iv, ti) ; that 
" if one is l»efore the ark [ -■ ministers for the congre^a- 

«h«D«cesMirv qualifications for his office (Maimonides,, tion ], and makes a mistake | in the prayer), another 
i^uiUa-Vhezuhi //ilchoth Sanhednn,'i\,ti), vet his elec- <•"<? »»» to minister in his stead, and he is not to decline 
ii«ittiirclv depended upon the suffrages of the mem- »t <»" *"^»' a»^ occasion" (Mishna, Heraloth, v, H). "The 
ben of the 'synagogue. 'Hie Talmud distinctlv de<:lares '^f;« »'«^« transmitted that he who .s aske<l to c.>n<luct 
,» . „ \ .r.— . X • . *i public worship IS to delav a little at first, savmg that he 

th*t ''no ruler C037B-xo»,i,,|.) is api>ointed over a : ^ „„^.^,ji,,, ^Jf j^. ^^j [f he does not .lelaV, he is like 

twigregition unless the congregation is consulted' i „„i^^ a dish wherein is no salt ; and if he delavs more 
(ArofcxA, 55 a;. But, once electe<l,the ruler was the : t^^n is necessarA-. he is like unto a dish which 'the salt 
«lurdin order of prece<1ence in the Temple synagogue— | ^^^^ sp<uled. How is he to do it V The tir>t time he is 
>-e.fint came the high-priest, then the chief of the ! 3^,(4^,1^ l^^^ j^ to decline; the sf i^)nd time, he is to stir; 
pn«ti (*»J0), and then th€ ruler of the synagogue and the thinl time, he is to mo\e his legs and as<Tnd 
'Mifhna, r<nN/i, vii, I; a*?©/*!*, vii. 7), while in the pro- , More the ark" (/itrakofh, 34 b). Kveii on the most 
vincial tynagogues the respective rulers were supreme, solemn wcasions, when the wh(»le congregation fasted 




and assembled with the president and vice-president of 
the Sanhedrim for national humiliation and prayer, no 
stated minister is spoken of; bat it is said that one of 
the aged men present is to deliver a penitential ad- 
dress, and another is to offer up the solemn prayers 
(Mishna, TaanUh, ii, 1^). See Fast. On ordinary 
occasions, however^ the rabbins, who were the rulers of 
the synagogue, asked their disciples to act as officiating 
ministers before t^e ark {Berakoth^ 84 a). But since 
the sages declared that " if the legate of the congrega- 
tion (lias n^bttJ=a7y£Xoc fKKKfioiaQ^ airo<rroXoc) 
commits a mistake while officiating, it is a bad omen 
for the congregation who delegated him, because a 
man's deputy is like the man himself" (Mishna, Bera- 
kothf V, 5) ; and, moreover, since it was felt that he who 
conducts public worship should both be able to sympa- 
thize with the wants of the people and possess all the 
moral qualitications befitting so holy a mission, it was 
afterwards ordained that " even if an elder (*JpT =7rptcr- 
/3z;rcpoc) or sage is present in the congregation, he is 
not to be asked to officiate before the ark ; but that man 
is to be delegated who is apt to officiate, who has chil- 
dren, whose family are free from vice, who has a proper 
beard, whose garments arc decent, who is acceptable to 
the people, who has a good and amiable voice, who un- 
derstauds how to read the law, the prophets, and the 
Ilagiographa, who is versed in the homiletic, legal, and 
traditional exegesis, and who knows all the benedic- 
tions of the service" (Mishn^, Taamthf ii, 2 ; Gemara, 
ibid, 16 a, b; Maimonides, fad fJa-Chezaka HUchoth Te- 
phila, viii, 11, 12 ; comp. 1 Tim. iii, 1-7 ; Tit, i, 1-9). As 
the legate of the people, the most sacred portions of the 
liturgy (e. g. 1335, O-^SHD PIS-^S, nu;"!"!?, ttJ-^ip), 
which could only be offered up in the presence of the 
legal number, were assigned to him i^Berahtth^ 21 b, 
and Kashi, ad loc.)f and he was not only the mouth- 
piece of those who were present in the congregation on 
the most solemn feasts, as on the Great Day of Atone- 
ment and New Year, but he was the surrogate of those 
who, by illness or otherwise, were prevented from at- 
tending the place of worship {Jiosh f/a'Shatiah, 35 ; Mai- 
monides, lad Hu'Chezaka Ililchoth TephiUit viii, 10). 

4. The fnterpreteTf or Methurgtmdn O^fl'llFI, 
■jTaaiir.^). — After tlie Babylonian captivity, when the 
Hebrew language was rapidly disappearing from among 
the common people, it became the custom to have an 
interpreter at the reading-desk (H^S'^a) by the si<le of 

those who were alternately called up to read the sev- 
eral sections of the lessons from the law and the proph- 
ets. See IIaphtaraii. This methurgtinan had to in- 
terpret into Chaldee or into any other vernacular of the 
countrv a verse at a time when the lesson from the law 
was read, as the reader was obliged to pause as soon as 
he finished the reading of a verse in Hebrew, and was 
not allowed to begin the next verse till the methurge' 
man had translated it; while in the lesson from the 
prophets three versos were read and interpreted at a 
time (^Mishna, M^f/Ulahf iv, 4). The reader and the in- 
terpreter had to read in the same tone of voice, and the 
one was not allowed to be louder than the other (Bera- 
koth^ 45 a). The interpreter was not allowed to look 
at the law while interpreting, lest it should be thought 
that the paraphrase was written down. The office of 
interpreter, like that of conducting public worship, was 
not permanently vested in any single individual. Any 
one of the congregation who was capable of interpret- 
ing was asked to do so. Kven a minor, i. e. one under 
thirteen years of age, or one whose garments were in 
such a ragged condition that he was disqualified for 
reading the lesson from the law, or a blind man, could 
be asked to go up to the reading-desk and explain the 
l(>sson ( Mishna, Meqillah, iv, 5 ; Maimonides, lad lla- 
Vhziika UikhutU fephila. xii, 10-14). 

5. The Chazzdn, or AttettdaiU on the Synayoffiie 
(nOjSH 'j?H = i>irijptrijc), was the lowest servant, and 

was more like the sexton or the beadle in our chorehes. 
He had the care of the furniture, to open the doors, to 
clean the synagogue, to light the lamps, to get the 
building ready for service, to summon the people to 
worship, to call out O^Q?*^) the names of such persons 
as were selected by the rider of the synagogue to come 
up to the platform to read a section from the law and 
the prophets, to hand the law to ordinary readers, or to 
the ruler of the synagogue when it had to be given to 
the high-priest, in which case the apxitrvvdyiayo^ took 
the law from the chazan^ gave it to the chief priest,, 
who handed it to the high-priest (Mishna, YomOf viii,. 
1 ; Sotahf vii, 7) ; he had to take it back after reading 
(Luke iv, 17-20), etc. Nothing, therefore, can be more 
clear than the position which this menial servant occu- 
pie<l in the synagogue in the time of Christ and a few 
centuries after. The Talmud distinctly declares that 
the chazan is the beadle or the sexton of the congrega^ 
tion, and not the legate or the angel of the church 

pnax n'^b'ij ns-^xi hrtpn to v-q^ xin )in; comjv 

Tosiphta Yoma^ 68 b; and Mishna, Berakoth^ vii, 1, for 
the meaning of 1!3Q^). The notion that his office re- 
sembled that "of the Christian deacon," as well as the 
assertion that, *'like the legatm and the elders^ he was 
appointed by the imposition of hands," has evidently 
arisen from a confusion of the chazan in the days of 
Christ with the chazan five centuries after Christ, Be- 
sides, not only was this menial ser\'ant not appointed 
by the im|)osition of hands, but the legaius himself, &< 
we have seen, had no laying-on of hands. It was about 
A.D. 520, when the knowledge of the Hebrew language 
disappeared from among the people at large, that alter- 
ations had to be introduced into the synagogical service 
which involved a change in the office of the chazan. 
As the ancient practice of asking any member to ste|> 
before the ark and conduct the divine service could not 
be continued, it was determined that the chazan, wha 
was generally also the schoolmaster of the infant school. 
shoui<l be the regular reader of the liturg}', which he 
had to recite witli intonation {Masecheth SopheHw, x^ 
7; xi, 4; xiv, 9, 14; (iriitz, t/e«cA. rf«- Jt/</«i, v, 26). 

6. The Ten Batlanin, or Men of Insure ("ps^isa). 
— No place was denominated a town, and hence no syn- 
agogue could legally be built in it, which had not ten in- 
dependent men who could Ik> permanently in the syna- 
gogue to constitute the legal congregation whenever 
required (Mishna, Megillah, i, 3 ; Maimonides, lad Ha- 
Chezaka Ililchoth Tephila^ xi, I). These men of leisure 
were either independent of business because they had 
private means, or were stipendiaries of the congrega- 
tion, if the place had not ten men who could entirely 
devote themselves to this purpose (Rashi, On Megitlah^ 
5 a). They had to be men of piety and integrity {Baba 
Bathra, 28 a ; Jerusalem Metfillah, i,4). By some (Light- 
foot, llor, lleh. in Matt. ir. 23. and, in part, Vitringa, p. 
532) they have Ijeen identified with the above official^, 
with the addition of the alms-collectors. Khenferd* 
however (Ugolino, Thesaur, vol. xxi), sees in them sim- 
ply a body of men, permanently on duty, making up a 
congregation (ten being the minimum number), so that 
there might be no delay in beginning the service at the 
proper hours, and that no single worshipper might g» 
away disapixiinted. The latter hypothesis is supported 
by the fact that there was a like body of men, the St«- 
tionarii or Viri Stationis of Jewish archaeologists, ap» 
pointed to act as permanent representatives of the ci>n* 
gregation in the services of the Temple (J<Mit, Ge*ch, 
des Jitdenth. i, 168-172). It is of course possible that in 
many cases the same persons may have united both 
characters, and been, e. g., at once otiofi and alms-col- 
leoton«. In the Middle Ages these ten Batlanin con-^ 
sisttMl f»f those who dis<»harged the public duties of the 
synagogue, and were i<lentical with the mlers of the 
synagogue descriljed above. Thus Benjamin of Tndela 
tells us that the ten presidents of the ten colleges at 




fiagilad were "called the BatUmiHj the Uunre men, be- j in public worKliip in the synagogue evcr>' day. The 
cau»e their occupation consisted in the discharge of : times of pul)lic wuruhip were {^u) Monday and Thurs- 
public busiiiiesw. During every day of the week they . day, which were the two market-days in the week, when 

4iitfpen8e<l justice to all the Jewish inhabitants of the 
4;imutr\', except on Monday, which was s^t aside for as- 
taeiDblies under the presidency of K. Samuel, master of 
the college denoroiiwted * Gaon Jacob," who on that day 
dispensed justice to every applicant, and who was as- 
sisted therein by the said ten Batlanin, presidents of 
the colleges" (Itiwraty, i, 101. ed. Ascher, Lond. 1840). 
This seems to favor the opinion of Uerzfeld that the 

the villagers brought their pnxluce into the neighbor- 
ing town and their matters of dispute before the local 
Sanhe<lrim, which held its court in the synagogue 
(.Jerusalem MtgiUah, v, 1 ; Baha Kama, 32 a), and on 
which the pious Jews fasted (Mark ii, 18; Luke v, 83; 
xviii, 12; Acts x, 30); (6) the weekly Sabbath; and 
(r) feasts and fasts. Kut though not obligator\', yet 
it was deemeti si)ecially acceptable if the prayers were 

ten Bathmin are the same as the ten judges or rulers offered even privately in the synagogue, since it was 
of the synagogue mentioned in Abofh, iii, 10, according : inferred from Mai. iii, 16 that the Sheohinah is present 
to the reading of Bartenora (Horayoth, 3 b,etc.; comp. , where two or three are gathered together. 

Orach, Jet VoUxs Itrael, i,31»2). 

V. Worship,— \. Its Time.— As the Bible prescribes 

tw stpecial hour for worship, but simply records that the 

P«almist praye<l three times a day (Psa. Iv, 18), and 

2. The Jjegal Congregatvm. — Though it was the duty 
of evcrj- Israelite to pray privately three times a day, 
vet^ as wo have already seen, it was only on slated oo- 
casious that the people assembled for public worship in 

that Daniel followed the same example (Dan. vii, 11), , the legally con8titut4>d congregation, and reciU'd those 
the men of the Great Synagogue decreed that the wor- portions of the liturgy which could not be uttered in 
«hip of the synagogue should correspond to that of the ; private devotion. Ten men, at least, who had passed 
Temple. To this end they ordaineil that every Israel- \ the thirteenth year of their age (n'.XTS "iS) were re- 
ite U to offer either public or private worship to his ^^^j^^^ ^^ constitute a legitimate congregation (^2^) 

Crettor at stated hours three times a day— (a) in the 
nwming (r.''in;S) at the thinlhour=9 A.M.,l)eing the 
time when the daily morning sacrifice was offered ; (6) in 

for the performance of public worship. This number, 
which evidently owes its origin to the completeness of 
the ten digits, is deduced from the expression tV^7 in 
the afternoon or evening (nn:^) at the ninth hour and ^^^^ ^j^,^ .^7^ ^1,^^ it is said " how long shall I bear 
th*lf=3 30 P.M., when the daily evening sacnfice was , ^.j^,^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ amffreffafionr referring to the spies, 
uffered; and (r) in the evening p-^-^rc), or from the As Joshua and Caleb are to be deducted from the twelve, 
lime that the pieces and the fat of the sacrifices, whose ^^^^^^ ^Yic appellation congregation remains for the ten, 
Wwd was sprinkled before sunset, l>egan to be burned 1 ^„^i ji^j^ number is therefore regarded as forming the 
till thin process of burning was finishe<l. As this proc- j , ^^^^Qrum (Mishna, Sanhedrim, i, C ; Maimonidcs, lad 
^< of burning, however, sometimes laste<l nearly all 
niK'bt, the thini prayer could be offered at any time be- 

tween (lark and dawn (Mishna, Berakoth, iv, 1 ; Cie- 
n>«a, ihid, 2(3 b ; Pesachim, 58 a ; Jerusalem Berakoth, 
i^'l; J(4ephus, AtU. xiv, 4, 3). It is this tixed time 

lla-Chezaka BUchoth Tephila, xi, 1). "The Shtma 
(3?^ir) must not be solemnly reciteil, nor must one go 

before the ark to conduct public worship, nor must the 
priests raise their hands to pronounce the benediction, 
<^wonihip which accounts for the disciples' assembling ' "^r must the lessons from the law or the pn>phets be 
together at the third hour of the day (i. e. 9 A.M.) for '^^^J^^j^"/^^^^ ^^'^^ "*" **"" P*"^"' ^'^"^" C^'»«^"«» 
morning prayer (H-^-inC) on the Day of Pentecost ^ ;^;;;„;;,];_The most imp<,rtant features in the insti- 
<Acts n, l-lo), and for Peter and John s going up to the , ^ntions of the synagogue are the Utitrffy. the reading of 
Temple at the ninth hour (Le. 3 P.M.) for (n'^"^?'!:) even- 1 the law and the profdiets, and the homilies. To know 
ing prayer (Acts iii, l),as well as for Cornelius's prayer at the exact wonls of the prayers which our Saviour and 
tbe MTDc hour (x, 30). The statement in Acts x, 9, his apostles recited when they frequented the syna- 
thit Peter went up upon the house-top to pray about '■ gogue is to us of the utmost interest. Tliat the Jews 
^ sixth hour (=12 M.), has letl some of our best in the time of Christ had a liturgical 8er\'ice is certain; 
wpositors to believe that the hour mentioned in iii, ' but it is e(|ually certain that the present liturgy of the 
11 Md X, 30 is the time when the third prayer was of- synagogue emlxHiies a large admixture of prayers which 
fcwd. The two passages, however, and the two dif- . were t»ompiled after the destruction of the hecond Teni- 
^wni hours refer to one and the same prayer, as may pie. Though the poetic genius of the |)stdmists had 
** seen from the following canon t *• We have already | vanished and the Temple mu!»ic was hushed, yet nu- 
*»«edtluit the time for the evening [»rayer (nn:?;) was nierous ftrvent and devout spirits were still uii(|uench- 
Jixed according to that of the dailv evening sarritice, , ^^ "^ ^'*'^«*^^- '*'»^<*«« <^«"'<'«^ N'irits made themselves 
ami wjce this daily evening sacrifice was offered at the «"<*'''^« "» »*'<* synagogue in most devout and touching 
ninth hour and a half ( = .^.30 P.Tkl.), the time of prayer \ l>ray<*rs, emJKMlyu.g the new anxieties, the novel modes 

of iHTseeution and oppression which the Jews had to 
' endure from the children of Christianity — the religion 
newly l)orn and brought up in the lap of Judaism — who 
deeme<l it their sacred duly to heap unparalleled suffer- 
! ings upon their elder brothcrfi. These prayers, formed 
after the minlel of the Psalms, not only ask the God of 
P«<d to be on a Friday (rSD 21?) [see Passovkk], i Israel to pity the sufferers, to give them {uitieni^ to en- 
it was enacted that he who offers his evening praver af- •^"^*^' ■"** »" ^"'^ "^'" ^'»"<^ ^<' confound their enemies 
««rthe Mxth hour and a half ( = 12.30 P.M.) discharges ' a"^ /"[^-e t»»em from aU their troubles, but embiMly the 
hi* doty properly. Hence, as s*>on as this hour arrives, ! t<*«<^»»"*^"* ^>f ^^"^ ^^^^ «>"» 'he sentiments prtM-ounded 

*u alM fixed for the ninth hour and a half (-3.30 
P-M.), and this was called the Ijenter Minchah iy\TW^ 
'^•^). But as the daily evening sacrifice was offered 
♦fi the fourteenth of Nisan (HOB 215) at the sixth 
*»»w and a half ( = l-i.30 P.M.), when this day hap- 

f>i*.:J. * 11- .• 1 A '. ' M ,,. ^*^^hc Haggadists HI the Sabbatic homilies. Hence, in 

'w time of obligation has come, and it is called the ,i' ^1 •„ ,\^^ ,:♦. -1 <• .k * • . 

.. ** 1 * . descnbuig the ritual of the synagogue, it IS most esrti'u- 

''mtMw-hnK (H^IU nn3T3; Maimonides, lad Ba- ^\^\ (., separate the later element fn^in the earlier |H,r- 
'*«2afci llilchoth Tephila, iii, 2 ; Berakoth, 26 b). This tions. As it is beyond the limits of this article to trace 
""*tike is all the more to be regretted, since the accu- I the rise, progress, and development of all the coniisment 
'XT '0 Micb minute matters on the part of the sacred , parts of the liturgy in its present order, we shall Aimpiy 
^riten shows how great is the trustworthiness of their ' detail those portions which are, undoubtedly, the aii- 
^<wd8,and bow closely and strictly the apostles con- cient nucleus, which, beyond a question, were used bv 

(vDed to the Jewish practices. The prayers three 
tiaMs a day wefB not absolutely required to be offered 

our Saviour and his di^iples, and around which tlic 
new pieces were groupetl in the cou^^^o of time. 


(1.) The Hymnal Group (nn-^-Ot "^j^noB).— Just as <^od, the God of our fathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacobs 

the Tcraple buUding was the protitvpe for the syiia- great, omnipotent, fearful, and most high God, who 

gogue edifice, so the Temple service was the model for bountifuUy showest mercy, who art the possessor of aU 

the ritual of the synagogue. Hence, j ust as/the Temple t»»»"g8» ^ho rememberest the pious deeds of our faihen*, 

service consisted of the priests' reciting the ten com- «n^ f«n^«st ^}'^ Redeemer to their children s children, 

16; 1 Chron.xvi, 8-22 0*lin) during the morning sac- Lord, world without end; thou bringest the dead to 

ritice, and Psa. cx%'i; 1 Chron. xvi, 23-36 (n-^lT) dur- ^^^^ i" g^eat compassion, thou boldest up the falling. 

.; . .« ^i - «i r^u - 1 healcst the sick, loosest the chained, and showest thv 

ing the evening sacrifice, so the ntual of the svnagogue -.,.-, ', *u * i - A a . ixr. •' 

' , i e .\ 1 1- .• ♦u V *•* r ♦v.^ faithfulness to those that sleep in the dust. Who w 

consisted of the same benediction, the chanting of the ... ... •, i r • % . , i 1 1 ^». 

sacrificial psalms_as the sacrifices themselves could l^ke unto thee, Lord of might, and who resembles t 

not be oflfered except in the Temple-and sundry addi- (« ^ kiUing and bringing to life again, and 

tions made by Ezra and the men of the (ireat Svna- ^^"«";f !f*''f ^"/" flourish) ^ And hou art sure to 

gogue. It is for this reason that the ritual began With «•«»«« the dead. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who raisest the 

the Temple psalms. These were followed by the group ^^^^' c. (Clip nnx) "Thou art holy, and thy name 

consisting of Psa. c [xix, xxxiv, xci, cxxxv, cxxxvi, is holy, and the holy ones praise thee every day con- 

xxxiii, xcii], xciii, cxlv-cl— those enclosed in brackets tinually. Blessed art thou, O Ix>rd, the holy God !" 

being omitted on the Sabbath— 1 Chron. xxix, 10-13; d, (lain nnx) "Thou mercifully bestowest knowletlge 

Neh. ix, 6-12; Exod. xiv, 30-xv, 18, and sundry sen- up<,„ ^cn and teachest the mortal prudence. Merci- 

tences not found in the Bible, denominated the order of f^„^ ^^^^ f^^^ ^y^^,^^^ knowledge, wisdom, 

i\it Hymnal Sentences OT ^'musical pfrtods" The use of ,* , ^ ,. ™_ .' .. .,^ rv t^-i ^u 

,,. x: 1 _* ri *v *u fT. 1 J *u and understanding. Blessed art thou, O Ix)ra, who 

this hvmnal group as part of both the Temple and the ., „ . , , . i„ ,-.«->«.._v ../n, 

synagogue service is of gieat antiquity, as is attested "»""'""? be'l<"«'e»' knowledge! e. (IW-'jn) "Our 

bv the Seder Olam, xiv, and UoKcheth Sopherimi sec father, lead us back to thy law; bnng us very near.O 

: « ,, .. ,,o L 1. . ij .1- \ k^.. our King, to thv service, and cause us to return in sin- 

also Sabbath, 118 b, where we are told that was ^^ penUence into thv presence! Blessed art thou, O 

ordained by David, and IVttJ by the Sopherim, or Lord, who delightest in repentance!^' /. (nbo) "Our 

ecntjes. Father, forgive us, for we have sinned; our King, par- 

(2.) The Shema, or Keriath Shema (?p^ PlX'''?;^). ^^n us, for we have transgressed; for thou art forgiving 

—This celebrated part of the service was preceded and pardoning. Blessed art thou, O Ix>rd, merciful and 

by two benedictions, respectively denominated ''the plenteous in forgiveness!" <?. (Hfitl) « Look at our mis- 

Creator of Lighr (n^lX ■^Xl'^) and ''Great Love'' ery, contend our cause, and deliver us speedily, for thy 

(il3H nsnX), and followed by one called " Truth'' name's sake, for thou art a mighty deliverer. I^lessed 

(n^X, now expanded into a">a;'^n n«X). The two in- art thou, O Lord, the deliverer of Israel !" h. (i:Kfi-») 

troductory benedictions were as follows: (a.) "Blessed "Heal us, O Lord, and we shall be healed; save us, and 

art thou, O Lord our God, King of the universe, who we shall be saved; for thou art our boasU Grant us a 

createst light and formest darkness, who makest peace perfect cure for all our wounds; for thou, O Lord our 

and createst aU things! He in mercy causes the light King, art a faithful and merciful Physician. Blessed 

to shine upon the earth and the inhabitants thereof, a't thon, O l^rd, who healest the sick of thy people \^ 

and in goodness renews every day the work of creation, rael !" ». (13*^^5 '^I'^a) " Bless to us, O Lord our Go<U 

Blessed art thou, the Creator of light!" (6.) "With great for good this year, and all its kinds of produce; aend 

love hast thou loved us, O Lord our (iod; thou hast thy blessing upon the face of the earth; satisfv us with 

shown us great and abundant mercy, O our Father and ^hv goodness, and bless this year as the veare bygone. 

King, for the sake of our forefathere who trusted in g,;^^^ ^^^ ^^ O Lo^j ^.^^J blessest the seasons!" /. 

thee! Thou who didst teach them the love of life, ,«_«., ,^ V ^, ,^ , . ,.. 

have mercy upon us, and teach us also ... to prais^ (rpn)" Cause the great trumpet to proclaim our liberty; 

and to acknowledge thy unity in love. Blessed art raise the standard for the gathenng of our captivea, and 

thou, O Lord, who in love hast chosen thy people!" ^>"n« "» together from the four comers of the earth. 

(Mishna, Tamid, v, 1; Berakoth, 11 b). Thereupon Bl^^^sed art thou, O Lord, who gatherest together the 

the ten commandments were recited, which, however, dispersed of Israel!" A-. (na'i;sn)"Keiu8Ute our judges 

ceased at a very early period, because the Sadducees asof old, and our councillors as of yore; remove from u» 

declared that this was done to show that this was the sorrow and sighing; and do thou alone, O Ix>rd, reign 

most essential portion of the revealed law (Mishna, over us in mercy and love, and judge us in righteous- 

Tamid, V, 1, with Berakoth, 14 b). Then came the ness and justice. Blessed art thou, O Lord the King, 

Shema proper, consUting of Deut. vi, 4-9; xi, 13-21; who lovest righteousness and justice!" /. (a*^3*^ttjb'ob'1) 

Numb. XV, 37-41 ; which was concluded with benwUc- «Let the apostates have no hope, and let those who per- 

lion (c), entitled « True and EitaUisheiV p"':£''1 n^X), pctrate wickedness speedily perish; let them all be sud- 

as follows: " It is true and firmly established that thou denly cut off; let the proud speedily be uprooted, bnikeiv 

art the Lord our God and the God of our forefathers; crushed, and humbled speedily in our days. Blessed 

there is no God besides thee. Blessed art thou, O Ix)rd, art thou, O Lord, who breakest down the enemy and 

the redeemer of Israel!" (Mishna, Berakoth, i, 4; Ge- humblest the proud!" m, (D"»p'^ia;n bs) "On the 

?">* u"^ "^iJ^ *^ ^*.".*'"*; ^'"''^; ''.' ^ ' Ge'n'»'^«' •^^- righteous, on the pious, on the elders of thv people, the 

32 b). There IS evidently an aUusion to the reading h<,„se of Israel, on the remnant of the scribes, on the 

of the Shema m the reply which our Saviour gave to ^^^^ proselytes, and on us, bestow, O Lord our God, 

the lawyer who asked him, "Master, what rnust I do j^,^, ^^rcv; give ample reward to aU who trust in thv 

to inherit eternal hfe? when the lawyer forthwith re- ^^'^^ in 'sincerity, make our portion with them forever, 

cited the first sentence of the ^*€m<i (Luke X, 26). See and let us not be ashamed, for we trust in thee! Bleaal 

''^"/u^x'^'^i *K--^ -*• vt .• * , u . ed art thou, O Lord, the support and refuge of the rigbt- 

(3.) The third portion which constituted the ancient ,., ^-,.i,,„^,.«L„x «fr x i *i- •* • 

,. . 'I, „,,.., ,, -, ... ^^ eous! n.(D'^?tt31T'?1) "To Jerusalem thv citv in mer- 

hturgy embraces the "Eighteen" Benedictions (nai-Q'iJ , i i » • •* j- . Iv * 

•.•JTIn 11 1 . »v ' . r, ,—1. V r«. cv return, and dwell m it according to thy promise : 

n-»^5),caUed,Kar IKoxnv, the Prayer (nbon). They ^^^e it speedily in our day an everlasting buildingl 

Are as foUows : a. Cjl-^a) " Blessed art thou, Lord our and soon esUblish therein the throne of David. Ble8». 


cd art thou, O Lord, who buildest Jerusalem !'' «'. (HX Ufjate. of the congregation ( T22K ). who, like the rest 

n:::* J»" The branch of David, thy 8ervaut,H|)eodily cause of the conpn'^carion. was arrayeil in liis frinj^ed jjar- 

to tlourish, and exalt his horn with thy help, for we men!, and with the phylttcterits on hi« head and left 

look to thy help all day. Ulessed art thou, O Unl, arm [see Fkin<;k; l»iiYLArri:KY j, U-^'an with reciting 

wh.) causewt to flourish the horn of David!" o. (r^r t*»^' KwU»h ('r"7;?), the i^ n^iH.niUnjj to certain 

irbrp) -Hear our voice, O Ii»>rd our (Itnl; have pity and I*"-", a** f«»lli»w«: - Kxalle.! and hall.iwtd In? hi:4 jcnai 

petmle Israel m mere V : uu^saea art tiiou,iM>>ni, wno . - , , . , , . r . n • i i , 

* ' .., • . , ,. r .1 ^. > > prais<'d, ceh'hratetl and exalted, exttdltMi and adunirHl. 

hearesl prayer!' />. (n:£-.; -He favorable. <> I^ml our ;,,„^,„.,j^.j 3,,,, ^.„r>hipiHHl. Ik> thv h«.lv name; hlrs.r<l 

lioil, to thy [people Israel, and to their prayer; i,^. i,^ ^^^ all benedictions, hvnnis thankN praises 

the wt.rahip to thy Ninct»iar>-. rcieive l.»vinjrly the and cons^dat inns which have bren* ulterv«l in the world. 

bumt-sacritice of ^rael and their prayer, antl let the | i^.jrate and conu're^rat ion j Amen. (] Mav 

wni<.-e <.f Israel thy people U- always well-pleasniK to ihopravers an.l Mippli<ati«.ns of all Israel Ik- jjraciouslV 

tht*. May our eyes see thee return to Zion m love, received U'f.ire their Fath.T in heavrn. [I^-^Mte anil 

BleNKMi art th«*u, () I>»rd, who resti.rt'St thy Shechinah con^'regation ) Amen. [I>frati' ali»ne ] .May perfi-ct |»eace 

to Zion I'* q, (C'^T'-) "Wc thankfully confess beft»re : destvnd from heaven, and life u|)on us ami all Israel. 

ihec that thou art the b>nl onr (;<m1, and the (iinl of [lie^^afe and I'ongregation] Amen. ( I^'Kaie alone] May 

our fathers, world without end. and that thou art the »»e wh«. makes jK-ace in hi- heaven cnftr \M'hvv u|K>n us 

»hephenl .if our life ami the nnrk of <»ur salvatitm from a"«^ a»l Israel. | Ujrate and <onpre-aii«ni j Amen." The 

generation to jjeneralion; we remler thanks unto thee Kimilarity l>etween this very an<i«>nt Ka,U*h and thf 

^ni\ celebrate thv praises. IJlessed art thou, () l^.nl, ^^nU Trayer nwds hardly to l>e iK.innd o\\\. Aft«r this 

wh.h* name is Vo«^l"e^*^ «"«» whom it l>ct^»mes to ^*><*H'a»f^ recited in a buid v«.i<«. the lirst sentence of the 

«-» /...VtM MfM^ .i i> » \ ' ♦SA^'wrn, the rest Ix^iui'riH.Mtedquieilv bv him and the con- 
praiK'I^ r. (CS^S D^D ** Bestow peace, happniess, .' ,_, ^.7. , .1 • ,*. ' . ,• .• e 
'. ^ , . , tfrecation. Fhen tollowetl the eij;hteen iK'uedict ions, for 
cili.**««m", ijrace, mercv, and compassion nixm us an<l . ,. , r . • » ^. ,- 1 1 1 ^».i.*«.. 1 
^^ ^ _, ^ . _• .1 .L 1- .V _ v.-.i.-_ 11 ' l*><? thirtX of which the kfdufhah ^nu;*np,) was snbsii- 

^»u. bUf^-st thv , J»plo I-^rael with peace I" 1 ''I*';'"' ' <^'»"t.'r<vation ] 1 Messed l»e tin- «lory of the  ter- 

•n.e«eiffhtc.en(reallvninetern)benedictionsaremen. "^^'7<:»'!^"<'»V ( I^^rato] And in thy Ilo y 

tiunMmtlieMishna,//.MA lln-ShanahM; JieraknthM. ' J^"";'* »^" ^;"»*7' ^»»"'* ^>»"h'\ [;^;«UrroKat.<.n] Ihe 

8; r.«>AM hernkoth. iii ; .lerusalem lUraknth. ii; J/.- '^!'*' «*»«" ^''^'\ ^'•«'V;^',|^^'.\'";*' ^\ '^'""' f'"'" *^'*"^'^- 

SnVH 17 a. We are distinctiv told that thev were or- " «""1» ^*» generation. Ilalleluiah ( I^^ratf ] Vronx Kcn- 

(Uinedbviheoiiehnn.lre«land'twentveldrrsofthe(ireat «^™|»"" »^ P<'"^'rat.on we will <l,sclos<. thy jrnatness. 

n.«— ^' . \t 'ti L f \ ii 1 'si. I'i - o'. JL..^ .. a»>d lor ever and ever celebrate thv holiness: and thv 
MnaeoG^iie ( .i/fr/iZ/rfA, i« b; /if rakoth, 3ii a; Gunfire on . , ,, . »* 1.  » 

1. 7^ "... -* ,  , . . ' . i iiraise shall not ceas«? in our month, world without end. 

iMit. XXXIII. 2). and we know that the repn-st-ntatives 1 I. ., .^ , , _. _ . » 1 1 1 . v:.>-, ui..„ 1 

.' , tor thon, () I>ml, art a jjreat and holv King, iflessed 

ofihcpw.ple p::?^ -^rSX) recitwl them in the lemple 1 ^^j j,,^,„ ,,„^^. ^j.^, ^,„, n^j,,^,,.. ^,,, Monday. Thnrs<lay. 
everyday {.Sahbti/h, 24 b), that the priests pronounced Sabbath, feasts and fasts lessons from the law and |)roph- 
ibrw of ihcm u|M)n the |>eople every morning in the | ets were n-ad. and (with the exception of M«»n«lay ami 
HitU of Squares (P"Tin PS^b) in the Temple-conrt. Thnrstlay) discourses delivered by the rabbins. The 
WKlthat the high-priest prayed the sixteenth (HXi) serviceconcluded with the priests' pronouncing the ben- 

•ihl the seventeenth (=-^Ti:3)*sections of this liianv on ' ^'''t**ll""a.^.^ "1"^ ^'^' '^~*' ]' .^ • „ or 

n..n .V ^4 . /^' ^o I N rr-i ' (-•) ihe AfhrnooH ami t.rewuq rraiftr. — S)me of 

tn^br^t Day of Atonement {\oma,m b). There can ,,,^^ ,^^,,„^ j • ,,,^ ^^^,„,„^j ^.ronp were im.itte.l. other- 
iWreforc Ik., no doubt that .»ur Saviour and his arK.stles ^.j^. „,^ ^.,,.^.^. ^.^; ^j.^ii^, ,„ „,„^ ,,f „,^ n.orning. 
y^m 111 these prayers when they resorte<l to the syn- ',^,,^ ^,,,,,1^^ worship of the feasts and fasts is dise-rilH-d 
■«"ljue, and that when the aiwstles went on the top <.f , j„ ,1,^ ^^,j^,,.^ „„ ,1,^. rosiK-ctive fotivaN.and in the ar- 
tbt bouse to pray at the staled hour (Acts 1. 13 ; x, Oj , ^j^.i^. H ai-iitahaii. The other pravers whieh pncede 
ll*."* benedinions formed part of their devotions. It g,„, f,,„„^. jj,,. ,|,„.o aiiiieiif f?roii|w in the prcM-nt lit- 
n»bt,h«wever, be remarked that the first three an<l the „r^,^. ,,f jj,,. ^vnagogur are not di-.-crilMMl in this article 
^thrte l»enedicti«.ns are the oblest ; that l>ene.bclions i^.;„^, ihi-v are of lat«r <.rigin. S r Lirii:t;v. 
tf to* were compilwl during tlie Maccabawi struggles yj j^dirial Authnrif,,.- 1. As the otH.ers of the svn- 

• n/lil.-li 1 i_.l»-. 1 *; ,11 1;.. •' • 

^iWRiiman ascendency in Palestine; and Ix'iiedic- 
tioflRwaM moat probably compiletl after the destruction 

agogue were also the administrators of justice, the au- 
thority which each assembly |K»sses.'<ed extended to l>«)th 

w wcond Temple. 1 ^.j^j] ^,„j rdi^riim,* (piestions. The rabbins, or the heads 

Hut though these three groups ( viz. the hymnal „f ,,,,. nvnagogue. as it is to the present dav. were both 

Pwip,the Shema, and the eighteen l)cnedictions) con- „,j. j^.^ of religion and the judges iif tlieir comnui- 

«'tutedthe liturgy of the Jews when engagnl in piil». ^j,},.^ ^U.^^o the tribunals were held in the svna- 

Ijcw private devotion dunng the iieriwl of the second ^,,,^,,„. ^j ^^^^ xu,\\i xxi. 12). and the «A(i;;«//,or'lH.a- 

lffflple,yet there were other prayers which could only ^n.-. who altende<l to the «iivine M»rAice had also to ad- 

Wwcite.1 at public worship when the legal numUr „,j,,i^,,.^jj,^.j,,^ij^.^j,,,,ft.,.„,,^^^i^. ,7_.2<). ,.^,n,j, j^,i,,,„^ 

(|"3-) were properly assembled. ' Mnkkoth, iii, 12; antl Matt. x. 17; xxiii,34; Mark xiii. 

i The on/cr of the public worship in the synagogue ; A«is xxii. lt>; xxvi. 11). The rabbins who had 

*>* u follows: diplnmnit fn>m the .Sanhedrim, and, after the Sanhe<lriin 

(1.) Morning Servwt, — The congregation having cea<«ed, from the daouhn of the res|)e<*tive colU-grs at 

*>*lMd their hands ouUlde the synagogue, and being .Sora and Puml>aditha fq. v.). and who were chosen by 

pi^^ly ftsseiDblcd, delegated one of their number to the different congregations to be their spiritual heads 

pi before the ark and conduct public worship. This with the consent of the assembly, selecteil such of the 




members as were best qualified to aid them in the ad- 
ministration of the communal affairs. These consti- 
tuted a local self-governing and independent college; 
they issued all the legal instruments, such as marriage 
contracts, letters of divorce, bills of exchange, business 
contracts, receipts, etc. Tlicy had the power of inflicting 
corporal punishment on any oflfendcr, or to put him out 
o( the synagogue ( =excommunicatc) altogether (Matt, 
xviii, 15-17; John ix, 22; xii, 42; xvi, 2). The pun- 
ishment of excommunication, however, was very seldom 
resorted to, as may be seen from the fact that though 
iJhrist an<l his apostles opposed and contradicted the 
heads of the synagogue, yet they were not put out of 
the synagogue. In some cases they exercised the rights 
€ven outside the limits of Palestine, of seizing the p^r- 
«ons of the accused and sending them in chains to take 
iheir trial before the Supreme Council at Jerusalem 
(Acts ix, 2; xxii, 5). 

2. It is not quite so easy, however, to define the nat- 
ure of the tribunal and the precise limits of its jurisdic- 
tion. In two of the passages referred to (Matt, x, 17 ; 
Mark xiii, 9) they are carefully distinguished from the 
cvvkCfua, or councils, yet both appear as instniments 
by which the spirit of religious persecution might fast- 
en on its victims. The explanation commonly given 
that the council sat in the synagogue, and was thus 
identified with it, is hardly satisfactory (^Leyrer, in Iler- 
zog's Rml'Encjfklop. s. v. " Synedrien''). It seems more 
probable that the council was the larii^er tribunal of 
twenty-three, which sat in every city [sec Council], 
identical with that of the seven, with two Lcvites as 
assessors to each, which Josephus describes as acting in 
the smaller pnivincial towns (/l7i/. iv, 8, 14; IKar, ii, 20, 
o), and that under the term synagogue we are to under- 
stand a smaller court, probably that of the ten judges 
mentioned in the Talmud ((rem. Ilieros. Sanhedr. loc. 
cit.), consisting either of the elders. thechazznn,and the 
legate, or otherwise (as Ilerzfeld conjecttires, i, 392) of 
the ten Batlanin, or otwsi (see above, IV, G). 

VII. Relations of the Jnrish Synagogne to the ChriS' 
Han Church,— It is hardly possible to overestimate the 
influence of the system thus developed. To it we may 
ascribe the tenacity with which, after the Maccabiean 
struggle, the Jews adhered to the religion of their fa- 
thers, and never again relapsed into idolatry. The peo- 
ple were now in no danger of forgetting the law, and 
the external onlinances that he<lged it round. If pil- 
grimages were still made t^> Jerusalem at the great 
feasts, the habitual religion of tlie Jews in, and yet more 
out of, Palestine was connected much more intimately 
with the synagogue than with the Temple. Its simple, 
eilifving devotion, in which miml and heart could alike 
enter, attracted the heathen prosc>lytes who might have 
been repelle<l by the blinxly sacrifices of tlie Temple, or 
Wduld certainlv have been driven from it unless thev 
c(»ul(l make up their minds to submit to circumcision 
(Acts xxi, 28). See Pkosei.ytk. Hero, too, as in the 
cognate order of the scribes, there was an influence 
tending to diminish and ultimately almost to destroy 
the auihority of the hereditary prie8tho<Kl. The ser- 
vices* of the synagogue retiuireil no sons of Aaron ; gave 
them nothing more than a complimentary precedence. 
See PRIKST ; S<;kii»e. The way was silently pr«pare<l 
for a new and higher order, which should rise in " the 
fulness of time" out of the decay and abolition of both 
the priest IkhnI and the Temple. In another way, too, 
the synagogues everywhere prepared the way A)r that 
order. N«»t *• Moses" only, but " the prophets" were read 
in them everv Sabbath dav; and thus the Messianic 
hopes of Israel, the expectation of a kingdom of heaven, 
were universallv <liffused. 

1. It will be seen at once how closely the organiza- 
Hon of the synagogue was reproduced in that of the 
Ecclesia. Here also there was the single presbyter- 
bishop [see Bishop] in small towns, a council of pre^ 
byters under one head in large cities. The leyatm of 
the synagogue appears in the ayytXoQ (Rev. i, 20 ; 

ii, 1), perhaps also in the airmrroXoCt of the Christian 
Church. To the elders as such is given the name of 
Shepherds (Eph, iv, 11 ; 1 Pet. v, 1). They are known 
also as iiyoiffitvoi (Heb. xiii, 7). Even the transfer to 
the Christian proselytes <if the once distinctively sacer- 
dotal name of iipevci foreign as it was to the feelings 
of the Christians of the apostolic age, was not without 
it« parallel in the history of the synagogue. Sceva, the 
exorcist Jew of Ephesus, was probably a " chief priest" 
in this sense (Acts xix, 14). In the edicts of the later 
Homan emperors, the terms dpxuptvQ and iipiVQ are 
repeatedly ap[)lied to the rulers of sj'iiagogues (Cod. 
Theoilos. I)e ./w</., quoted by Vitringa, fJe Decern OtiotU, 
in Ugolino, Thea, xxi). Possibly, however, this may 
have been, in part, owing to the presence of the scat- 
tereil priests, after the destruction of the Temple, as the 
rabbins or elders of what was now left to them as their 
only sanctuary. To them, at any rate, a certain prece- 
dence was given in the synagogue services. They were 
invited first to read the lessons for the dav. The bene- 


diction of Numb, vi, 22 was reserved for them alone. 

2. In the magUterial function* of the synagogue also 
we mav trace the outline of a Christian institution. 
The iKKXtfrritti either by itself or by appointed dele- 
gates, was to act as a court of arbitration in all dis- 
putes among its members. The elders of the Church 
were not, however, to descend to the trivial disputes of 
daily life (ra /3iwruca). For these any men of com- 
mon-sense and fairness, however destitute of official 
honor and position (oc i^ovBuvrifiivoi), would be enough 
(1 Cor. vi, 1-8). For the elders, as for those of the syna- 
gogue, were reserved the graver offences against relig- 
ion and morals. In such cases they had power to ex- 
communicate, to " put out of" the Ecclesia, which had 
taken the place of the synagogue, sometimes by their 
own authority, sometimes with the consent of the whole 
society (v, 4). It is worth mentioning that Hammond 
and other commentators have seen a reference to these 
judicial functions in .Tames ii, 2-4. The special sin of 
those who fawned u|)on the rich was, on this view, that 
they were ^*jmlge^ of evil thoughts," carrying respect of 
persons into their administration of justice. The inter- 
pretation, however, though ingenious, is hardly suffi- 
ciently supiHirted. 

3. The ritual of the synagogue was to a large extent 
the reproduction (here ab«o, as with the fabric, with 
many inevitable changes) of the statelier liturgy' of the 
Temple. It will be enough, in this place, to notice in 
what way the ritual, no less than the organization, was 
connected with the facts of the New-Test, histon-, and 
with the life and onler of the Christian Church. Here. 
too, we meet with multiplied coincidences. It would 
hardly be an exaggeration to say that the worship of 
the (^hurch was identical with that of the synagogue, 
modified (a) by the new truths, (h) by the new institu- 
tion of the supper of the Lord, (c) by the spiritual rA<i- 

(1.) From the synagogue came the use of fixeil forms 
of prayer. To that the first disciples had been aoens- 
tomed from their youth. They had asked their Master 
to give them a distinctive one, and he had complied 
with their request (Luke xi, 1), as the Baptist had done 
before for his disciples, as every rabbi did for his. The 
forms might l)e, and were, abused. The Pharisee might 
in synagogues, or, wlien the synagogues were closed, in 
the open street, recite aloud the devotions ap))ointo<l 
for hours of prayer, might gabble through the Skemn 
(" Hear. O Israel," etc., from Deut. vi, 4), his Kudish, 
his »Shem6nth Ksrchy the eighteen lie.rakotk, or bless- 
ings, with the " vain repetition" which has reappeared 
in Christian worship. But for the disciples this was, 
as yet, the true ])attem of devotion, and their Master 
sanctioned it. To their minds there would seem noth- 
ing inconsistent with true heart-worship in the recur- 
rence of a fixed order (icard raXiv, 1 Cor. xiv, 40), of the 
same prayers, hymns, doxologies, such as all litui^gical 
study leads us to think of as existing in the apoatolio 




age. If the gifts of utterance which characterized the 
first period of that age led fur a time tu greater freedom, 
to unpremeditated prayer, if that was in its turn suc- 
•ceeded by the renewed predominance of a formal fixed 
order, the alternation and the struggle which have re- 
appeared in so many |>erio(Ls of the hi^tor^' of the Church 
were not without their parallel in that of Judaism. 
There also was a protest against the rigidity of an un- 
tionding form. Kliezer of Lydda, a contemporary of 
the tsecrmd (lamaliel (cir.A.I). 80-115), taught that the 
legate of the synagogue should discard even the ShemO' 
i*^h Esreh^ the eighteen Axed prayers and benedictions 
^>f the daily anil Sabbath services, and should pray as his prompted him. The offence against the formal- 
ism into which Judaism stiffened was apparently too 
great to be forgiven. He was excommunicated (not, 
indeed, avowedly on this ground), and died at Ciesarea 
(Jwt, Grtch, dtt Ju(I*^th. ii, 3fi, 4,")). 

(2.) The large admixture of a didactic clement in 

^'bri5tian wor»hip, that by which it was distinguished 

ftom all (ientik forms of adoration, was derived from 

tbe older order. '* Moses" was " read in the synagogues 

<w Sabbath day" (Acts xv, 21), the whole law being 

^»d consecutively, so as to be completed, according to 

ooe cycle, in three years, according to that which ulti- 

BuUely prevuled and determined the existing divisions 

<'fthe Hebrew te^t (T^yrer, W. ci^.), in the fifty-two 

veelu of a single year. Sec Bibi jf. The writings of the 

prophets were read as second lessons in a corres|K>nding 

order. They were followed by the Derath, the Xoyoy 

■'apacXtV^itfC (Acts xiii, 15), the exposition, the sermon 

of the synagogue. The first Christian synagogues, we 

must believe, followed this order with but little de\ ia- 

tion. It remained for them before long to add " the other 

Scriptures^ which they had leanied to recognise as more 

precious even than the law itself, the " prophetic word" 

of the New Teat., which, not less truly than that of the 

OUl came, in epistle or in narrative, from the same 

iH»iriL See Scripture. 

(3.) To the ritual of the 8>'nagogue we may prob- 
ably trace a practice which has sometimes been a stum- 
bling-block to the student of Christian antiquity, the 
«ubjoot-matter of fierce debate among Christian contn»- 
veniialists. Whatever account may be given of it, it is 
««tain that Prayers for the Dead appear in the Church's 
vonhip as soon as we have any trace of it aAer the ira- 
nKilUte records of the apostolic age. It has been well 
<^rib«l by a writer whom no one can suspect of Rom- 
ish tendencies as an " immemorial practice." Though 
^ ScriiKure is silent, yet antiquity plainly speaks." The 
P^yew "have found a place in every early liturgy of 
tbe world." (Ellicott, Drstiny of the Creature^ serm. 
vi)> How, indeed, wc may ask, could it have been oth- 
^^i«? The strong feeling shown in the time of the 
^sniibces, that it was not *' superfluous and vain" to 
\ny f(if the dead (2 Mace, xii, 44), was sure, under the 
indiieQce of the dominant Pharisaic scribes, to show 
i^f ID the devotions of the synagogue. So far as we 
^'*'^ back these devotions, we may say that there also 
tbe prK>tice is "immemorial," as ohl, at least, aa the tra- 
nsitions af the Rabbinic fathers (Buxtorf, iJe Symigog, p. 
'••9^10; M'Caul, Old Paths, ch. xxxviii). The writer 
^nady quoted sees a probable reference to them in 2 
Tim. i, \H (Ellicott, P(ut, Epuitles, ad loc). But it is by 
^ means certain that Onesiphorus was at that time 
^^ See Dead, Prayers for thk. 

(i) The conformity extends, also, to the times of 
P^.vtr. In the hours of service this was obviously the 
^*^ The third, sixth, and ninth hours were, in the 
tuna of the New Teat. (Acts iii, 1 ; x, 3, 9), and had 
been, pn»bably, for some time before (Psa. Iv, 17 ; Dan. 
^10), the fixed times of devotion, known then, and still 
^flovD, respectively as the Skackarilh^ the J/tficAuA,and 
^'.irdbitk; tbey bad not only the prestige of an au- 
'l^ontative tradition, but were connecteii respectively 
*ith the naniei of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to whom, 
it to the fint originators, their institution was ascribed 

X.— F 

(Buxtorf, De Synagoff, \\ 28(0. The same hours, it is well 
known, were recognised in the Church of the second, 
probably alsT) in that of the first, century (Clem. Al. iS/rom. 
loc. cit. ; Tertull. /> Orat, c. xxv). The sacred days 
belonging to the two systems seem, at first, to present a 
(M)ntrast rather than a resemblance; but here, too, there 
is a symmetry which points to an original connection. 
The solemn days of the synagogue were the second, the 
fifth, and the seventh ; the last, or Sabbath, being the 
conclusion of the whole. In whatever way the change 
was brought alK)ut, the transfer of the sanctity of the 
Sabbath to the Lonfs day involved a corroH{)onding 
change in the order of the week, and the first, the fourth, 
and the sixth became to the Christian society what the 
other davs had been to the Jewi»di. 

The following suggestion as to the mode in which 
this transfer was effected involves, it is l)clieved, fewer 
arbitrary assumptions than any other [see Sabiiatii], 
and connects itself with another interesting custom, 
common to the Church and the synagt>gue. It was a 
Jewish custom to end the Sabbath with a feast, in which 
they did honor to it as to a |>arting king. The feast 
was held in the synagogue. A cup of wine, over which 
a special blessing had been siK)kcn, was handed round 
( Jost, Gfsch, ties Jmlenth, i, 180). It is obvious that, so 
long as the apostles and their followers continue<l to use 
the Jewish mode of reckoning — so long, i. e., as they fra- 
ternized with their brethren of the stock of Al>raham — 
this would coincide in point of time with their itlxvov 
on the Jirst day of the week. A supper on what we 
should call Sunday evening would have l>een to them on 
the teanui. By degrees [see Lord's Supper] the time 
became later, passed on to midnight, to the early dawn 
of the next day. So the Ix)rd's supper ceased to l)e a 
supper really. So, as the Church rose out of Judaism, 
the supper //are its holiness to the coming, instead of 
deriritiy it from the parting day. The day came to be 
KvptaKrf, because it began with the Cflrrvov KifpiaKor, 
Graduallv the Sabbath ceased as such to lie observed at 
all. The practice of observing both, as in the Church 
of Rome up to the fiHh century, gives us a trace of the 
transition period. See Sunday. 

(5.) From the synagogue, lastly, came many less con- 
spicuous practices, which meet us in the liturgical life 
of the first three centuries. Ablution, entire or partial, 
before entering the place of meeting (Hcb. x, 22; John 
xiii, 1-15; TertulL De Orat, c. xi) ; standing and not 
kneeling, as the attitude of prayer (Luke xviii, 11 ; Ter- 
tull. ibid, c. xxiii); the arms stretched out (Tertull. 
ibid. c. xiii) ; the face turned towards the Keblah of the 
east (Clem. Al. Strom, h>c cit.) ; the responsive Amen 
of the congregation to the prayers and bc*nedictions of 
the elders (1 Cor. xiv, 10). In one strange exceptional 
custom of the Church of Alexandria we trace the wilder 
ty|)e of Jewish, of Oriental devotion. There, in the 
closing responsive chorus of the prayer, the worshippers 
not only str(>tched out their necks and lifted up their 
hands, but leafKHl with wild gestures (roi't rt iro^ap 
iTTfydpoftiv), as if they would fain rise with their pray- 
ers to heaven itself (Clem. Al. Strom, vii, 40). This, too, 
reproduced a custom of the synagogue. Three times did 
the whole body of worshipiKfrs leap up simultaneously 
as they repeated the great ter-miictiis hymn of Isaiah 
vi (Vitringa. p. 1 UM) sfj. ; Buxtorf, ch. x ). 

VIII. Litf.niiure, — Jerusalem MetfiHuh^ c. iii; Mai- 
monides, lad Ua-Ckt-zaka UHchoth Tephila ; Vitringa, 
J)€ Syruif/of/a Vetere (Weissenfels, 1726); Zunz, Die 
(fottesdietuftlicht-n Vortrdge der Juden (Berlin, 18;^2), p. 
3H(J SJj. ; id. Die Ritus de» »ynaffogalen (iotttsdienttes 
(ibid. 1859); Edelmann, //if/njon I^b (Kiinigsb. 1845) ; 
Ilenfeld, (iesrhirhte des Volkes fgratl (Xordh8"^n, 1855, 
1857), i, 24-:iO, 127,391-394; ii, 129-1JU^>«<223; Jost, 
(re^chichte des Judenthunu (\a!\\)»\c, jy^f-bH), i,'SS sq., 
168 sq., 262 sq.; Duschak, JUustrirte ^1 onatsschrifl fur 
die gesammten DUeressen des Judcnthunu (Lond. 1865), 
i, 83 s<i., 174 sq., 409 »i\. See alsti Burmann, ExtrcUU 
Acad, ii, 3 sq.; Reland, Antiq, Sacr, i, 10; Carpzoy, 


Appar. p. SOT sq. ; HirtmiDn, VerlnBd. da A.T. mil d. I 
A'eum,p. 225 (q.; Uroiin, ArUiquUiti oftht Jetci, i, &90 
•q.; Alleii,J/iKltm./u(l(Wia,ch.xix: the iDonoKnipha uf 
BumiU, JM Vn. ^gmiffoj/u (Vilenib. lG50)j Leovardic, ! 
/« Hyuigogatt EccUMa (n, 1. et bii.) ; Klieiiferd, I>t Olio- I 
tit Symigoga (FraiiL'C. 1I>8G); id. Architfiingogui Olioiui , 
(ibid. 1C8H); Tenizel, lie PmeaiAit Siiyaar. (Vitemb. 
1G82) ; and the dincrtatiuaB cited by Darliug, Cyclop. 
BibUog. rol 1811. See Woeuuip. | 

SYNACtKlUE, THB Great (post-Biblicil Hebrew, I 
nVintn nOSS; Aramaic, Nn3-i KniU33: lau Greek I 
and Latin, ffuimyiuyf) fityoXq, Sstingapa Maifoii), Ihi 
Great ArtfBibIg, or Ihf Gnat Syiiod, aeeording w Jew- 
ish tradition, tlenotis the council first apfxnnlcd after 
the return of the Jcwa frum ihe Babylonian captivity 
to reor^nize the religious life, institutions, and litera- 
ture nf Ihe people. Our inrormation un the subject ii 
cbieH.v Tram Rabbinical nounxB. 

I. Name and ill Sig/ajKiai-m. — Though the verb 
CIS, to gather, lo iiatmbU, occurs in the Old Teat. 
(EsUuiv, Iflt 1 Chron. HKii, 2; Eiek. xxii, 21 ; xxxix, 
38; Paa. exivit, S}, yet the nouu E^O^S, oMttmbly, igna- 
gogae, does not occur in Uiblical Hebrew. Id the He- 
brew Sctipturea the lertni nin^, in^, and HJIOSJ 
are uacd for coi^rfgaliim, attemHi/ [see Ecci, 
and there can be but little donbl that the non-Biblical ' 
npSS is cleaignedly employed (o dlatinguiah thia assent- | 
biy Crom all other gatherings. See 8vN.ti300UE. Thia ; 
ia also the reason why the artide is prefixed to the od- 
jeccire alone, and nut alio to the noun^vii. nD33 
nbinan, Ihr. Great Synagogue — inasmuch as this sill- 1 
givs it out rrom the other ignagogua, provincial or lo- 
cal, both great and small, which ohuined at the same 
lime, and which were designed (or different objecta. 
Wheu Ewald aaseru that "in the Miahnic language 
the Bubstantive and the adjective nertr have the aniclc 
togrther (/^rivch, S 293 a, note), we neeil only refer . 
to SnibalA, xvii, 4; Yimia, iv, 3; Taiaiilh, iii, 7; Kr- 
tkubolh, vi, 7; Nediirim, ili, 11; Xazir, vili, 1; Baba I 
Balhra, iv, 3; and to iimamerable other giasaagea, in 
tefutalion of this aimertion.' According; lii the must an- , 
cieiit trnililiiin, this assembly or synagogue was styled 
grtal because of the ijreat work it effected in realoring 
the divine law lo ita former gieatnc**, and because of 
the great autboritv and reputation which it enjoyed 
(Jenisatem itegillJi, iii, 7; Babylon .Vff/illah, 13 b; 
Yoina,e9 b; ^;rui£H, 13 b; Zebarhim, llhi; /iauheiiria, 
U a). The enactments of the Great Synai^oguc arc 
often quoted in the name of n^iisn np» ''dlSt, Iht 
men of Ihf Great AuetrMj/, or tbose who succeerively 
constituted ils members during the long period of its 
existence. The alAreviatal forms of the«e two names 
to \<e met with in .lewish lileralure are n'= = nBi: 

nii-t»n and n :jt, jnix = nbTian P033 ■'uast. 

NomelimvB thia assembly is als>i designateil the 120 el- 
ders <D')pT D-'1i::;l T\1K^.MrriUl<ih,Vb,\»b). 

II. Origin, Ihilr, and tieTel-'p-Hmt of Ihr Sgaa- 
gogne. — It is supposed by many tliat Kitra was the 
founder uf the Crent Synagogue, and that he, in fact, 
was its preudcul. (iriitx, however, has adduced (he 
lullnwing arguments tu prove that Nelicmiah urigiiialul 
It after Ihe death of Uzro: I. The very name of EEra is 
IHX. even menlkmed in the Uiblical register of the rep- 
resenuiives fNeh. ix ; Kara v), and it ia inconceivaUe 
III aupiiuse that the originator would have been umit- 
lal; and, 2. Nehemiah, 


desecrated, and the law ofGud and of 
!gBrded(Neb.xiii,e-Sl}. Now 
ircat Svnagogue was held ei- 
evila; a: ' 

n of th 

ihe represenulives dittinclly bound themselves by a 
moat aolemn ostli to abstain from mixed marriages, tn- 
keep the Sabbath holy, and lo attend sacredly to the 
janctusrj- ami ils requiremenui, there can be no lioubt 
Ihat the synod was convened by Nehemiah nfer kit 
tecoad rieit to Jeruaalem to deviee means in order lo 
meet these perplexing points, and that becauae these 
evils disturbeil the order of the community, Iherufore 
they were made the principal and express object* of 

of ch. s 

til .len 

in tht 

twentieth year of .\rtBxerxeB's reign {B.C. 446), and 
considerBhly after the thirty-second year of hia reign 
(I5.C. cir. 410). On his secmul arrival he found Jerusa- 
lem in a moat deplorable conditioti : the chieb of the 
ramilies had formal alliances with Sanballat the IIo- 
lonite and Tobiah the Ammnnite, enemies uf the Jewn; 

Great Syiiagi^e which has 

of Nehemiah ia not put together in chronulugical order. 
Griltz has shown a pofition of the different chapters in 
accordance with the above view|Frankel,.l/oiia«»c*Wff, 
vi, 62). Sec Ezra. It ia obvioua, however, Chat Ne- 
hemiah acted in perfect concert with Eira, and Lenee 
there ia uo Bubstantial error in attributing the Great 
Synagogue to the latter. 

Aa to tf* iatt, the convention of this Great Syna- 
gogue was moBt probably one of Nebemiah'a last acta, 
I and it must have taken place after the death of Arta- 
xerxea, elae Nehemiah could not have remained in Je- 
ruaalem, since even Ihe second permiaoion to viait that 
city waa granted lo him on condition that he should 
return to Shushan. It could not therefore have taken 
place before RC. 424. The Great Synagogue waa most 
probably held a few yeara after the above date of Ne- 
hemiah'a second visit. Ezra waa doubtleaa then dead, 
and this is the reason why his name does not occur in 
the register of the representalivea. The whole period 
ofihe Great Synagogue embraces about 104 yeara (B.a 
404-300), or from the latter days of Nehemiah to the 
dealh of Simon the Juat (q. v.), who was the last link 
of the chain conatituting the synod {Abotk, i, 2> It 
then pamed inin Ihe Sanhedrim, when the whole uf its 
constitution was changed. See Sa:<heiirim. 

The exiatcnce of the Great Synagogue, which ii at- 
leslcd by the unanimoua voice of Jewish tradition, was 
first questioned by Richard Simon {Hit. CrU. du Vieut 
Tell. lib. i, cap. viii). Jacob Alting, with more bold- 
ness, rejected it altogether as one of the inventions of 
tradition ("Synagi^s magna enim nee uno tempore 
nee uno loco vixit, eoque aynagogs non full, reram 
comntentum eat Iraditionsriorum, qui nullum alioquin 
nexum rapaioaiiMic reperire potuerunt," Opp.v, SHi). 
lie was foUowed by Rau {Diatribe de Synag, Magna 
[Oltriy. 1726], p. 6<i, etc.) anil Aurivillina {Dt Synag. 
tntgodicla Magmi [e<i. J. D. Michaelis, Getting. ITSOJ). 
De Wetcc {KiideitHiy m diuA.T.% 14) conlemptu- 
ciusly diamissea it as "a Iradirion which vanishes a* 
soon aa the passages are looked at whereon it is based, 
and as not even being a subject for refutation." Thoae 
who condescend to argue the matter reject thia iradi- 
liun because it ia not mentioned in Ihe Apocrypha, Jo- 
sephua, Philo, oi the Snier Olam, and because the ear- 
liest record of il is in Ihe tract of the Miahna entitled 
.4 both, which belongs to the 1st or 2d ceutur^- of our term, 
hilt probably represents an earlier age. But surely thw 
argument from the ulence of a few writers cannot set 
aside the express and poutirc testimony of the Itisbiia, 
the Talmud, and the earliest Jewish works. In like 
manner, Ihe book of Ecclesiasticus, in its catalogue of 
.lewisli hrniea (ch. I), does not mention Em: Jose- 
phns never allniles lo the tribunal of twenty-three mem- 
bers, and the earliest patristic literature of the Jews 
diH'H not breathe a syllalile about the Maccahiean heroes. 
Wuidd it be fair to conclmle from this silence that Eira, 
the tribunal, and the JIaccabecs are a myth ? Id con- 
lirmalinn of tlie records in the Talmudic literature about 
the Great iSynagogue, the following circumsUoitia) crk 
ilence is tii he adducol: The errors of the Sanuritan* 
brcamv rsnipant after ihc dcaih of Nehemiah, while of 


tlw high-priests between Eliashib and Onias I some en, with Nehcmiah ninety -eight, while the remaining 

were insignificant men and others were reprobates. Ju- twenty-two arc the deputations of the cities. We mav 

^laisni, moreover, has no record whatever of any distin- thus obtain the 120 members of tlie (ilreat Synagogue 

i;uished penions during this perio<l. We should there- mentioned by the unanimous voice of tradition. It will 

fore have expected the religion of the people to be at also be seen from the alK)ve that these 120 members 

the lowest ebb. ** But instead of declining, we find Ju- represented five classes, viz. : 1. Tlie chiefs oftheprust- 

daism rapidly rising. No trace is to be found in the /„ .i:^^..«. /^%» «•<-» -^imm-in .» ti- w ^ ^.i » 

whole of this penod of the disturbances, misconceptions, , ^ .^ 

and errors which prevailed in the time of Ezra, Neho- '**'»«'' fnmiiies (D'^'^1t)n •^OXn) ; 3. The heads of the 

miah, and Zerubbabel. The law and the precepts were Israelite families (0:fil ^^^'^>); 4, Representatives of 

pre-eminently reveretl. The ancient collection of Ben- ^^ ^^ 'the elders (C-^3pt ; irp^afivTif>oi) ; 5. The doc- 
>iracb s sayings, which reflects the spirit of the people 

in the pre-Simonic age, breathes a fen-ent enthusiasm '^'*' ^f '**' '""^ (0'^3'^3T3 D'^nCO; ypa/x/iareic), from 

for the inspired law (comp. Ecclus. ii, 16; vii, 29; ix, all grades. This number, however, if thus made up, 

15; X, 19; xv, 1 ; xix, 17 ; xxi, 11 ; xxiii, 27, and espe- was most probably restrictetl to the time of Nehemiah, 

cially ch. xxiv). Who, then, has kindled and sustained as there can be no doubt that the assemblies which 

SQch an enthusiasm and religii>us spirit, if not an assem- were afterwards held consisted of a smaller number, 

bly amilar to that convened by Nehemiah?** (GrUtz, in since, at the time when the Great Synagogue is held to 

Fruikel's Monatsschrift, vi, 63, etc.). have passed over into the Great Sanhedrim, the repre- 

111. Number of Members and their Classification, — sentatives consisted of seventy, which became the fixed 

We are told that Nehemiah organized the Great Syna- rule for the Sanhedrim (q! v.). 

gogue (comp. Neb. x, 1-10 with Midrash Huth, c. iii; IV. The Work of the Great Synagogue, — At its first 

Jenisalem Shrbiith, v, 1), and that it consisted of 120 organization under Nehemiah, if the above be its true 

members (Jerusalem Berakoth, ii, 4; Jerusalem Megil- origin, the representatives bound themselves by a most 

W. i: Babylon J/<yitfaA, 17 b). In lo«)king at the regis- g^^i^.^n ^^^th (n3?ia':J2T nbxS) to carry out the fol- 

H ?f^he Great Assembly recorded in Nehemiah (x, 1- ,^^.j ^^^ ,,^^j^j^ ^.j^j^j^ ^^^^ deemed most essential 

«), It will be seen that — a. Only sixteen out of the - , , .,• / i. i . . j c 

twentv-four chiefs of the priests (1 Chron. xxiv, 7-18) ?;' '^'^ .«^^»^">' "^ ^^« "^^ ^ reconstructed State : 1. 

ire eiumeratetl, and that for the eight that are want- ^''\ ^? V'^^T*^' V^^ heathens; 2. To keep the Sab- 

»h, IIsBhabniah-who reUimed with Zerubbabel and ^? W' '^*' P"***"^ ^»«« {^^^' ^' 2^^> ^he ft.unda- 

E2n(Neh.ix,4,5; Ezra v, 18, 19, 24), Bani is omitted, [?"" ^"' ,^^^ reorgamzation and reconstruction of the 

.^, , . '. .- .J 1 \. , . htate and the Temple-ser\' ice being thus laid at the hrst 

»nd twelve private individuals are mentioned who were ^^^^j,^^ ^^ ^^^j^ ^^1^^^,^ ^j^^ obtaining of the necessary 

niKioubtedly the doctors of the law (C-^m^ ; Neh. viii, materials for the* successful re4iring-up of the super- 

•:ix,3). cOftheforty-fivecA»p/io/*M«/>eopfcC^C:xn structure and the completion of the edifice demanded 

-7M) only half are known as heads of families, and the that the synod shoiUd occasionally reassemble to device 

rm are again distinguished private individuals. Here «"<* adopt such measures as should secure the accom- 

the families of David and Joab (comp. Ezra viii, 2, 9) pH^hraent of the plan and the permanent maintenance 

wmwing. dL Of the reprejfenfatires of the cities there ?f **^« ^nctuary. To this en«l the members of the 

»« onlv two mentioned -'V'iz. Anathoth and Nebo- ^^*^ Synagogue are believed to have coUected the ca- 

which plainly shows that others are omitted, since these "°"1_"»^ Scnptures. This was cal ed forth by the effects 

two places did not at all distinguish themselves to be jj ^^^ *^"^ decision, which involve<i the expulsion of 

thus singled out. Now, in looking at the peculiar posi- ; J^f *"f;;*^^..!^^", ""L _!*•!'?. :*!!!!!!l:,l''l**!*:.!*.V ^u!".^™'"?' 
tion in which they are placed among the heads of the 
people in the register of the exiles, it will be seen that 

and the syno<l for refusing compliance with that deci- 
sion — i. e. to be separated from his heathen wife, the 

ibeVamUvof iTari'p'h (Joseh) stiid'first'; 7hen"foii^^^ ^«"??'*f f Sanballat (xiii 23-29). In consequence 

of this his father-in-law, Sanballat, obtained |)ormi8sion 

ih« names of thirteen cities (viz. (iibeon, Bethlehem, . ., > i ->, 

N€U>phah, Anathoth, Beth-azmaveth, Kirjath-jearim, ^> J»;'«^l «» opposition temple on Mount Gcnzim. m 
tVphimh, Beer<»th, Karaah, Gaba, Michmas, Beth-el, which Manasseh l)ccame high-pnest, and whither he 
and Ai); Nebo concludes the catalogue of the cities, was followed by many of the Jews who sympathized 
•ad the family of Magbish follows upon it (Ezra ii, 18- '. ^>**» *^*"'\ ^ *"« proceeding, however, compelled them 

^' Neh. vii, 24-33), which exactly corresponds with 
^ order in the register of the Great Synagogue ; Ha- 

to deny the prophets, because their repeated declara- 
tions ab«>ut the sanctity of Jerusalem did not favor the 

riph begins, then come cities, i. e. Anathoth ; Nebai ^••^^^»^" "^* *^,"^l'^^ ."l*^ ""[ '*^^ *"^*»?^ metro|>olis. To 
«»»« last, and then again MagbUh (Neh. x, 19, 20). ""^"^^ « ^«" "^ partition between the Jews and these 
It has been supposed, therefore, that the above-named a!>o«tates, and to show to the people which of the au- 
nties are to be inserted between Ilariph and Anathoth. "^'"^ !>rophet,.^al books were sacred, the Stephen, n and 
If we add to these fifteen cities the other five sjH>cified ^^'^ "»*'" *»^ '^« ^'^^^^ Synagogue compiled the cnnon 

^ pnests are wanting — 1..« .„ , , . , , • .... 

"f Btni is missing from the Levites, seven families of /^''^'*/"' ^«;i"'\ »>.v i»»erting into it the twelve minor 

'«« heads of the people have disappeared-and thir- pr«»phets, w Inch this syntxl accordingly ( .<! as may Ik; 

tWBof the representatives of the cities have dn.pped ««:" [''["' '''*''!'. ^''''^'7; J^' ;'^''' dt Habfn Sathau, 

.-«. Now, if we supply those which seem to have »>een *^: »' '^ Ma*^^^'. xiu 13. Although some of thew. autlmri- 

^^^ and add them up with the private individuals ^"•'' «'^* "" *""*''", clear alKiut the lKH,ks in.serted into 

•MnUoiwl in the register, we obUin the following rep- ^^"^ canon, yet they all testify to the fact that the 

'wwtatfves in the Great Synagogue: twentv-eight m<'n^»>orso< the (m-at Synagogue wore cngagnl in rol- 

Prwai, consisting of the twenty-four divisions *and the *«*'»'"^ '''^' ^«""'"^'«* l^x»k« '>f tl»^* prophofs. The I la- 

ft«r private indiyiduals; nineteen Levites, being the KH'^rapha were not ^h yet nmde up. as is evident fn,m 

*T«i families and the twelve private persons; fifty Is- ^^*^ ^^"^^ ^*»«*^ ^^»^ younger Sirach did not even know the 

'■elites, twenty -nine being chiefs of the people and expre.>wioii C'^S'irs. but used the general term rd aWa 

twemywuie private persona — making in all ninety-sev- to denote them {l^rtface to Ecclus,)^ and that in Alex- 


andrU additions were made to the book of Esther, and pher as a distinctive appellation, is no personal nunt, 

other books were inserteil in what we now call the Ha- but a title of dignity. It is derived from his ecclesias- 

giographa, as well as from the circumstance that the tical office in the hierarchy of the metropolitan Church 

canonicity of some of the Hagiographa continued to be of the Extern Empire. The syncellus was originally 

a point of difference between the schools of Shammai the companion, room-mate, occupant of the same cell 

and Hillel, which could not have been the case if the with the patriarch— ooAa6ito/or, ceUtineut, conceUameut, 

canoA of the Hagiographa had been definitely made up. He was to be the constant witness of the purity of the 

They also compiled the ritual for private and public patriarch's life and the propriety of his conduct and 

-worship [see Synagogue] ; and, finally, they intro- conversation, on the same principle as that which re» 

duccd schools for the study of the divine law n^l ri'^S), quires members of the Jesuit Order to be always acoom- 

and defined the precepts of Holy Writ. The whole of P«ni«<i »>>' one of the fraternity. Sometimes one syn- 

this is indicated in the epitome ofthe three grand max- ^^^ ^«* appointe<l, sometimes two, and sometimes 

ims transmitted to us in the laconic style of the Mishna : ^^^ Frequently the designation was bestowed as an 

"The prophets transmitted the divine law to the men honorary and honorable title. At times the office was 

of the Great Synagogue, who propounded the three employed as a motle of placing spies around the patri- 

maxims — be cautious in judging, get many disciples, "ch. The popes of Rome had their syncelli down to the 

and make a hedge about the Uw" {Abot/i, i, 1). The time of Gregory the Great, at least, as has been proved 

other work of the men of the Greek sjnagogue which ^X Ducange, who has discussed the subject with his 

has come down to us in the name of the Sophenm is "^ual exuberant learning {Glou. Med. et Infim, Latm. 

given in the article Scribe. 8. v.). They were atUched, also, to other prelates. The 

V. Liteiature. -Was^rmmn, in Jost's ItraeUHsche reUtion was naturally one of great intimacy and confl- 

Amalen (Frankfort -on -the -Main, 1840), ii, 163 sq.; ^ence, and consequenUy became one of influence and 

Sachs, in Frankel's ZeUschHft fvr die religiogm InU- ^igh distinction. Hence the syncellus seems frequent- 

re««4 <fc» JudaahHm» (Beriin, 1846), ii,801 sq.; Kroch- ^7 ^ ''•^e "^^ *« coadjutor to the patriarch, and to 

mal, More Ntboche Ila-Seman (Leopoli, 1861), p. 62 sq., h*^® *>««« for a long time regarded as in the legitimate 

102 sq., 166 sq. ; llcrzfeld, Geschichle des Volkes Israel ^^^ of succession to the patriarchate. The practice, 

(Nordhausen, 1855-67), i, 22 sq., 380 sq.; ii,63, 244 sq., however, of elevating the syncellus to the patriarchal 

264 8(1. ; Jost, (/eAckichte des Judenthwns, i, 36 sq., 96 sq., '^rone on the death of the metropolitan appears to have 

270 sq. ; Low, Ben Chananja (Szegedin, 1868), i, 102 sq., "c^er been habitual, and to have been abandoned be- 

193 sq., 292 sq., 338 sq.; and especially the elaborate fore the end of the 9th century (Zonaras, XVI, xiii, 25; 

essav of Griitz, in Frankers 3/ofw<McAr(/?yMr r7e*dltcAf^ Gretaer et Goar, Comm, in Codin. p. 106). The em- 

und'Wissenschafl des JudetUhums (Leipsic, 1867), \n, 31 P«">' Romanus Lecai^enus made his youngest son, The- 

sq.,61 sq.; alsoFUrst,CMcA.dMA:anoiw,p.22,note. See ophylact, syncellus, evidently with a view to the sue- 

Canon. cession to the highest place in the hierarchy (Zonaraa, 

cvxr4/^rkr-T''i? .^^ n^ ^ . on. t • u nu u XVI, xviii). The special functions of the office seem 

• ?™A«OGtE AND Chdrch. The Jcw«h Church ^^ ^; ^^^ ^J^ abandoned, bat the name u,d 

.8, .n the eatacomba, represented a. a woman of majes- j, j ^^ ,»„, ,^^f„^ ^^^ (^i„„, ^ ^ ^5^ 

tic presence m flowing robes; but m mediaeval exam- ^ _.' « >.,r r • » •wi?^« »/^r»n ^j 

, *^ *!. J .. o u . n ..u J 1 '^.u Court^roU of the Jmpertal CmctaU {Bee OoUj Prtej, ad 

pies, as on the doorway at Rochester Cathedral, with qyff^ihfff, { RS) ^ •> 

her eyes bMidaged, the table, of the law fdUng from *J^ jr .^IIq^;^ the Chronognpher was ».T,ceUu. 

?5* •'rlf • ;!;'' ',''"'"'" "^ '"/'•* 1^ ^^fl ^:}^' to the litriarch ^iua, who Xd in 806. He mar 

1/). 1 he Church 18 crowned and sceotred, and holds a . m *.. . j ^. . ^' 

h K . viw.,Mw .i.u g«.^pwcxi, aiiu uuiuo a j^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ imposed on that eminent func- 

cnurcn ana a cross. tionary by the emperor Nicephorus as a spy. We know 

Synallaxis, in Greek mythology, was one of the nothing of him except from his name and* his title, and 

lonids, nymphs skiUed in medicine, living on the Cythe- from his commemoration by hU friend and continuator, 

rus, a river of Elis. Theophanes. The testimony of Theophanes amounts 

Synapte {pwairn^) is a Greek term for the Greek to very little. It is simply that George, the abbot and 

Collect in the Liturgy of St. Mark, resembling the ec- syncellus, was a distinguished and veiy learned man, 

/«ne in that of St. James and of St. Chrysostom. It is who £uthfnlly and laboriously chronicled the events of 

used, also, to designate the holy communion. the world from Adam, and diligently recorded their 

Synaxarium ( crwvn^optov ) is a term for an chronok)gical succession; that life failed him when be 

abridged form of the Greek menology (record of had brought his chronicle down only to the accession of 

months), an account of the festival being celebrated. Diocletian ; that, on the approach of death, he requested 

a .-* f ' V \ XT' . ^ . .f . and urged his friend Theophanes to complete his de- 

SynaxU (<>r«^«£.f), an Eastern term «, ^ "^^ ^^,^ Theophanra reluctanUy undertook and 

respectivelv, 1. A collect or short prayer^ 2. The holy * . .u- • • r\ef^ I *u nx. 

V • . " \i. /^u • -.• -fi o A ui r executed this commission. Of Geonre the Chronotrm- 

euchanst, or the Christian sacnnce; 3. An assemblv for , ^.. . _ . . A/V *U- V • f 

X.' ^ 4 n^x, ' ' ^ ^- r • I pher nothing more is reported. After this brief appa- 

worship; and, 4. The joint commemoration ofsamts. ^,. .J* . riT-i. u -u •* aLw_ 

r^ * J ntion on the stage of historv he vanishes into thick 

SyncelluE (from (ruywXXoi, to join) was an ancient darkness, leaving his unfinished work behind him. 
officer attached to the patriarchs or preUtes ofthe Ori- m. Works, — The only work of George SynceUns 

cntal Church as witnesses to their conversation and ^jijch we possess, or know to have been written by 

comluct. Others acted as clerks and stewards. It him, h his Chronographif, or Universal Chronicleg, which 

eventuaUy became a mere utle of honor. comes down, as has been said, to the reign of Diocletian. 

Syncellus, GeoRoiusi, a Byzantine author and an Had life and health been spared, he would probably, 

ecclesiastical dignitary of Constantinople, who lived at like his continuator, Theophanes, and like the general 

the close of the 8th and the beginning of the 9th cen- tribe of mediaeval chroniders, have been fuller, more 

tury after Christ. He has left a Chronography, or chro- original, and more instructive in the treatment of con- 

nological record of events, extending from the creation temporaneous events. These events were, in all likeli- 

to the accession of the emperor Diocletian. He began hood, well known to him, from his social and official po- 

with Adam, and intended to bring down his compila- sition, and from the diligent studies which obtained for 

tion to his own time, but death anticipated the comple- him the reputation of extraordinary knowledge (xoXv 

tion of his task. /xo^cfrraroc)* As he died when he had proceeded no 

I. Name, — He is called Georgius Abbas and Georgius further than the accession of Diocletian, nothing can be 
MonachuSy and has sometimes been erroneously identi- expected from him but fidelity of compilation and di»> 
fled with Georgius JIamariolus, whose works remain cemment in the selection and use of authoritiM. Faith- 
still, for the most part, unpublished. The designation fulness and industry may be readily conceded to him. 
of Syncellus, which has been given to the chronogra- Discietion and sagacity are scarcely among hia charao- 


serves notice as being the probable source of a new in- 
terpretation of the word, by which it came 
to denote, not, as aforetime, the practical association of 
religionists holding divergent views upon some ques- 
tions, but an intermixing of the religions themselves. 
The new rendering of the word furnished the opponents 
of Calixtus with additional weapons, of which they were 
not slow to avail themselves. See Daniihauer, Myste- 
rium Stjncretismi^ etc (Strasb. 1648), where the idea of 
syncretism is made to include ever}' form of hurtful as- 
sociation or intermixture, e. g. of Eve with the serpent, 
of the chemical or mechanical intermixture of hetero- 
geneous elements in nature, etc. With Calovius {i\, v.) 
t»egins emphatically the use of the term syncretism as 
denoting an improper and unallowable approximation 
of Lutheran and Reformed Christians towards each oth- 
er. This view underlies the phrase SyncretUtic Con- 
trorersufs (q. v.) as used in ecclesiastical history. The 
more benevolent meaning was gradually laid aside, and 
even Calixtus was constrained to refuse his consent to 
the application of the term to his position. The per- 
version has retained its hold upon the popular usage 
until now, and has doubtless contributed towards the 
unauthorized assumption of a derivation of syncretism 
from (7vyKtpdywfn,—llerzog, Real-Encykiop. s. v. 

Syncretifitic ControverBies. The title applies 
in ordinary practice to such disputes only as originated 
in connection with efforts made in the second half of 
the 17th century to promote union and fellowship be- 
tween the Protei^tant churches of (xermanv. These dis- 
putes raged less between Reformed and Lutheran theo- 
logians than between the strict and the liberal wing 
of the Lutheran Church itself. The progress of con- 
troversy, moreover, generally resulted in the interweav- 
ing of extraneous and foreign matters with the direct 
question at issue ; and in this way the syncretistic con- 
troversies became also disputes with reference to the 
degree of freedom to be allowed theological schools and 
theological science, the disputants being known as Gnf' 
sioliitfierani and yfoder at lores. The term fyncrtiism 
(q. V.) is not broad enough to cover all these several 
disputes, but is in practice so employed by all parties. 
Ever>'thing prior to the transactions of the year 1645 
must be regarded as preliminary to the syncretistic 
controversies proper. From that date we may distin- 
guish three periods to the death of Calovius and the 
practical end of the dispute. 

1. From the Colloquy of Thorn to the Death of George 
Calixtus (164D-r)6). — Calovius had succeeded in pre- 
venting the selection of Calixtus as the delegate of 
Dantzic to the (JoUoquy of Thorn; and when the latter 
was ap|)oinied to serve for Konigsberg instead, Calovius 
caused him to be deprived of all opportunity to co-op- 
erate with the Lutheran delegates, (^lixtus thereupon 
associated and counselled with the Reformed theologi^ 
ans, antl thereby gave o|)|M)rtunity for his opponents to 
fasten on him the charge of an unwarrantable com- 
bining ot'diversi* religions — a charge persistently urged, 
though he publicly and in writing rejected the Reform- 
ed (.'onfesjiion of Thorn. The next measure was a un- 
ion of all the Saxon theologians, led by Weller, the su- 
perintendent of Brunswick, in a censure of tlie Univer- 
sity of llelnisiiidt, which favored Calixtus, on the al- 
leged ground that it had made innovations in dmrtrine 
and had departed from the generally received Consensus 
Formula et Catechesis liudwruni. To this Calixtus re- 
»()onded with a denial under date of Feb. 26. 1647; but 
with no other result than that of increasing the eager- 
ness with which every peculiarity in the teaching of 
HelmstJidt wa^4 scanned for the discovery of error. In 
Prussia, the appouitment of the CalixtincH Chr. Dreier 
and .Toliann Latermann to the faculty of Konigsberg 
excited similar disputes, which called forth numerous 
volumes in defence of either side ; and Caloviu.s, who had 
been superseded by Dreier, continued to fan the tlame 
from a disunce, even after Mvslenta, its originator, had 
died (in 1653). 

The increasing prominence of the electors palatine 
and Brandenburg was in this period regarded with anx- 
iety by the electoral court of Saxony, and the repre- 
sentatives of the latter, in the Peace Congress of West- 
phalia, had standing instructions, accordingly, to pre- 
vent, if possible, the concession of rights to the Reform- 
ed churches equal to those enjoyed by the Lutheran; 
but the endeavor failed altogether. The class of Lu- 
theran theologians which approved the action of the 
congress in this regard was accordingly not in favor in 
electoral Saxony ; and as early as Jan. 21, 16-48, the the- 
ologians of Wittenberg and Leipsic were commanded to 
investigate the errors of the Ilelmstiidt theologians, and 
state them *' article by article." In the following 3'ear 
the elector addressed to the dukes of Brunswick a paper 
in which he rehearsed all the objections of his theolo- 
gians against Calixtus and Ilelmstiidt, and requested 
that the latter, as disturbers of the Church and State, 
should be forbidden to write against the Saxon divines. 
In November, 1650, Calovius, the redoubtable defender 
of Lutheran orthodoxy, was called to the faculty of 
Wittenberg. An immense quantity of controversial 
writings preceded and followed this event. The dukes 
of Brunswick refused to accede to the request to silence 
their theologians, and caused a defence of their position 
to be written by Homeius, and a reply to the elector 
by Calixtus himself; and they also rejected the propo- 
sition to convene a diet of theologians, as tending rath- 
er to increase than diminish the troubles of the Church. 
They proposed instead a convention of " political coun- 
cillors who love peace and are acquainted with affairs;^ 
but this was rejected by Saxony. On Jan. 9, 1654, twen« 
ty-four accredited representatives of evangelical powers 
united in a renewed proposition to submit the questions 
in dispute to a boily of peacefully incline<1 theologians 
and statesmen for discussion ; but the elector of Saxony, 
acting under the advice of his theologians, would not 
entertain the project. The Saxons now pursued the 
plan of dismissing the party of Helmstiidt from the Lu- 
theran Church more zealously than before, and in the 
course of their labors produceil a work which was ex- 
pected to serxQ as the confession of faith of all who 
would continue in the puriHed Church— the Consensus 
Repetitus Fidei vere Lutheranee, To secure the largest 
possible number of supporters, a mass of writings in 
harmony with its teachingf^ was issued; but it became 
speedily apparent that but few were ready to adopt the 
new confession, and this fact, coupled with the death of 
George Calixtus in the spring of 1656, caused a cessa- 
tion of the strife. 

Five years of almost total quiet ensued, interrupted 
only by slight agitations in Brandenburg, where the 
Lutheran preacher Samuel Pomarius (q. v.) was suspend- 
ed for preaching against the Reformed and the syncre- 
tists. This perioti was followed, however, by 

2. Reimctd Conjiicts (1661-69).— The imme<liate oc- 
casion of strife was found in the measures taken by 
the landgrave of Ilesse-Cassel, William VI, to secure a 
religious constitution for his land which shouUl l>e suf- 
ficiently broad and generous to comprehend both Lu- 
therans and Reformed under its operation. His endeav- 
ors culminated in a convention which met at Cassel, 
consisting of two members of the (Reformed) University 
of Marburg and two theologians belonging to the (Lu- 
theran) faculty of Rinteln. Adeclaratitm was drawn up 
which recognised existing divergencies of opinion be- 
tween the parties, but at the same time showed an 
agreement lx>tween them on all essential matters, and 
on the ground of such consent urge<l the exercise of 
brotherly love and the recognition of both parties as 
belonging to one Church, sharing in a common faith 
and looking towards a common heaven. The appear- 
ance of this declaration roused the Wittenbergers to ac- 
tion. They issued a circular asking the support of all 
g(M)d Lutherans against the Cassel colloquy, and in- 
duced the factdties of Jena and Leipsic to unite with 
them in admonishing the theologians of Rinteln con- 


the fugitive Protestants fn>m France. The end of the 
controversy — a peaceful neparation between theology 
and religion, the regulation of the boundaries intcrven- 

ceming the lapse of which they had been guilty. A 
/usilade of papers in Latin and (vcrman, aimed at both 
the learned w<»rld and the public, wa^ now kept u|> un- 
til after the death of William VI, in ]G()6, when the ing between Church andscluMil, between confession and of Kinteln became much ctioler in consequence of sc.*ience, between that which is and that which is not, 
)icne6ta conferred on the Keformetl at the expense of obligatory upon all Christians — was not attained. Ca- 
the Lutheran party. lovius held pure doctrine to bc> the one thing needful. 
The renewal of the dispute in Hesse soon reacted and regartled that as fixed and settled, so that every 
upon Brandenburg, whose duke was brother-in-law to soul is require<l to simply accept it as the truth. Ca- 
the landgrave, and thoroughly in sym])athy with his lixtus did not believe the aocefitance of doctrine to be, 
plans. The government issued a manifesto deprecating upon the whole, the essential thing in Christianity, nor 
the cu»t4>ni of discussing points of controversy' hi the that all doctrine has equal importance; and he held 
polpit and before mixed audiences, and soon afterwards that the points of belief which a Christian absolutely 
(Aug. 21. 1663) a colloc)uy was summoned to Berlin for must receive arc but few. He was thus able to over- 
the puqxwe of '* inaugurating a state of fraternal uni- look minor differences and desire fratemity among all 
iy.^ The Lutherans, however, proved unyielding, the Protestant Christians. 

poet Paul Gerhardt (q. v.) in particular being fixed in The literature of the controversy is vast. See esi)e- 

bis opposition to any compromise, and the colloquy cially Calovius, fJutt, «V^7irr«?/. ; Walch, Strtitigkeitfn d, 

ended witliout result. Various orders now followed in luth, Kirche^ pt. i and iv; Tholuck, Akad, Leben ti, \7tt>n 

quick succession, by which preachers were forbidden to Jahrh, ( 1854), pt. ii : id. Lebeti*ztvffeti d, luth, Kirrhe 

iipply opprobrious names to their opponents in the pul- (Berl. 1859) ; id. KirchI, Leben d.Mten Jahrh. (ibi<l. 1X61 ) ; 

pit, and also to attribute to them doctrines inferred Gtas, Ge^ch, d. ptttt. Ihtf/nnitik (ibid. 18.57), vol. ii; und 

irom their principles, but not avowed by them. The the works mentioned s. v.'* Calixtus,(jeorge." — llerzog, 

J^aatherans refused to sign a pledge of obe<iience to these Real-Encyklop, s. v. 

e^^-licus this being in their eyes tantamount to a formal Syncretiat* ((rvyKprrrKrrai uniomstn), persons 
»l3«idonment of their position. The government event- ^^^ advocate a svstem of union and harmonv which 
j.»Uy compeUed them to yield, though many chose dep- ^.^ attempted to be introduced into the Lutheran 
:,*^ition from office and exUc rather than submission. Church in the 17th centur\-. It originated with Ca- 
A new phase of the dispute began in 1664 with the YixXw, professor of diviniiv at llelmstUdt, who, in ex- 
p.«.ahlication of a great collection of CoiwUia Theologica amining the doctrines pn.fessed by the different bodies 
»^*i/«*fr</*fwia. which included a multitude of judgments ^^f Christians, discovere<i that, notwithstanding there 
g^jOKainst Calixtus and the synergists, and also the Con- ^e^ ^any things to be reprobated, there was so much 
^^rw^sHs RtpttUvi Fidti vert Lutheratuf. The exclusion important truth held bv them in common that thev 
^>r the syncreiists was now less aimed at than the rally- ought to banish their animosities, and live together as 
icaf? of all strict Lutherans about the Conseruns as a new disciples of one common Master. His object was to 
-croiifwsion of faith. The terms of the Consengus, how- ^^^1 the divisions and terminal* the contests which 
-c-ver, implicitly condemned CaUxtus and hU adherents prevailed. Like most men of a pacific spirit, he be- 
A» n»>n-Lutheran and heretical ; and the new movement ^ame the butt of all parties. He was accused of Cal- 
*cc<»rdingly drew out the son of Calixtus, Frederick Ul- yinism, Roman Catholicism, Arianism, Socinianism, Ju- 
ne who from this time made it the object of his life to jaism, and even Atheism. His bitterest opponent was 
»»*9Wt the pereiaient attacks of Calovius on his father's Buschcr, a Hanoverian clcrgjman, who publishwl a l)ook 
-cliaracter and work. Both were extremists, and could against him entitled Crypto^ PapUmtu AorrF Theohf/im 
m Rulwiantiate all the assertions they put forth ; but HelfwHadienfis, The subject was taken up bv the Con- 
the |,arty of Calovius triumphed over Calixtus for a ference held at Thorn in the vear 1645, to which Calix- 
im thnwigh the efforts of a new combaunt whom t^g ^ad been sent bv the elector of Brandenburg; and 
t^v had gained to their support^the youthful Strauch, ^j^^ ^.^ole force of the Saxon clergv was turned against 
pT"fe«r,r of history and assessor in theology at Witten- hi^,, as an apostate from the strict andpure principles 
<»rg. The L niversity of Helmstiidt, on the other hand, yf Lutheranism. This great man continued, however, 
♦nlirttd the ser%-ices of Herman Conring (q. v.), a schol- ^.jth consummate abiUtv, to defend his views and re- 
frind statesman of European fame, and he succee<lcd p^i t^p attacks of his enemies till his death, in 1656. 
ins..prMenting to view the danger to the peace of the u^t this event did not put a stop to the controversv. 
Vburch and to the liberty of teaching which grew out ^ continue<l to rage with greater or less violence till 
<»» «he attempt to force the Consettsus upon the Church n^ar the close of the centurv, bv which time most of 
•M a ct»nfcs»ion of faith, that universities and princes ^l^^^ ^jjo took part in it had died. To such a length 
▼«t aUmietl. and a period of quiet was secured, 1669. ^as the opposition to Calixtus at one time carried that, 
3. /W/Ccm/Kty.— Calonus reopened the war in 1675 jn a dramatic piece at Wittenberg, he was represented 
^b accustomed energy ; and although the temjJer of ^j, a fiend with horns and clawj». Those who 8ide<l with 
tje iiro« was changing, an<l disgust with the intermin- hjn, ^cre called Calixtines vr SyncrfiiH«, See Syn- 
^^ quarrel began to be manifested, he was able, by (^kktism. 

J^i*, to corortel the entire Universitv of Jena to dis- --_ -.^ r ' i \ t\ - . tc. 

ir,« .11 u -.u *• ' Tu- u ^- Syndics (<rvi'^iJcoi\ or Dkfknsokks, were officers 

«r(rv all svropathv with svncretism. This, however, v j * •• . • u .u • i. c .u 

wnr^H ... iL v.^ 1-1, ..:„.™' u;„ ..,.^ ..«♦«.., »k« ^\J. ^^^ <»"»>' »t was to watch over the nghts of the |)oor 

to act as superintendents of the 
to see that all clerks attended the 

iti;;:i;i;;eT^"d'i^;u"Tn'r68?th77/i;/o^",^^^^^^ celebration of morning an<l evening service in the 

^hich Calovius had made a storehouse of the details of *^^"'*^»'- ^^ Bn.gham, Urn/. A nt^q. bk. in, ch. n. 

^wlife-limg contest, and published anonymouslv to evade Synecdfimi {tTvyfKaifioi,ftlIoir'piff/rtmA\ a name 

<be Uw forbidding such publications, was bimght up P»ven by the Paulicians in the 9th century to their 

*n<l prevented from circulating among the people by teachers, because they were all equal in rank, and were 

*be ijovemment. He died of apoplexy Feb. 21, 1686. distinguishe<i from kymen by no rights, prerogatives, 

^0 conwderable features in connection with the syn- ^' insignia. 

*Wi»tic controversy appear after the death of Calovius. Synedrians (from oi/rc^poc, a xittinff tof/ether\ a 

■^herans and members of the Reformed Church in name given by the Novatians to orthodox Christians, 

^^cnnany neither desired nor sought fraternity with because they charitably decreed in their synods to re- 

*^ other during more than another century. When ceive apostates and such as went to the Capitol to sacri- 

^Bevocation of the Edict of Nantes occurred, in 1685, fice into their communion again upon their sincere re- 

^y the Reformed population in Germany welcomed peutancc. 

P^^'^edtu be his la»i victorv. His aged patron, the elec- , ^ .- ,,. , 
««MaDn Georg H of Sixony, died in the following ?", ^",^ v >"and 1 
y^*t, wu\ the new ruler was not so fond of controversy *T. '. ^' 1 ' 




Synergiflm (jtrwipyfutf to work together) is the doc- 
trine that the human will co-operates with divine grace 
in the work of conversion, as it was advanced by Eras- 
mus in his controversy with Luther, and afterwards 
represented by Melancthon and bis school. Luther 
taught that sin had absolutely ruined man, making of 
his reason a ravenous beast and of his will a slave, so 
that it is impossible for him to contribute in any way 
towards his conversion ; and in the first edition of his 
Ijoci Communes Melancthon*s teaching is in entire har- 
mony with Luther's view. Such a view necessarily re- 
sulted in the doctrine of predestination, and both Lu- 
ther and Melancthon (raced everything back to (tod 
as the tirst cause, the sin of Judas no less than the con- 
version of Paul. It was, however, an unnatural view 
for Melancthon to hold, and he rece<led from it into the 
dualistic idea that human liberty must l)e recognised 
as a factor in conversion by the side of the divine ne- 
cessity. In the third edition of the /voct sin is derived 
from the will of the devil and of man, instead of that 
of (rod; not everything, consequently, is to be ascribed 
to the divine causality, and there is a realm of contin- 
gencies by the side of the realm of necessity which is 
founded on the freedom of the human will. A certain 
measure of volitittnal freedom to perform outward works 
of obedience to the divine law remains to man even af- 
ter the Fall ; but he cannot, without the aid of the 
Holy Spirit, quantitatively and qualitatively fulfil that 
law, and accordingly in every good action three causes 
work together {(wvtfiyovm) — the Word of God, the Holy 
Spirit, and the human will, which does not resist the 
Word of Grxi, and is at tiroes described directly as fti' 
cnltag sese apfUicandi ad gratutm. The doctrine of pre- 
destination fell, of course, so soon as man came to be 
regarded as other than a volitionless statue. This syn- 
ergistic theory of Melancthon 's was admitted into the 
Ivcipaic Interim (q. v.) in the wortls "Go<l does not o|h 
erate on man as on a block, but draws him in such a 
way that his will co-operates." It was also advocated 
in a polemical address by Johann Pfefiinger, professor 
and pastor at Leipsic (looo), against whom Amsdorff 
(q. V.) contended, in 15r)8, that " it is presumptuous to 
hold that man could, in the exercise of his natural pow- 
ers, prepare and lit himself to receive grace." Pfeffing- 
er had said, however, that the Holy Spirit must first 
arouse the will, after which the latter is re<|uired to do 
its part in convemion. Frt>m this personal stage the 
question was lift«<l into the schools by Flacius (<!. v.\ 
He denied all participation of the will in the work of 
convernion, because it is dead t<» all gotMl, wanting in 
all powers for gixnl, and inclined to evil constantly. 
God, therefore, is the sole agent in conversion, and man 
is not only passive, but aUio unwilling. To the defence 
of such postulates Flacius devi>te<l two days in a dis- 
putation at Jena, which latter university now became 
the centre of strict Lutheranism as against Wittenberg, 
where tiie spirit of Melancthon rided. The next meas- 
ure of this Lutheran champion was the publication of 
the Weinuir Hook of ('imj'utations, which committed 
the <luke of Saxonv to the defence of orthmloxv, and 
served, at the same time, to refute all the errors of the 
time. It likewise occasioned the overthnm- of Strig<«l 
(q. v.), who had l>oen forced to aid in making a first 
draft of the l)ook, but was unwilling to admit into it 
any of the improvements suggested by Flacius, and 
wrote against it in the form in which it was given to 
the worltl. He was seized and imprisoned on Easter- 
day, 1559, but was S4M>n afterwards lilieratod in <lefer- 
ence to the censure with which public opinion everj'- 
where visited that act of violence; and a collmiuy was 
ordered to be held at Weimar in August, L'HJO. with a 
view to settling the dispute. On this occasion Flacius 
inconsi<lerateIy asserted that original sin is not an ac- 
cident, but part of the substance of man, and obstinate- 
ly refusetl to retract the statement. The favor of the 
court now began to wane, and in exactly the same de- 
gree did the Flacianist divines rage against all who re- 

fused to sustain their opinions. Punishment natarally 
followed, and reached its culmination in the dismissal 
from office of Flacius and his clique, Dec 10, 156U 
Strigel, on the other hand, was induced to draw up a 
Declaration of his views, and was thereupon reinstated,, 
which event was followed by an explanatory Superdec^ 
laration from the hand of superintendent Stiissel, de- 
signed to conciliate the opposite party {Cc^kumus Stoes- 
selii, in Salig, iii, 891). Strigel, however, refusetl to ac- 
cept the interpretation of his views given by Stossel^ 
and took refuge "from the machinations of false breth- 
ren" in I^ipsic. The Lutherans who rejected Strissel's' 
compromise were banished, to the number of forty. 
The accession of John William to the thnuie of ducal 
Saxony (1567) restored the Flacianists, Flacius himself 
excepted, to power; a futile colloquy was held for the 
purpose of giving peace to the Church at Altenburg^ 
Oct. 21, 1568; and the duke was eventually constrained 
to order the forming of the Corpus Doctriatr Thurin'^ 
fficum (Jena, 1571) with a view to the protection of as- 
sailed orthodoxy. The Formula o/ Concord gave the 
finishing stroke to the conflict, and settled it substan- 
tially in harmony with the Flacian view. See Salig^ 
/fist, d, A ugsb. Conf, i, 648 ; Walch, lUligionsttrtitigheil'^ 
innerhalb d, luth. Kirche^ ij 60 ; iv, 86 ; Planck, Gesch, dL 
prof, lArhrbegi-iffs, iv, 553 ; Schltlsselberg, Catalogi iltr^ 
ret.v; (valle, Melancthon^ p. 826; Thomasiua, Bebnmtniss 
d, luth, Kirche, etc, p. 119 ; DoUinger, R^ormation, iii^ 
437 ; Schmid, in Zeitschr, f, hist, TheoL 1849, p. 13 ; 
Pregcr, M, Flacius lUyricus^ etc, ii, 104-227. — Herzttg, 
Real-Fncykhp, s. v. 

SynefiiuB, bishop of Ptolemais, was first a pagan,, 
then a Christian, and always a rhetorician. He lived at 
the close of the 4th and the beginning of the 5th century 
of our sera. He was a late representative of the rhetorical 
declaimers of the Hellenic schools, and of the Neo- Pla- 
tonic philosophers. He was also a pagan and a Christian 
poet, an elegant gentleman of leisure, and a bishop of the 
African Church. C<mtrasts were combined and reconcile<l 
in the man and in his career. He lived in an age of 
transitions; and he is, in his writings and in his fort- 
unes, typical of the age in which he live<l. The biog- 
raphy and the literary remains of Synesius arc much 
more interesting and instructive for the light which 
they shed u})on the social, intellectual, and religious 
condition of provincial life in the Roman empire during 
the first iKiriml of its manifest dissolution than for any 
influence exercise<1 by him on the literature, the philos- 
ophy, the paganism, or the Christianity of his times,. 
<»r on the sentiments, convictions, or character of subse- 
quent generations. He was designated by Casaubork 
" the sweetest of philosophers and the delight of the 
pious muses" (" suavissimus philosophus et piarum de- 
licium musarum," Prtef, Kp, Grey, Xjfssen.) ; yet few 
authors have excited so much admiration and been so> 
seldom read. Few have been so often quoted by the 
few who were acquainted with him, and been so inac- 
cessible for many generations, even to professed schol- 
ars. The attractions of Synesius are so special in their 
character that thev address themselves to a verv limit- 
c(l class of studentj*. The {)eriod which he illustrates 
is so obscure, so disheartening, and so little considereti,. 
that «)idy the frequenters of the by-ways of historj* are- 
likely to turn their regards to it. More than two cen- 
turies intervened between two editions of his works.. 
After this long interval, three complete editions have 
been published within the last twenty years. One is 
only a I^tin version, ani)ther is a French translati<»n, 
an<l the third is no more than a reprint of the (treek 
text and Latin rendering from the edition of lt>4(K with 
some slight corrections. The writings of Synesius, in 
prose nT verse, ins(>ired by pagan or by Christian influ- 
ences, arc much less not^ible for literary charm, for vigor- 
ous thought, or for philosophical reflection than as a pres- 
ent4itioii of the feelings, the aspirations, the struggles, 
the didiculties, the hazards, the gratifications, the an- 
noyances, the occupations, and the associaticms of a cul* 




tivated ooontiy gentleman, de/iropincio, under the reign 
of Arcadius and Honoriiu, when all parts of the empire 
were falling to pieces. They, accordingly, interpret the 
times for ua, and require tu be iuter|>rGted by them. 

I. Character and Circumttances oftht Affe, — The life 

of Sy neaius was cast in a stormy period ; and the storms 

Were not limited to his own province, but swe)>t over the 

whole enn|>ire. It was the age of general dissolution, 

political, flTM-ial, intellectual, and religious; an age of 

uHurpatlons and civil discords; of crimes in the palace 

and treacheries in the State; of l»arbariaii invasions; of 

/(ermaiient diMnembermeiits ; of strife between pagans 

ami Chrihtians; of citiitroversies, heresies, and schisms 

111 the <Jhriatian Church; t>f social depravation and de> 

r»y : of universal disintegration, and of rapid material 

• iecline. The date of the birtli of Synesius is unde- 

1 crrniined. If he was bom in 370, it occurred only sev- 

t^tm ycsars after the death of the fiagan emperor and the 

'^•.alure of his attempt to restore paganism. When Sy- 

ic-i^ius ili«<l,if he dietl in 4dl.Geuseric and his Vandals 

i .r^il seized a large part of Africa ; Britain, (iaul, and 

^f >ain had been cut off from the Roman dominion. 

> siriiifc h\* lifetime usurper had sprung up after usuqw 

c ; Aftta Elinor and (rreece and Italy had been ravaged 

y -w the fioths; Coujttantiiiople had been threatened and 

^«.tnnc thrice captured by them, and ^Uaric had led his 

I.- aUl hortts from the Alps to Scylla and Charybdis. 

^"^hile Synesius was still a child in the cradle, Firmus 

^ .^»d revolteil in Kgypt, and the insurrection had been 

^s: '^'ived after the \&\tMi of a few years, to tie cnishe<i out 

B->. the (vildoiiio war. Strangely enough, to none of 

f- • ^r^. portentous events is any distinct allusion made 

m w the remains <if this author, except to the itothic in- 

^s a vT«><'tii»ii in I'hr^-gis. There is a possible reference to 

L k Ik «> (iildoiitc war {Cata*Ui»U, ii, 1 ). In the early oration 

« ^ ^' livereil before the eniiieror Arcadius there is a clear ex- 

f t^ yrciiion of the fearful (leriU from the Northern hordes im- 

^ v«r iidiiig over the empire {Lh-. Itt-ffmu c. xxi-xxiv). Was 

\%l?f mind so engrossed by literary labors, by phil(»soph- 

v<rAl speculations, and by troubles nearer home that the 

KTfU calamities of the time occurred withtuit attracting 

^*is attention ? Or was his pen arrenteil by dc^spair, 

*^v(:n in his candid communications to his friends V Vet 

^W invasions and the mutilations of the empire in the 

^I*Mimy chasm between the birth and the death of Sy- 

Qt^iitt were not the most grievous calamities of those 

y«ir\ Even more grievous was the social condition 

wliirh invited the inva^ons, and ren<lered resisianiHi 

in>|)faiii(>able. There was no cohesion or concert be- 

twt^ the pn»vinces ; no devotion to em()eror or empire; 

'-•ihing but ili vision, isrtlAtion, misery cverj'where— as 

> <^HNi)tience, in part at least, of im{>erial nde and im- 

Kriil atlministration. The organization of the goveni- 

"i^it «aii impotent fur defence, or for that vigorous at- 

|*fk which i» often the best means of defence. It was 

I'lRHtiiHttly devised fi>r inflicting needless and paralyz- 

'"K rwtraint, and for extorting revenue fn»m ponurv 

^' wiiie.jiprf>ad distress, l^nds were left uneullivatetl 

^^^ ilm<i«t without inhabitants. Wiile tracts relapsed 

"•'" furnt or marsh. The [leople were ground by taxes 

^'xl the ruinous nvides of ci»llecting them. Movement 

^^ ('nterprise were prevented in order to facilitate fiscal 

^'''■ngements. liridgeswere Imtken down by time and 

"^h'iert. Koads were lefl without repair, and became im- 

F'Mhlc. Oimmnnication was rendered difhcult. (.!om- 

"'^"■^t manufactures, and iiulustry of all kinds wen^ 

"''Med and impede<l in many ways. In numerous 

^^If^nsirtf r^ions banditti lurketl in the woods, infested 

^^ bi(;hways, and ransacked villag<«. So great was 

'^wrttcheihiess which had driven these outcasts into 

'^viuud courses that a presbyter nearly contem|s>rary 

*it)) Synesius undertook their excnlpat ion. (hie lMN)k 

"f the Tkrcthmim Otde, whr»se compilation falls within 

'^u «f:e, is occupied with ileHning and enforcing tUv 

^lilies to municipal and other public burdens, and 

*^ t<^ulating and restricting the exemptions fn)ni 

^'ko, which were often arbitrarily and capriciously ac- 

corded. The hard struggle for bare life engrosBed near* 
ly all thoughts; and irreguhir, treacherous, and violent 
proceedings became familiar, while unrestrained license 
was common whenever opfMirt unities of indulgence pre- 
sented themselves. The general demoralization and 
the social disintegration were aggravated by divisiona 
in the Christian Church, which weakened the authority 
of the new religion, and by the great contention be- 
tween Christianity, often sadly corrupted, and the ex- 
piring paganism, which was cognizant of its disease, but 
not of its approaching dissolut ion. All the bonds of gov- 
ernment^ law, morals, and religion were fearfully enfee- 
bled. Full and indisputable information in regard to 
these sorrowful generations is contained in the De 
CiritaU JJti of Augustine and the Ife (Jubematitme 
Ihri of Saivian of Marneilles. Vet. despite all interrup- 
tions and apprehensions, phikwophy and literature con-^ 
tinned to be cultivateiL Philosophy lost itself in Neo- 
Platonic fantasies and Oriental mysticism. Literature 
was, in large {Mirt, made u)> of pedantic epistles and rhe- 
torical affectations. It was the sere of Libanius, The- 
mistius. and Svmmachus. No severer censure of it need 
be sought than is contained in the )iroducti(His of Syne- 
sius. It was, however, also the o^ra of the great Chris- 
tian orators and fathers, who contended earnestly against 
vice in high places, oppression and wrong wherever they 
were found, and the manifold distresses of the |»eople. 
Ambrose, Dasil, Augustine, John Chr}'s<Mtom, .Ktrome, 
and the two Gregories illustrated the Christian C'hurch 
I in that age. and attracted the atlmirat.ion of pagans as 
well as of the followers of their own creed. To none 
of them does Svnesius make anv reference. These,, 
then, were the varieil, and in many n'Sjiects alarming,. 
' as|)ects of the years which measured the career of Sy- 
; nesius, and by them its anomalies are rendered intel- 
I ligible. 

' II. Life., — Svnchins was proliablv l>orn alsmt the year 
' 370. Some authorities say in 376. His birthplace was 
1 Cyrene, the capital <»f Cyrenaica, the tract whicli stretch- 
I es along the African coast westward from Flgypt. ( 'y- 
. rene was a Dorian c<i]ony of the mythical ages; and 
Svnesius claimed for himself the most illuMtrious Laco- 
nian descent. In his denunciation of Andronicu», he 
' contrasts the splendor of his own lineage with the meau 
I extraction of tlie ini|M'rial governor. " In default of 
' other merit,'' savs he, " 1 descend from Kurvsthenes — 
. from ancestors whose names, from Kurysthenes, who led 
the Dorians into I^conia, down to my father, are in- 
scribed in the public n?gif%t<'rs" {Kpint. Ivii; c«)mp. CaiU' 
/t/MjiM, ii, 5). This deduces his line from the royal houste 
of Sparta, though he has blundered in his statement of 
the ancient legend. His family was ttpulent (A'/^m/. 
cxxxiii). lie had a city house, and country estates iii 
which he tO(»k unc<'a^ing delight. Nevertheless, he dil- 
j igently sought exemption from civic and fiscal burdens. 
' His love of letters and philoMtphy must have l>een man- 
ifested early, for his tn»tes were already det^ided and 
much accomplishment attaine<l when he proceeded to- 
.' Alexandria (304) to attend the Neo-riatonic and other 
j coursivs in that tumult uiuis city. Here he b4*<!anie a<>- 
' <{uainted with the lieautifnl, brilliant, and unfortunate 
HyiMitia. He enrolle<i hini!>elf among her di:<ciples. 
I He secured her esteem and regard, and always retained 
' the wanni>Mt admiration for her. Seven <»f bin letters 
I are addn'S.'^ed to her. On returning fn»m Kgypt, he 
' went to Athens, to complete his educatiim at that old 
centre of learning and retinemeut, whence had is^uedy 
, in the prece<ling generation, the eni|>eror .lidian and 
I many of his distinguished et>iiteni|N)raries. pagan and 
('hriNt.ian. He was utterly disenchanted bv his yi>it,. 

I * * ' 

and made no long stay ( Hpift. liv, cxxx v ). Aft<T des*ert- 
i ing Atlien.o, he paid a !«ec(»nd vi.sit to Alexandria. a>« iS' 
I shown by a graphic and humorous letter (ihul. 'w\ de- 
scribing the hazards of shipwreck to which he was ex- 
|M>sed on his return. (Druon, p. .1H7-.08O. dis4'us.s(>.H iho 
calculations of I'etavius and Tillemont, and a&signn this 
voyage to 3'J7.) Soon after his return, he was sent by 




his fellow-citizens to Constantinople, to present their 
petitions and a golden crown to the young emperor 
Arcadius {De Regno^ c. ii). He was a youthful ambas- 
sador. He appears to have discharged his mission with 
ability, acceptance, and some degree of success. The 
«mperor was still under tutelage. Everything was in 
confusion. The court was distracted by bitter rivalries. 
Alaric had recently ravaged Greece and threatened Ath- 
«n8. During his stay the insurrection of the Goths in 
Phrygia occurred. It was no wonder that he experi- 
enced frequent inattention and disheartening procrasti- 
nations, and that he was at times reduced almost to des- 
titution and despair. He had the honor of delivering a 
public harangue before the emperor. He gained inilu- 
^itial friends, established a reputation for literary tal- 
«nt, and acquired elegant correspondents, who would 
•display and eulogize his epistles at Constantinople, 
while he would pay the same compliment to theirs at 
Cyrene. One thing he accompIlshe<l for himself— im- 
munity from public dues. An earth(iuake hastened 
and excused his departure from the capital of the East- 
«m Empire. On reaching home he found his country 
•desolated by barbarian war, an atfliction from which it 
liad seldom been entirely free for five centuries. The 
nomads from the edges of the Libyan desert were mak- 
ing frightful irruptions, plundering, destroying, murder- 
ing, and meeting with little and only incfTectual resist- 
ance (Epist. civ, cxiii, cxxiv). The governor and offi- 
cials were more studious of pillaging than of repelling 
other pillagers. Synesius, calling to mind his Laconian 
descent and the example of Leonidas, and having ap- 
parently had some military training himself in his 
youth, roused his neighbors to action, and led them 
against the spoilers. This war with the nomads, 
which was renewed from time to time, is mentioned in 
many of his letters, and forms the subject of a special 
tracL These productions exhibit the weakness and 
wretchedness of the province — the neglect, imbecility, 
<x>war<lice, and rapacity of the imperial authorities, and 
the disgust of Synesius at the conduct of both the peo- 
ple and the officials. After the war was over, or, rath- 
er, in the intervals of partial or local repose, he enjoy- 
ed an elegant and learned retreat in his country resi- 
■dencea, finding occupation in study, literary production, 
and rural pursuits, and relaxation in hunting, manly 
sports, and an active correspondence. Two years and 
tnore after the close of his embassy he revisited Alexan- 
dria. It was during this visit that he married. He 
received his wife from the hands of the patriarch ; and 
to her and to his children he remained always tenderly at- 
tached. His marriage was his first visible contact with 
Christianity. It was. perhaps, decisive. It is no vio- 
lent presumption to suppose that his wife was Chris- 
tian, as he received her from the Christian bishop of 
Alexandria ( Kjnst. cv). *'The unbelieving husband 
may have been sanctified by the l)elieving wife;'* or the 
wife may have been chosen with a prevenient disposi- 
tion to believe. There is no evidence, no intimation 
of this. The l>ion was written about this time. It is 
pagan. The treatise On iJreatns was composed after 
bis marriage. It is mystical and Neo- Platonic, and ac- 
cords with Chri:ftianity as little as Cicero's dialogue De 
Dirinatione, After an abode at Alexandria of more 
than two years, and the birth of a son, he came back to 
Cyrene, which was shortly afterwards besieged by the 
barbarians. During the succeeding years he must have 
inclined more and more to Christianity, but without re- 
nouncing his philosophical dogmas. The date of his 
•conversion cannot be ascertained. He must have been 
reputed a Christian, or *' almost a Christian," when elect- 
-ed bishop of Ptoleraais (409, 410). The episcopate was 
a very different function then from what it has been in 
«ercner and more settled periods. The bishop was the 
guide, the advocate, the protector, the support, and often 
the judge of the Christian Hock. His civil attributes 
-were of the utmost im^iortnnce to the daily life of his 
people. Character was of more immediate concern to 

them than doctrine. Synesius had gained and deserved 
the esteem and confidence of his countr>'men. The met- 
ropolitan Church of Ptolemais demanded him for its 
bishop. He was unwilling to incur the solemn respon- 
sibilities of the {Kwition. He declined, he protested, he 
urged objections which might be deemed insuperable. 
He could not put away the wife to whom he was de- 
voted ; he was hnwilling to forego the pleasures of the 
chase, the other recreations of the country, and the lit- 
erary and philosophical ease which had been the charm 
of his life. He had neither relish nor aptitude, he thought, 
for the multifarious and exacting business which would 
devolve upon him. He could not surrender the Neo- 
Plaponic convictions which he had approved, expound- 
ed, and still believed ; yet he recognised that they were 
at variance with Christian doctrine. In an elaborate 
letter to his brother he presents earnestly the grounds 
of his hesitation and reluctance. He begs him to lay 
his views before the patriarch Theophilus, whose deci- 
sion he agrees to receive as the decree of Gpd (Epist. cv). 
The patriarch must have recommended his acceptance 
of the sacred honor, notwithstanding his Nolo ejnsco' 
pari. He was consecrated at Alexandria by Theoph- 
ilus. Seven months afterwards, being still in that city, 
he declared that ^* he would have preferred many deaths 
to the episcopate** {Epist. xcv). Did he separate from 
his wife? Druon thinks that he did. It has been more 
frequently supposed that the separation was not required 
of him. Did he yield his convictions in regard to the 
pre-existence of souls, the non-resurrection of the body, 
and the incompatibility of Christian doctrine with re- 
vealed truth? M. Druon again confidently concludes 
that he did. Other inquirers, ancient and modern, be- 
lieve, with more probability, that he continued to en- 
tertain them, for some time at least, after his elevation. 
He may have acted on the convenient principle of Scie- 
vola and Varro, which he avowed in the letter to his 
brother, that many things in religion are allegorical, 
which it is expedient to inculcate u(Ktn the vulgar, who 
are unable to receive truth in its purity. At any rate, 
he discharged with energy, rem)luti<Hi, integrity, and 
skill the administrative and otiicr external offices of the 
episcopate. He boldly assailctl the tyranny and rapaci- 
ty of the governor of the province, and succeeded in re- 
lieving the provincials of his rule. His denunciation of 
Andronicus surA'ives. Another incident of his episcopal 
aptitudes is preserved. He effected an amicable and 
satisfactory settlement between two of his suflragans for 
the possession of a dismantled fortress on the border of 
their respective dioceses. There was ample occasion for 
the display of his sagacity and fortitude. The ravages 
of the nomads were renewed. The Ausurians besieged 
Ptolemais. The resistance of the inhabitants was sus- 
tained by the courage of their bishop, who continued 
zealous in seeking pnitection for the province, and has 
transmitted to our days the record of its woes. How 
much longer he guided his diocese we do not know. 
The date usually assigned for his death (480, 431) is 
founded on a dubious conjecture. In this date M. Druon 
does not concur. He considers a letter to Hypatia, writ- 
ten from a sick-bed, and ascribed to 413, to be his latest 
epistolary or other production {Epint, xvi) (Druon, p. 
551) ; and believes that he escaped, by an earlier death, 
the affiiction of knowing the tragic fate of "his teacher^ 
mother, sister, friend.** It would be strange, had be 
known it, that no mention of her murder occurs in letter 
or other treatise. A fantastic legend, two centuries after 
his death, attributed to him a miracle for the proof of the 
resurrection. The greatest of all miracles, in bis case, 
was that, being, or having been, a Neo-Platonist, he be- 
came a bishop of the Christian Church without the full 
renunciation of his views ; that, being a provincial of an 
African province, he acquired eminence in diplomacy, 
in philosophy, and in poetr}'^; that^ living amid the tur- 
bulences, vices, and meannesses of the 5th centcny, he 
maintained the reputation of an innocent, slnoope, and 
gallant man. 




III. Works. — The works of Synesiuis usually brief— 
for the I/itm is one of the longest — are numcruus and 
vari<vl. They are of great interest. We may concede 
to Synesiius f^race of expression ; we may admit the exu- 
Iforance uf his fancy and the propriety of his reflections ; 
wc may enjoy the freshness and simplicity of many of 
bi-H letters, and the unalloyed purity of his sentiments; 
Imt these merits may easily bo exaggefa(«d, and do not 
<'onstitute his chief claim to on<luring consideration. It 
is the striking fiortraiture f>f the manifold phases of an 
unhappy (period, when civilization was sinking under a 
mortal agony, that gives a value to his remains far tran- 
scending their literar>' and philosophical excellences. 
The» excellences were, indeeil, countert»alanoed by very 
j^ave defects. The style of Synesius is too often char- 
acterized by affectations, strained fancies, and a con- 
scious craving for display. His philosophy is without 
4»riginality. Yet even his philosophy merits attention, 
AS illitstrating the fine gra(lations by which pagan 9\iec- 
(thition melted into the semblance of Christianity with- 
<iut divesting itself of its pagan phrase and spirit. 

The works of Synesius which siir^'ive (for his juve- 
nile poem, the Cynrgtiicdj or , Ou /Juntinff^has been lost) 
are, an .1 ddr*-M to Puptmiui^ vnth thr GiJ} of an A ttnttabey 
invented or improved by himself, in which he encour- 
aged his friend to pnisecute the study of astronomy: — 
an Oration on Gocentmentj delivered at Constantinople 
before the emperor Arcadius ; it is somewhat common- 
place, but is remarkable fur the boldness and freedom 
of its utterance and for its sound sense: — Dion^ which 
is so called in honor of Dion Chrysostom, his exemplar 
in style and habit of thought. This treats of the train- 
ing of a philosopher, or, rather, (»f what had been the 
.lim and the result of his own educarion in philosophy. 
It is, in some sort, a semi-pagan anticipation of the He^ 
Jif/io Medici of Sir Thomas Browne. The treatise is at 
times transcendental, but abounds in high fancies and 
^oerous aspirations. The Ktwomium on Baldness is 
a rhetorical extravaganza, a counterpart and reply to 
Dion Clir\'softtom's KuUtgy of Hair. The s|)eculation 
On Dreauis is simply a specimen of suix^rsiitton and 
Ne«^- Platonic mysticism. It was honored or loaded 
with a commentary by Nicepborus (iregoras. The 
CittasttuiMf or Catastases — for the production consists of 
xwo distinct parts— is chiefly a mournful rccitarion of 
the miiieries of Cyrenaica, induced by chnMiic misgov- 
fTnment and oppression, and by the reiterated invasions 
of the nomads. It is, perhaps, the strongest testimo- 
ny to the weakness, impoverishment, and <lisorganiza- 
tioo of the provinces of ihe empire that he ascribes the 
4?aiamities which he specially deplores to only one thou- 
sand Ausurians, and says that they were defeated and 
Mrattered by forty imperial troopers, Unnigardie. The 
4«econd Catastasis is a eulogy of Anysius, the leader of 
t he«e Unniganlse, and the military chief of the province. 
Those Catasiasrs resemble the overwrought declama- 
tions of the pntfessional rhetoricians. In the same 
f^irain. al^o. is the declamation Against Andronicus. A 
fable, entitled The Egyptian, or On Providencf, is a re- 
;;ret for the deponition ami a laud for the restoration of 
bis friend and correspondent Aurelian, the prsctorian 
finefect. A c<»uplc of brief Homilies are entitled to no 
: [.locial notice. 

The most important and the most interesting of the 
remains of Synesius are his Ae^iv, 157 or 159 in num- 
JL»er, according as the /Jenunciation of Andronicus is ex- 
cluil<^ from or is included in the series of Kpisths^ and 
ten Hymns. The letters are of diverse style, and on the 
itiost dissimilar occasions. >Some arc formal lr*rrl■^^ of 
4-ivility ; others are written to lie paraded by bis cor- 
respondents among their acquaintances. These are 
^strained, rhapsodical, and ostentatious, and are more 
notable for literar>' filigree than for their contents. 
Other letters are friendly communications or earnifSt 
cxpoeitioD& They are simple, fresh, natural, earnest, 
4tDd modem in their cast. Hisoonespondence with his 
brother b diiect and affectionate, and is rendered at- 

tractive by the revelation of his disposition, feelinga, 
and circumstances. The family and serious letters 
make a favorable contrast to the redundant e|)istolog- 
raphy of Lil>anius and Symmachus, and afTord in an 
cf]ual degree pleasure and instruction. 

There is much variance of opinion in regard to both 
the character and the dates of the Hymns of Synesius. 
Druon has endeavored to fix their chmnology, but hard- 
ly secures confidence in his conclusions^. The first two 
were, almost certainly, the earliest. They are thorough- 
ly Neo- Platonic, and pn)bably pagan. The rest may be 
Christian, with a diminishing Neo- Platonic complexion. 
The only one entirely free from this philosophical char- 
acteristic is the short one numbered the tenth. Druon 
assigns seven of the hymns to the years prece<ling his 
conversion. This conclusion is not apt to win assent. 
The third hymn is Neo-Platonic, but it is as Christian 
as the ninth. The later Xeo-Platonism a|K>s so closely 
and so habitually the language and sentiments of Chris- 
tianity, and the Christianity of Alexandria is often so 
deeply imbue<l with Neo-Platonism, that exact discrim- 
ination between pagan and (Christian utterances is not 
always possible^ The convictions of men were then in 
a transititin stage in ever\' thing, and paganism and 
Christianity fre<iuently lapsed into each other. There 
is a passage in the third hymn (ver. 210 230) which 
may be simply Nco- Platonic, but it bears a striking re- 
semblance, in thought and expression, to parts of the 
Athaiiasian ('ree<l. As the conversion of Svnesius can- 
not l)e fixed t(» any certain date, and as he av(»wed his 
inability to renounce his philosophic opinions when 
chosen bishop, all the hymns may have l)een com))osed 
under Christian influences, and all but the lost may re- 
tain Neo-Platonic tendencies, without being thereby 
rendereil pagan. But these questions cannot be dis- 
cussed here. The hvrans of Svnesius exhibit no emi- 
nent poetic merit. Their attraction lies in their philos- 
ophy, in their ease of expression and facilit}' of versifi- 
cation. It was a strange adaptation of Anacreontic me- 
tre to fit it to philosophical and theological songs. Yet 
it may well be asked what meaning should be attached 
to the claim of Synesius, in the o|)ening of the seventh 
hvmn, to have been the first to tune his Ivre in honor 
of Jejsus. 

IV. Literature. — Synesii Opera, ed. Tumebi (e«l. prin- 
ceps, Paris, 1553, fol.); id. ed. Morell. (ibid. 1612, foL; 
corr. et aucta, l(i40. I(>53); id. apud Cursum PatroUy- 
gitVj etc, ed. Migne (Latin, ibid. 1859, 8vo; Cireek and 
I^tin, ibid. IHM, 8vo); Druon. (Kuvrfs de SynesiiiSf 
trad, en Fran fats (ibid. 1878, 8vo); iSynesii Hymni^ 
ed. Uoissonade, apud Poett, Or. JSyU4>ge (ibid. 1824-82) ; 
Synesii llymni Afetricij e<i. Flack (TUb. 1875); tSyne^ 
sii Kfiisfolaiy ed. Herscher, apud Kpistoiof/r. Gr. (Paris, 
1873); i:\\\six\n\. Tln^ohu/umena Synesii (Wittenb. 1718, 
4to) ; Boysen, Philosophumt^a Syiwsii ( I lalle. 1714, 4to) ; 
Clausen, Ih JSyttesio Philompho (Hafn. I8:il): Krauss, 
Obso. Crit, in iSynesii Cyrfu. EpisUdns (Hatisbon, 1863); 
EUies Dupin, Nouveaii JW}lioth€que dfs A uteurs Kcdesi^ 
astiques; Tillemont, Histoirt KccU^iantiqu*-^ xii, 499- 
541; (>jil Her, //»*/. ihs Autf^rs ^Sacres^ x, 1496-1517; 
Villemain, U Eloquence Chretietme au IVe iSieeU (Paris). 
(G. F. H.) 

Synge, Ei>waiu>, an lrii«h prelate, was bom at Inis- 
honane, April 6, 1659, and was the second son of Ed- 
ward, binhop of Cork. lie was etlucated at the gram- 
mar-9cho<>l at Cork, and at Christ Church, Oxford, fin- 
ishing his studies in the University of Dublin. His 
first preferment was to two small |>arishes in the diocese 
of Meath, which he cxchangcii for the vicarage of 
Christ Chnn-h, Cork, where lie nerved for over twenty 
years. In H»99 he was offered the deanerj' of Deny, 
hut declined it for his mothers sake. He was chosen 
l>r(HMor for the chapter in the Convrnration of 1703, and 
soon after was presented with the crown's title to the 
deanerj'of St. Patricks, Dublin. The title being thought 
defective, the chancellorship was presented to Mr. Synge, 
which gave him the care of St. Werburgh's, Dublin. In 




1713 he was chosen proctor for the chapter of St. Patrick^s, 
aud on Dr. Sterne's promotion to the see of Dromore, the 
archbishop of Dublin appointed Dr. Synge his vicar- 
general, in which oflSce he continued until he was ap- 
pointed bishop of Kaphoe, in 1714. He was made arch- 
bishop of Tuam in 1716, over which see he presided un- 
til his death, July 21, 1741. He published many ser- 
mons and religious tracts, of which a collective edition, 
under the title of Works (Lond. 1740, 4 vols. 12mo ; 1744, 
1759), was issued. The best-known of his works Is Tke 
GenUeman^t Religion, His Treatite on the HoUf Com^ 
munion was published at Philadelphia in 1849, 82mo. 
See Alltbone, IHct, of Brit, and Amer, Authors^ s. v. ; 
Chalmers, Biog. Did, s. v. 

SynisaotaB {ovvtioaKTai), a Greek term for priests^ 
concubines. See SuRiNTRODUCTiK. 

Synistamdni {awtoratiivot, standing together^ a 
name given in the Eastern Church to the fourth order 
of penitents, called in the Latin Church consistentes. 
They were so called from their having liberty (after the 
other penitents were dismissed) to stand with the faith- 
ful at the altar, and join in the common prayers and 
see the oblation offered. Still they could not yet make 
their own oblations, nor partake of the eucharisu See 
Bingham, Christ. A ntiq. bk. xviii, ch. ii. 

Synnada, Council of ( ConcUium Sgnnadmse ), 
was held about 230, or, according to some, in 256, upon 
the subject of Cataphrygian baptism. Baptism received 
out of the Church was declared to be null and void. 
See Mansi, ConciL i, 760. 

Synod (from avvo^oQ^ a gathering^ a meeting or 
assembly of ecclesiastical persons to consult on matters 
of religion. (See the monographs cited in Volbeding, 
Index Programmatum, p. 165.) Of these there are four 
kinds, viz.— 1. General, where bishops, etc., meet from all 
nations. These were first called by the emperors; af- 
terwards by Christian princes; till, in later ages, the 
pope usurped to himself the greatest share in this busi- 
ness, and by his legates presided in them when called. 
See (EouMKNicAL. 2. National, wh^ those of one na- 
tion onl}' come together to determine any point of doc- 
trine or discipline. The Arst of this sort which we 
read of in KngUnd was that of Herudford, or Hertford, 
in 673; and the last was held by cardinal Pole in 
1555. See Coi:ncil. 3. Provincial, where those only 
of one province meet^ now called the convocation (q. v.). 
4. Diocesan, where those of but one diocese meet to en- 
force canons made by general councils or national and 
provincial synods, and to consult and agree upon rules 
of discipline for themselves. These were not wholly 
laid aside till, by the act of submission (25 Hen. VIII, 
art. 19). it was made unlawful for any synod to meet 
but by royal authority. See SvNor»s. 

Synotl is also used to signify a Presbyterian Church 
court, composed of ministers and elders from the differ- 
ent presbyteries within its bounds, and is only subordi- 
nate to the General Assembly (q. v.). 

SYNOD, As80c:iATE, the highest ecclesiastical court 
among the united Presbyterian Dissenters in Scotland, 
the powers of which are, in a great measure, analogous 
to those of the General Assembly in the established kirk. 
See Scotland, Cin'RciiKs in. 

SYNOD, Holy, the highest court of the Russo- 
Greek Church, establiMhed by the czar Peter in 1723, 
and meeting now at St. Petersburg. Each diocese sends 
in a half-yearly report of its churches and schools. The 
members composing it are two metropolitans and as 
many bishops, with procurators, attorneys, and other 
lay officials. See Russian Ciiuiic:il 

SYNOD, Holy GovERNiNfj, is the highest court of 
the Greek Church, established in Greece after the re- 
covery of its independence. It met first at Syra in 
1833, and in 1844 was recognised hy the constitution, 
which also enacted that the king should be a member 
of the established Church. The members of synod 

were at first appointed by the king, but are now choscft 
by the clei|ry, the bishop of Attica being perpetual presi- 
dent. In 1850 it was formally recognised by the patri- 
arch of Constantinople, through the mediation of Rus- 
sia, but on the condition that it should always receive 
the holy oil from the mother Church. See Gkeek. 

SYNOD, Reformed. See Covenanters ; Presby- 
terian Churches. 

SYNOD, Relief. See Scotlamd, Churches in. 

Synod&les Testes were persons anciently sum- 
moned out of every parish in order to appear at the 
episcopal 83mod8, and there attest or make preferment 
of the disorders of the clergy and people. In after- 
times they were a kind of empanelled jury, consisting 
of two, three, or more persons in every parish, who 
were, upon oath, to present all heretics and other irreg- 
ular persons. These, in process of time, became stand- 
ing officers in several places, especially in great cities, 
and hence were called Sydksmen (q. v.). They 
were also called Questmen^ from the nature of their 
office in making inquiry concerning offences. But 
this latter duty devolved mostly upon the church-war- 

Synodals was a term applied to (1) provincial 
constitutions or canons read after the synods in pariah 
churches; (2) to procurations, so called because the 
bishop held his synod and visitation together; (3) to 
the payments made a bishop by his clergy in virtue of 
his holding a synod. See Synooaticum. 

Synodatlcnin, or Cathkdraticum, is the annual 
tribute paid by incumbents of benefices in the Church 
of Rome to the bishop of the diocese, in tx>ken of sub- 
jection to the episcopal cathedra. It is generally paid 
at the time of the convening of the diocesan s^'iiod. 
The earliest direct mention of this impost occurs in the 
transactions of the second Synod of Braga, A.D. 572 
(sess. ii, can. 2, in c 1, cans, x, qu. iii), where various 
extortions on the part of Spanish bishops are forbid- 
den, and they are permitted only in connection with 
the visitations of their districts " honorem cathedne sute 
id est duos solidos . . . per ecclesias tollere." The same 
synod forbids the payment of an impost by candidates 
for ordination, which is also termed cuthedraticum^ but 
must not be confounded with the synodaticum. The 
seventh Council of Toledo, A.D. 646, confirmed the ac- 
tion of Braga ; and Charles the Bald, in 844, directed the 
payment of two solidi, or an equivalent in kind (Pertz,. 
Afonum, GemutnicB, iii, 378), and devolved this collec- 
tion for the bishops on the archpresbyters. Pope Al- 
exander III conceded to bishops who should obtain a 
church from the hands of the laity the right to impose 
on it the cathedraticum (c. 9, X, De CensibuSf iii, 89) ; 
and both Innocent HI (c. 20, X, De CensUnis) and 
Honorius HI (c. 16, X, De Officio Judicis Ordinariiy 
i, 31) expressed themselves in favor of ita being ren- 
dered. Other references may be found in Du Fresne, s. v. 
"Cathedraticum" and «Sy nodus," Benedict XIV^ Ih 
Synod, Diacesana, lib. v, c. vi, 1 and 2 ; Richter, Kirchen^ 
recht (5th cd.), § 233, note 4, etc. ; (f udenus, Cod, Diplo^ 
mat, i. No. 93, p. 260. The Council of Trent discontin- 
ue<1 the payment of many heavy impositions connected 
with visitations (sess. xxiv, can. 3, De Reform,) ; but 
various declarations of the Congregatio pixf. Tnterjtret, 
CotK. Trident, have left the cathedraiicum in force (see 
Ferraris, Bibl. Canon, s. v. " Cathedraticum ;" Thomas^in^ 
Vet. ac Nov. Eccl Discipl. Ill, ii, 32, 84; Benedict XIV, 
»// sup. 6 and 7; Declarationes 18-26 in the edition of 
Trent by Richter and Schulte, he, cit,). 

This impost is termed cathedraticum "in honoren» 
cathedree," and synodaticum as being collected during 
the session of synod ; but it has in practice been paid 
at other times as well, and is exacted even where no 
synod is held, unless a custom recognised in law for- 
bids (Benedict XIV, ut sup, etc). A tax expressive 


of subordination is required in any case, amoanting gen- which the different churches shared in the persons of 
«raiiy to two solidi. It must be paid by all churches their appropriate represenutives (see Firmilian's letter 
and benefices and their incumbents, and also by semi- to Cyprian, Kpp, No. 76). The earliest ayncKls in the 
Danes with which benelices are incorporated, and lay West were held in Africa about A.D.215,and soon such 
onions having a church of their own. Regulars are assemblies became frequent. The next stage in the de- 
exempt with reference to convents and convent church- velopmcnt of synoils appears in the extension of their 
es in which they personally minister. The Onler of jurisdiction over larger areas than a single district or 
St. John of Jerusalem is likewise exempt. In practice, province, by which the inauguration of oecumenical 
however, it has not always been possible to collect these councils was prepared for. At Iconium. in 266, repre- 
taxes. Austria ceased to pay them under imperial re- sentatives were present from (lalatia, Cilicia, etc. Ev- 
scripts of 1783 and 1802, and in many other districts of erj' part of Spain was represented at Elvira ; and the 
C^rnoany they were quietly discontinued. Their valid- Synod of Aries, in 814, was attended by bishops from 
ity was decreed in Bavaria, on the other hand, so late Gaul, Britain, Germany, Spain, North Africa, and Italy, 
au 1841 (see Permaneder, Handb, d, Kirckertrechttj 8d II. A.D. 326 to 869.— The oecumenical synods of the 
.cd., p. 319, note).~HeT20g, Rtal-Encyklnp, s. v. Greek Church, beginning with that of NicKa (q. v.) and 
8ynodIC8B ((n/vo^irai) were letters written bv a clo«ng with the fourth Council of Constantinople (q. v.). 
-mew bishop informing other bishops of hU prt»motion, HI. A.l).869 to 131 1.— Councils of the Western Church 
mnd to testify his desire to hold communion with them. ""**«' ^**« direction of the papacy, including a great 
^ neglect to write such letters was interpreted as a re- n"»n|>*' of provmcial and national synods whose pro- 
posal to hold such communion and a virtual charge of codings indicated both the utmost devotion and the 
Sieresv upon his feUows. Circular letters summoning ^^^ decided opposition to the rule of the popes— end- 
^he bishops to a provincial synod were also called Sy *"« ^*^" ^^^ general Council of Vienne in Gaul (q. v. 
.modU^. se%;eraUy). 

-- j-*.^ re » • ..X IV. A,D. 1811 to 161 7.— Councils ostensibly aiming to 

SynodltaB (from tn^voCfn:, a commumty^vifxt secure reform " in head and member8"-Pisa, Constance, 

-monks who hved m communities or convents, diffenug ^^^ jj^j^ ^ ^ severally). 
dn this respect from the Anchor«i», y A.D. 1617 to 1663.-The Reformation and the re- 

Synods form a noticeable feature in the histor}' of actionary Synod of Trent (q. v.). 
^be general Church. Particular synods have 8erve<l to For an enumeration and characterization of the more 

-indicate particular stages in the progress or retrogres- important H}'nods see the article CoirNcii^, to which we 

aioa of the life of the Church, as respects the develop- also refer for a list of sources. — Ucrzog, Real-Kncyldop, 

nent of knowledge and teaching, the formation of the s. v. 

worship and the constitution of the Church itself; and SynSdus (enVo^of), a term applied in the earlv 

all ^vnods serve, more clearly than other institutions. Church to the building (church) in which the synod 

to reveal the ruling spint, the measure of strength, or ^as held. It was simply transferred from the assembly 

the type of disease, m any given period. The breadth to denote the place of assemblv, as was done with the 

of the field covered by this title will appear from the word ecclesia, 

fact that Mansis (q. v.) collection of the acts, etc, of o,,«*.u»x~«-. / ' a. \ /^ i ^ . • .* 

toanciU. extending oriy into the 15.h centi^rj-, em- .u5Z!l!^^ ?V„ i?"^^^^'.' ^"*''.^™ '" "'^'''y 

fcace. 31 volume, folio. J^ ^'^ol I ^ ' "^ '" '"* ^""^ "' '° 

ttr-*u * * *v • • i- J !•«• Onental Church. 

\V ith respect to the ongin of synods opinions dmer. 

Some authors hold them to have been divinely insii- Syn'tyche (l>vn'x»?» ^^^ ^«'')» » female mem- 

tuted through the agency of the apostles (Acts xv, es- *^ ^^ '*»« Church of Philippi, mentioned (Phil, i v, 2, 3) 

pedally ver. 28, •* It seemed good to the Holy Ghost, «*<>"B ^>^*» another named Euodias (or rather Euodia). 

iDd to us"), while others concede to them a merelv ac- ^'^' ^"' J^ ^*^"'^ **•* *^9 ^^^ ""^«'" ^^e latter head 

ddental rise. The council in Acts xv must certainlv ^^^ following may be added: The apostle's injunction 

be considered a synod, though it does not appear that ^ ^^^^ ^^^ women is that they should live in harmony 

it was designed to introduce a permanent institution. ^>^*» «*«*» other, from which we infer that they had, 

On the other hand, the situation of the Church and the ^^^ "' ^^^'^i f**^®^^ »" ^**" respect. Such harmony was 

progrefls of events furnished the providential conditions doubly important if they held office as deaconesses in 

^y ^hich ecclesiastical assemblies became necessary, so ^^^ Church, and it is highly probable that this was the 

that the theorj- of a merely human origin for them can- ^*^' "^hey had afforded to Paul active co-operation 

not be accepted. The history of our subject, excluding ""d*^** difficult circumstances (ip rtfi ivayyi\,tft avvif 

the period since the Reformation, admits of being di- ^M^ar fioi, ver. 3), and perhaps there were at Philippi 

^ded into five periods. ^^^^^ women of the same claw {airiviQ^ ibid.). At all 

I. The BHfinningM of the /wtitution of Synods as Fur^ events, this passage is an illustration of what the Gospel 

*i»hedbyProrincial Synods (to A.D. 825).— The eariiest did for women, and women the (iospel, in the apos- 

«f wch synods of which mention is made are one al- ^"^^^ times; and it is the more interesting as having 

^ to have been held in Sicily in A.D. 126 against reference to that Church which was the first founded 

^^ gnostic Heracleon (q, v.), and one at Rome under ^y ***"* »" Europe, and the first member of which was 

bUhop Telesphorus (d. 139); but there is not the Lydia. Some thoughts on this subject will be found 

•lightestevidencethateitherof them was held. The »» RilHet, Comm, sur VEpiire aux PhiUpp. p. 311- 

•■'iJeJt of which we have authentic information were °^'** 

°ekl in Ada Minor against the Montanists (Eusebius, SynuaiastaB ((ntvovaiaorai) were those who held 

^w'. EccL v, 16), probably not before A.D. 160. Soon that the incarnation of our I>ord was effected by a blend- 

''^ards varioas synods were held to discuss the cele- ing or commixture of the Divine substance with the 

i^ivHoo of Easter (Und. v, 28) and other questions; so substance of the human Hosh. The name is taken from 

^tTeftullian speaks {JDe Jejumisj c. 13) of the con- the statement of the doctrine avvovaiiamv yry€vi/<r^ai 

▼eniogof soch bodies as a custom among the Greeks, Kai Kpaoiy rfjc ^(onjroi' (Theod. //at. Fab. iv, 9). 

*i^ tberdiy at the same time implies that such assem- Theodoret calls this sect PolemuinSy one of the Apolli- 

^^ were not known in his own (African) (!.'hurch. narist sects; and ApoUinaris himself, in the latter part 

^I) oonferenoes promoted Christian unity and laid the of his life, added to his distinguishing heresy regarding 

"^i^dation for a government of the churches by supe- the soul of our Lord either this heresy or one closely 

^ SBtbority. By the middle of the 8d century syn- akin to it. At the Lateran Council in A.D. 649 were 

^ wsn regularly held in each year, and were attend- quoted two extracts from Polemon's works, from which 

^ by biahopa and dders, so that they had already be- it appears that the Synusiastse retained the heresy re. 

^<>BM a fixed and periodically recurring institution, in garding the soul of our Lord, denying him a bomati 


will, and (UNiting that he wu lt> himMlTi 
They leein to have been led to the adopt! 
e»y in thii raanoer. At the outbreak of 1 
Bieii regarding the incamaiioii, some ssserted the con- 
venioD of the BiibgUoce of the (jodhead into the >ub- 
stanee of tieah, others that the Divine nature supplied 
in Chciat the place of the human aoul. The attempt to 
hold these two leueta together re«ulled in a denial ofan 
ivavAputniini altogether. To avoid this denial, ii was 
allowed that the flesh of man waa aeaumed, but to blend- 
ed with the Divine subManoe as to eliminate that ten- 
dency to sin which it waa alleged could not but be reu- 
dent in hunun nature. Dlodorus of Tarsus and Theod- 
otus of Antioch wrote againat this heresy. See Cave, 
J/i«(. Lil. : Blunl, Diet. ofSecU, etc, s. v. 

Syr'aou>« (ZufwioCoai ; Lat. Sgracuia),  cele- 
brated city on the eoeieni coast of Sicily, whither Paul 
arrived in an Alexandrian ship from Meliu,oii hia voy- 
age to Homo (Acts xxviii, 12). It had a tine prosppct 
from every entrance both by sea and land. Its port, 
which had the sea on both aides of it, was almost all of 
it environed with beautiful huiMings, and all that part 
or it which waa without the city waa on both sides 
banked up and sustained with very liiir walla of mar- 
ble. The city itself, while in its splendor, was the 
larKcst and richeac that the Greeks possessed in aay 
part of the world. For (according to Strabo) it was 
twenty-two miles n c rcumference, and both Plnlarcfa 
LdLivy inform us f- ■- • ^^^, 


About RC !10 this city was taken and sacked by 
Marcellus, the Komaii general, and, in eiorming the 
place, Archimedes, Ihe great mathetnaliciaii, who is es- 
teemed the first inventor of the sphere (snd who, dur- 
ing the siege, had sorely galled the Komans with as- 
tonishing mihtary engines of his own invention), was 
sUin by a common soldier while intent upon hia stud- 
ies. After it was thus destroyeil by Marcellus, Augus- 
tus rebuilt that part of it which stood upon the island, 
and in lime it so far recovered as to have three walls, 
three castles, and a marble gate, and to be able to send 
out twelve thousand horse soldiers and four hundred 
ships. In A.D. GT5 the Saracens seized on it, but in 
1090 it was taken from them by Koger, duke of Apulia. 
It yet exists under its original name (ItaL Siracaia), 
and is still much frequented on account of its commodi- 
ous harbor. Paul stayed here three days as he went 
prisoner la Rome (Acts xxvii, 12) ; here also Christian- 
ity was early planted, and still, at least in name, contin- 
ues; hut the city has lost its ancient splendor, though 
it is a bishop's see. 

The msgnillcence which Cicero describes as still re- 

when Paul visited iL The whole of the resources of 
Sicily had been exhausted in the civil wars of Covr 
and Pompey, and the piratical warfare which Sextus 
Pompeius, the voungest son of Ihe latter, subsequently 
earned on aga nst he tnumvir Octav us. Augustus 

Plan nrHyracuse and Its Ej 



rabnvd Syracuse, u aba Calana uid Cenloripi, which 

n had c 

iniich u 

of the 

tnd iJmMl all it 

Hniggle with Seiius Pompeiui. Vet the inland 
Onygia and a very amall poitioii of the mainiand ad- 
joining Bufficed for the new eoloniAti and the remnant 
if the toima population. But the nte o{ ISyncuae 
leDdered it a convenient phitx for the African com- 
■hipa to touch It, fur the harboi waa an excellent one. 
■nd the fouutain ATethuaa in the ialaod furniahed 
unfailing Bupplv of ejtcellent water. The prevalent 
wind in this pan of the Mediienanean is Che W.N.W. 
This would carry the vessel* from the cum region ly- 
ing eastwant of Cape Bon, mund the wuthem point of 
^diy.Cape Pachynui, lo the easteni shore uf the iol- 
and. Creeping up under the shelter of thin, they would 
tie either in Che harhor of Meraaoa or at Khegium, un- 
til the wind changed to * soutbem point and enabled 
•hem to fetch Ihe Campauian harbor Puteoll or Gaeta, 
■>t to prucred as far as Osiia. In crossing from Afiica 
a» ^Sicilv, if che wind wag eiceaiive, or varied two or 

-with the "TwinB,"the ship in which Paul found a pas- 
sage after bis shipwreck on the coast of that island. 
Arrived in Ualta, they watched for the oppoituoity nf 
js wind to t«ke them westward, and with such a one 
■hey readily made Syracuse. To proceed farther while 
it continued blowing would have exposed tJiem to the 
■lingers of a lee-shore, and accordingly chey remained 
" three days." They then. Che wind having prohahly 
•bifted into a westerly quarter so as Co give them 
amoDtb water, coasted the shore and made (_v(puXSat^ 
»ti la-niyT^atur (if) Khegium. After one day there, 
•he wind ^ut round still more and blew from the south; 
«htv iberefore weighed, and arrived at Puteoli in the 
marts of the seoond day of the ran (Acts xxviii, IS-14). 
Id the time of Paul's voyage, Sicily did not supply 
<be Romana with com to the extent it had done in the 
time of king Iliero, and in a less degree as late as the 
■ime of Cicero. Ic is an error, however, to >iip|Hiee that | 
Ik soil was exhausted ; for Strabo expressly says ibat 
f"r mm and some other productions, Sicily even nur- 
Paned Italy. BuC the country had become depopu' 
lited by the lung series of wars, and when it imssed 
into the haiuls of Rome, her great nobles turned vast 
'raclg into pasture. In the time of Augustus the whole 
"^ the centre uf the island was occupied in this manner. 
*■>•] sniong its exports (except from the neighborhood 
"' the volcanic region, where excellent wine was pro- 
'•MCinl), fat stock, hides, and wool appear lo hare been 
}bt; pnimineiiC articles. These grazing and horse-breed- 
"*fS &tms were kept up hj slave labor; and this was Ihe 
'^^*'v>a that Ihe whole island ■'as in a chronic stale of 
•"■■mrtuuice, owing to Che sUves conlinuaUy ranning 
*^*«yanil funning bands of brigands. Somelimes these tinctness 
^^ame » formidable as lo require Che aid of regular ! Caine<I in 
"■^litaiy operalions to put tbem down; a circumstance 
?' «hich Tiberius Uracchua made use as 
'" tavor of his meu»ire of an Agiaii.n Uw (Appi 
"- Ci, 9), which would havf ' ' 

|5fa»-lands into small anhle farms cultivated hy Ro- 

onies in Sicily, of which Syracuse was one. The oth- 
ers were CaCana, Tauromenium, Thermss, and Tyndaris- 
Measini too, although not a colony, was a town filled 
with aKoroan population. I'ruhshly iie inhabitanta were 
raerchanli connecteil with the wine-trade of Ihe neigh- 
borhood, of which Measana waa the ahippiiig port. Syr- 
acuse and Panormua were important as strategical points, 
and a Kuman force was kept up at each. Sicilians, Sica- 
, nians, Morgelians, and Iherians (aboriginal inhabiiants 
f the island, or very early scttlm), still existed in tha 
iilerior, in what exact political condition it is impoaai- 
le to say ; but most likely in that of villeins. Some 
!w towna are mentioned by Pliny as having the Latin 
-anchise, and some as iiaying afixeil triliuu ' 

jf the so 

ily greaC stisentee proprietors, 
ice came to Rome (Strabo, vi, 
9; Appian,fl,C,iv,W8q.( v, 15-118; Cicero, Terr, iv, 
53 ; Pliny, B. K. ill, 8). For a full account of ancUnt 
Syracuse, aee Smith's t>in.<if(lrog.».v^»Tii the liter- 
acnre there cited; also (iiiller, l)e Situ tt Origint Sg- 
racaiaram (Lips. 1818) ; for the modem city, Bildeker, 
^oulAcTR rtaly, p. SOS sq. Sw SiclLV. 

Syr'iB, a province and kingdom of Western Asia, 
the name, extent, and boundaries of which have been 
Buhjects of no liitle difficulty to both sacred and claaa- 
ical geographers. As including Paleitine, it is of in- 
tense intereat in Bible geography. 

I. Nomr, — 1. Tlie won! Syria doee not occur in He- 
brew; but in the A.V. it is the usual, though not the 
uniform, rendering of Che word Ar6m {B*l[(). Thus 
in Gen. x, 2S, .^1 rant, the youngest son of Shem, is men- 
tioned aa the founder of Ihe Aranuean nation, from 
whom the whole country colonized by his descendsnis 
took its name. The country is therefore rightly called 

word is rendered Metupotamia in Judg. iii, 10, and Syria 
in X, 6. 

Aram was a wide region, Ilexlendetf from the Med- 
ilerraiKan lo Ihe llgria, and from Canaan lo Mount 
Taurui. It was subdivided into flvc principalities: 1. 
A rain-DanMtaek (called in the A. V. " Syria of Damas- 
cus"); a. Anim-Maodtaki 8. Aram-BdH-RKhob ; 4. 
Anim-Zvbiih ; and 5. Aram-Kaharaim (Mesopotamia 
in the A. V.). These hare already been described. 
-See Akau. When Che kingdom of Damascus attained 
In great power under the warlike line of Hadad, it was 
called by wav of disUnction /I rfiin, which unfortunately 
is rendereil "Syria" in the A.V. (2 Ram. viii, 5, 13; I 
Kings X, 29; xv, 18; ! Kings v, I ; xxiv,2,etc.). This 
lax methml of Iranalalioii waa borrowed from the SepC 
and Vulg. veraions. The Taiguma retain A ram : and 
it would lend much to geographical accuracy and di«- 
were the Hebrew proper names uniformly rc- 


The region comprehended by the Hebrews under 

Ihe name Aram was not idenlical with that which Ihe 

I tlreek writers and the authors of Ihe Sew Test, in- 

'luded umier Syria. Il embraced all Mcsopolamia and 

VHsyria, while it excluded Ilieenicia and Che whole cer- 

iiorv colonized by the Canaanites. See Canaan. 

In' the New Teal, [he name Syria (Svpia) ia not em- 

' rpil with great deHnitenese. In fai't, ic 

liiubtful if ever the Greek ^pographen 

e agreed as to the exact bouiiilarica of 

country socalled. Matthew, after men- 

ling the mighty works and woiidnius 

things of our Lord in (Talilee,say9: "His 

lent throughout all Syria," alluding 

ntly lo the country adjoining (ialilee 

north (iv, 24). Luke applies Ihe 

to the Roman province of which 

which d 

include Palestine (ii, 2). 

alriclpd sen™ the word la uieu m 

XV, 23. The apuitles in Jerusalem 

the name te- 


"unto the brelhren oF the Gentilea in 
Syrii, and Cilicii;" uid Bitrminb il 
F^ul, Ktting out rrom Antioch, "went t 
and CiliciH" (ver. 4] ; comp. GiJ. i, 21). 
nification aeema 1o be aUncheil to the r 
(UHaf^ei. It is Mid of Paul, when goit 

" that he ] 

liled til 



ing [bis general nar 
try north of il (Acta xviii, IS; xx,S). In one paswM^ 
taken from the SepL [he name in emplared as an equiv- 
alent of the Hebrew Araoi (Luka iv, 27; cmnp.2 Kings 

2. The origin of the word is not qoile certain. Some 
make it a contraction or corruption of Aitt/ria (Scylox, 
FiripL p. 80 1 DionfB. Perieg. 970-675; Eusuth. rtn»- 
mat/.ii lot, etc.), Herodotus says, "The people whom 
the Greelts call Syriant are called HuyrHiiu by the 
barbarian"" (vii, 68); and these names were frequently 
confounded by the later (ireek writers (Xenoph. Cyr. 
vi, 2, K : via, 8, 24 ) ; and apparently also by annte 
«f the Latins (Riny, U.K. v. IB). A much more 
probablo etymology is that which derives Si/ria from 
Tiir ("iflX), the Hebrew name of the ancient city of 
Tyre, The dislincljoo between ayria and Assyria is 
very great in Hebrew. The (Jreeii form of the name 
derived from Tiar would be Teiiria: but as this could 
not be expressed by (ireek letters, it was sollened down 
to ^vpia. Atigria is in Hebrew "^ISK, and in Greek 
'Aeavpia, and sometimes 'Arovpin. " A still greater 
<tistinctian between the names ia found in the Assyrian 
inscriptions, where Assyria is called Ai-Mur, while the 


Tynans are the Tmr-ra-ya, the characters nsed be- 
ing entirely diflerent" (Rawlinson, Herod, i, S3, note). 
Tyre was the most important city along the Mediter- 
ranean coasL With it and its enlerpriMng mercbanu 
the Greeks »oon became familiar; and they gave to the 
counlry around it the general nsme Si/ria — ^that is, 
"region of Tyre." 

It ia interesting to observe that the connection be- 
tween Syria and Arsm is notit-ed by Strabo when com 
incnting on a stanza of Pindar: "Others understand 
Syriwa by the Arimi,tiho are now called AramctF 
(liii, 626, and XTi,7»5); and again, "Those whom we 
call Syrians (Supovc) are by the Syriaiia themselves 
called Anneniana and A rammaani' ('A/Ki/ifiuioirc i i> 

The name Syria was thus of foreign origin. It was 
never adopted or acknowledged by the people Ihem- 

'riling in Greek for Greeks. At the pres- 
ent day it is unknown in the country. It has been 
seen that in ancient times the name Aram was spe- 
cially applied t« Damascus and its kingdom. There is 
something analogous to this in modem usage. A>A- 
Shiijn is the name now commonly given lo both cilT 
snd country, though in more correct language the for- 
mer is styled JHmiiht fih-Sham. 

II. Exirtit and Bomidiiriti. — I. Ancient geograpliera 
do not agree as to the extent of Syria. Herodotus 
makes it reach to the Black Sea on the north (i, 61; to 
Paphlsgonia and the Hedllerranean on the west (i,72: 
ii, Vi, 116); to Egj-pt on the south (ii, 158, IWI); "tl 
(o Media and Persia on the east (vii, 63). He con- 
fonndtd Syria and Assyria, and hence 
arose the error into which he fell re- 
garding the extent of the farmer. The 
aame view is taken by Xenophon {Anab. 
i, 4, 11-19). Kven Strabo sUtes in one 
phice that "the name Syria seems to 
extend from Babylonia as far as the bay 
of Islu^a^d anciently from this bay to 
the Euxine. Both tribes of the Cap- 
padodans— those near the Taurus, and 
those near the Pontus — are called to 
this day I*uco-S)Ti«ni." It is clear, 
however, from a subsequent sentence, 
that he in this plsce fell into the error 
of Herodotus; for he (bus remarks, 
"When the hiilorians of the Syrian 
empire ssy that the Medes were con- 
quered by the Persians, and the Syrians 
by the M'edes, they mean no other Syri- 
ans than those who built the royal pal- 
aces of Babylon and Nineveh ; and Mi- 
nus who built Nineveh in Aturia was 
one of these Syrians" (xvi, 737). It is 
evident that for Syrians the name .4»- 
(yrions shonldherebesubatituted. The 
great Hmilsrity of the namea, no doubt, 
tended to create this confusion. 

When writing directly of the coantiy 
of Syria, Strabo is more accurate. He 
describes its extent, banndarien, and di- 
visions with great minuteness. "Syria 
is bounded on the north by Qlicia [comp. 
Acts XV, 23] and Mount Amanusi on the 
east by the Euphrates and the Arabian 
Sceniis, who live on this side [west] of 
the Euphrates ; on the south by Antoa 
t'elix and Egj-pt; on the west by the 
Egyptian and Syrian seas, as f ar aa la- 
«ub" (xvi, 749). Pliny gives substan- 
tially [he same boundaries. He sivs, 
however, that some geographen di- 
vide the country into four provineea — 
Idumtea, Judna, nuenicia, and Syria 
(It. N. V, IS ; comp. Joas^ia, Aaf. x, 




sterile plains. The valleys themselves are not very 
fertile. They are watered by small streams, producing 
often abundant fish, and, for the most part, flowing into 
the Orontes or the Euphrates. A certain number of 
the more central ones, however, unite and constitute the 
" river of Alep[)o," which, unable to reach either of the 
oceanic streams, forms (as we have seen) a lake or 
marsh, wherein its waters evaporate. Along the course 
of the Euphrates there are rich land and abundant vege- 
tation ; but the character of the country thence- to the 
valley of the Orontes is bare and woodless, except in 
the vicinity of the towns, where fruit-trees are culti- 
vated, and orchards and gardens make an agreeable ap- 
pearance. Most of this region is a mere sheep-walk, 
wliich grows more and more harsh and repulsive as we 
approach the south, where it gradually mingles with 
the desert. The highest elevation of the plateau be- 
tween the two rivers is 1500 feet; and this height is 
reached soon after leaving the Euphrates, while towards 
the west the decline is gradual. 

4. The Eastern Desert.— E&st of the inner mountain- 
chain, and south of the cultivable gromid about Aleppo, 
is the great Syrian desert, an " elevated dry upland, for 
the most part of gypsum and marls, producing nothing 
but a few spare bushes of wormwood, and the usual aro- 
matic plants of the wildeniess." Here and there bare 
and stony ridges of no great height cross this arid re- 
gion, but fail to draw water from the sky, and have, 
consequently, no streams flowing from them. A few 
wells supply the nomad population with a brackish 
fluid. The region is traversed with difficulty, and has 
never been accurately surveyed. The most remarkable 
oasis is at Palmyra, where there are several small streams 
and abundant palm-trees. See Tadmok. Towards the 
more western part of the region along the foot of the 
mountain-range which there bounds it, is likewise a 
good deal of tolerably fertile country, watered by the 
streams which flow eastward from the range, and after 
a longer or a shorter course are lost in the desert. The 
best -known and the most productive of these tracts, 
which seem stolen from the desert, is the famous plain 
of Damascus — the el-Ghutah and el-Merj of the Arabs 
—already described in the account given of that city. 
See Damascus. No rival to this "earthly paradise'' is 
to be found along the rest of the chain, since no other 
stream flows down from it at all comparable to the Ba- 
rada; but wherever the eastern side of the chain has 
been visited, a certain amount of cultivable territory has 
been found at ita foot; com is grown in places, and 
olive-trees are abundant (Burckhardt, TrareU in St/j-iiif 
p. 124-129; Pococke, Description of the Kiisty ii, 146). 
Farther from the hills, all is bare and repulsive — a dry, 
hard desert like that of the Sinaitic penuisula, with a 
soil of marl and gravel, only rarely diversified with 

5. Rivers. — (1.) The Orontes is the largest river in 
Syria. It is now called el-'Asy (" The Rebellious"), and 
also el-Makldb (" The Inverted"), from the fact of its 
running, as is thought, in a wrong direction. Its high- 
est source is in the plain of Ruka'a (CoBle-Syria),at the 
base of Antilebanon, beside the ruins of the ancient city 
of Lybo. It runs north-west across the plain to the 
foot of Lebanon, where its volume is more than trebled j 
by the great fountain of j\in el-'As,v. Ilcncc it winds 
along the plain of llaraath, passing Kiblah, Hums, Ha- 
math, and Apamea. At Antioch it sweeps round to the 
west through a magnificent pass, and falls into the IVIed- 
iterranean at Seleucia. Its scenery is in general tame | 
and uninteresting. Its volume above Hamath is less 
than that of the Jordan, but lower down it receives 
several tributaries which greatly increase it. Its total 
length is about 154 miles. 

(2.) The Litany is the next river in magnitude. Its 
principal sources are in the valley of Buka'a, at Baalbek, 
Zahleh, and Anjar (the ancient Chalcis). After wind- 
ing down the Bukn'a to its southern end, it forces its 
way through a sublime glen, which completely inter- 

sects Lebanon, and falls into the sea a few miles north 
of Tvre. 

(4.) The rivers Eleutherus, Lycus, and Adonis have 
been noticed in the article Lebanon, and the Abana 
and Pharpar under Damascus. 

(5.) A small stream called Nahr Koweik rises near 
the village of Aintab, flows southward through a nar^ 
row glen to Aleppo, waters the town and its gardens, 
and empties itself in winter into a marsh some twenty 
miles farther south. It seems to be the Chalus of Xen- 
ophon (^Anab. i, 4, 9). 

(6.) The Sajur rises a little farther to the north, in 
the mountains north of Aintab. Its course for the first 
twenty-five miles is south-east, after tvhich it runs east 
for fifteen or twenty miles, finally resuming its first di- 
rection, and flowing by the town of Sajur into the Eu- 
phrates. It is a larger river than the Koweik, though 
its course is scarcely so long. 

6. Lakes. — There are only two lakes of any impor- 
tance in Syria. 

(1.) One lies some miles north of Antioch, and is called 
Bahr el-Abiad, " White Lake." It is about twenty-five 
miles in circuit, but has a broad margin of marsh, which, 
is flooded after heavy rains. 

(2.) The other lake is on the Orontes, west of Hums^ 
and is called Bahr Kades. It is about six miles long by 
from two to three broad, and is in a great measure, if 
not entirelv, artificial. It is formed bv a dam built 
across the valley. The water is thus raised to an ele- 
vation sufficient to supply the town and irrigate the 
surrounding plain (Porter, Damctscus^ ii, 344). 

(3.) The Sabakhah is a salt lake, into which only in- 
significant streams flow, and which has no outlet. It 
lies midway between Balis and Aleppo, the route be- 
tween these places passing along its northern shore. It 
is longer than the Lake of Antioch, but narrower, being 
about thirteen miles from east to west, and four miles 
only from north to south, even where it is widest. 

(4.) The Bahr el-Merj, like the piece of w^ater in 
which the Koweik, or river of Aleppo, ends, scarcely de- 
serves to be called a lake, since it is little better than a 
large marsh. The length, according to colonel Ches- 
ney, is nine miles, and the breadth two miles {Euphrat, 
Exp. i, 503) ; but the size seems to vary with the sea- 
sons, and with the extent to which irrigation b used, 
along the course of the Barada. A recent traveller, 
who traced the Barada to its termination, found it di- 
vide a few miles below Damascus, and observed that 
each branch terminated in a marsh of its own; while a 
neighboring stream, the Awaj, commonly reganieil as 
a tributary of the Barada, also lost itself in a third 
marsh separate from the other two (Porter, in Geograph. 
Joum. xxvi, 43-46). 

7. CUies. — The principal cities and towns of Syria are 
the following: Damascus, pop. 150,000; Aleppo, pop. 
70,000; Beirat,|)op. 80,000; Hamath, pop. 30,000; Hums, 
pop. 20,000; Tripoli, pop. 13,000; Antioch, Sidon, and 
Ladiklyeh. Besides these, which occupy ancient sites, 
there were in former times Palmyra, in the eastern des- 
ert ; Abila, on the river Abana ; Chalcis, Heliopolis, and 
Lybo, in the valley of Ccele-Syria ; Laodicea ad Libanum^ 
Arethusa, and Apamea, in the valley of the Orontes ; 
Seleucia, Aradus, and Byblos [see Gkbal], on the sea- 
coast, and many others of less importance. 

IV. PolUical Geoffraphy.—Syna. has passed through 
many changes. Its ancient divisions were numerous, 
and constantly varying. The provinces of the Biblical 
Aram have already been noticed. See Akam. Phoe- 
nicia was generally regarded as a distinct principality 
[see Pikknicia], and the warlike tribes of I^ebanon ap* 
pear to have remained almost in a state of independence 
from the earliest ages. See Lkbanon. The political 
divisions, as enumerated by Greek and Roman geogra- 
phers, are indefinite and almost unintelligible. Strmbo 
mentions five great provinces: 1. Commagene^ a small 
territory in the extreme north, with Samosata for capi* 
tal, situated on the Euphrates. 2. Seleucia^ lying south 




feated with great loss (ver. 5) ; anil the blow so weak- 
ened them that they shortly afterwards submitted and 
became David's subjects (ver. 6). Zobah, however, was 
far from being subiiued as yet. When, a few years 
later, the Ammonites determined on engaging in a war 
with David, and applied to the S^Tiaus for aid, Zobah, 
together with Beth-Kehob, sent them 20,000 footmen, 
and two other Syrian kingdoms furnished 13,000 (x, 
t)). This army being completely defeated by Joab, Had- 
aiiezer obtaineil aid from Mesopotamia (ver. lt>), and 
tried the chance of a third battle, which likewise went 
against him, and produced the general submission of 
Syria to the Jewish monarch. The submission thus 
begun continued under the reign of Solomon, who 
"reigned over all the kingdoms from the river [Eu- 
phrates] unto the land of the Philistines and unto the 
border of Egypt ; they brc)ught presents and 8er\'ed Sol- 
■omf>n all the days of his life" (I Kings iv, 21). The 
■only part of Syria which Solomon lost seems to have 
been Damascus, where an independent kingdom was 
set up by Rezon, a native of Zobah (xi, 23-25). On 
the separation of the two kingdoms, soon after the ac- 
cession of Rehoboam, the remainder of Syria no doubt 
.•«hook off the yoke. Damascus now became decidedly 
the lea<ling state, Ilamath l)eing second to it, and the 
northern Hittitcs, whose capital was Carchemish, near 
Hambuk, third. See Cakchemlsii. The wars of this 
perioil fall most properly into the history of Damascus, 
and have already b<?en described in the account given 
of that city. See Damascus. Their result was to at- 
tach Syria to the great Assyrian empire, from which it 
passeii to the Babylonians, after a short attempt on the 
jiart of Egypt to hold possession of it, which was frus- 
trated bv Nebuchadnezzar. From the Babvlonians 
Syria passed to the Persians, under whom it formed a 
satrapy in conjunction with Juduca, IMicenicia, and Cy- 
prus (^Herod. iii, 91). Its resources were still great, and 
probably it was his confidence in them that encour- 
aged the Syrian satrap Megabazus to raise the standard 
of revolt against Artaxerxes I^)ngimaims (B.C. 447). 
After this we hear little of Svria till the vear of the bat- 
lie of Issus (B.C. 333), when it submitt^'d to Alexander 
without a struggle. 

3. U|K)n the death of Alexander, S3Tia became, for the 
first lime, the head of a great kingdom. On the division 
of the provinces among his generals (B.C. 321), Seleucus j 
Nicator received Mesopotamia and Syria, and though, 
in the twenty years of struggle which followed, this 
country was lost and won repeatedly, it remained final- 
ly, with the exception of Coele-Syria, in the hands of 
the prince to whom it was originally assigneil. That 
prince, whose dominions reached from the Mediterranean 
to the Indus, and from the Oxus to the Southern Ocean, 
having, as he believed, been exposed to great dangers 
on account of the distance from (Greece of his original 
capital, Babylon, resolved, imme<1iat(dy upon his victory 
of IpMUs i^W.C. 301), to fix his metropolis in the West, and 
settled upon Syria as the fittest place for it. Antioch 
was begim in B.C. 300, and, being finished in a few 
years, was made the capital of Seleucus's kingdom. The 
whole realm was thenceforth ruled from this centre, and 
Syria, which ha<! long been the prey of stronger coun- 
tries, and had been exhausted by their exactions, grew 
rich with the wealth which now flowed int(> it on all 
sides. The luxury and magnificence of Antioch were 
extraordinary. Broad straight streets, with colonnades 
from end to end, temples, statues, arches, bridges, a royal 
palace, and various other public buildings dispersed 
throughout it made the Syrian capital by far the most 
splendid of all the cities of the East. At the same time, 
in the provinces, other towns of large size were growing 
up. Seleucia in Pieria, Apamea, and both Laodiceas 
were foundations of the Seleucida;, as their names suf- 
ficient Iv indicate. Weak and indolent as were manv of 
these raonarchs, it would seem that they had a here<li- 
tary tAnte for building; and so each aimed at outdoing 
Awproiieceseors in the numlier, beauty, and magnificence 

of his constructions. As the historv of S\Tia under the 
Scleucid princes has been already given in detail in the 
articles treating of each monarch [see Antiociius; 
Demetrius; SELEUCua, etc.], it will be unnecessary 
here to do more than sum it up generally. The most 
flourishing |)eriod was the reign of the founder, Nicator. 
The empire was then almost as large as that of the 
Achiemenian Persians, for it at one time includeil Asia 
Minor, and thus reached from the i£gean to India. It 
was organized into satrapies, of which the number was 
seventy- two. Trade flourished greatly, old lines of 
traffic being restored and new ones opened. The reign 
of Nicator's son, Antiochus I, called Soter, was the be- 
ginning of the decline, which was progressive from his 
date with only one or two slight interruptions. Soter 
lost territory to the kingdom of Pergamus, and fatle<l in 
an attempt to subject Bithynia. He was also unsuccess- 
ful against Egypt. Under his son, Antiochus II, calle*! 
Of Of, or "the (ft>d," who ascended the throne in B.C. 
261, the disintegration of the empire proceeded more 
rapidly. The revolt of Parthia in B.C. 256, followeii 
by that of Bactria in B.C. 254, deprived the Syrian 
kingdom of some of its best provinces, and gave it a 
new enemy which shortly became a rival and finally a 
superior. At the same time, the war with Egypt was 
prosecuted without either advantage or glory. Fresh 
losses were suffered in the reign of Seleucus II (Callini- 
cus), Antiochus IPs successor. While Callinicus w.ns 
engaged in Egypt against Ptolemy Euergetes, Ku- 
menes of Pergamus obtained possession of a great part 
of Asia Minor (B.C. 242); and about the same time 
Arsaces II, king of Parthia, conquered H}Tcania and 
annexed it to his dominions. An attempt to recover 
this latter province cost ('allinicus his crown, as he was 
defeated and made prisoner by the Parthians (B.C. 220). 
In the next reign, that of Seleucus III (Ceraunus), a 
slight reaction set in. Most of Asia Minor was recov- 
ered for Ceraunus by his wife's nephew, Achieus (B.C. 
224), and he was preparing to invade Pergamus when 
he died {>oisoned. His successor and brother, Antiochus 
III, though he gained the surname of Great from the 
grandeur of his expeditions and the partial success of 
some of them, can scarcelv be said to have reallv done 
anything towards raising the enifiire from its declining 
condition, since his conquests on the side of Egypt, con- 
sisting of (>Ele- Syria, Phcenicia, and Palestine, formeil 
no sufficient compensation for the loss of Asia Minor, 
which he was forced to cede to Rome for the aggran- 
dizement of the rival kingdom of Pergamus (B.C. lt>0). 
Even had the territorial balance been kept more even, 
the ill policy of making Rome an enemy of the Syrian 
kingdom, with which Antiochus the Great is taxable, 
would have necessitated our placing him among the 
princes to whom its ultimate ruin was mainly owing. 
Towanls the east, indeed, he did something, if not to 
thrust back the Parthians, at any rate to protect his 
empire from their aggressions. But the exhaustion 
consequent upon his constant wars and signal defeats — 
more especially those of Raphia and Magnesia — left^ 
Syria far more feeble at his death than she had been ar 
any former perioil. The almost eventless reign of Seleu- 
cus IV (Philopator), his son and successor (B.(;3. 187- 
175), is sufficient proof of this feebleness. It was not 
till twenty years of peace had recruited the resources of 
Syria in men and money that Antiochus IV (Epiphanes), 
brother of Philopator, ventured on engaging in a great 
war (B.C. 171) — a war for the conquest of Egypt, At 
first it seemed as if the attempt would succeeil. Egypt 
was on the point of yielding to her foe of so many year«, 
when Rome, following out her traditions of hostility to 
Syrian power and influence, interposed her mediation, 
and deprived Epiphanes of all the fhiita of bis victories 
(B.C. 168). A greater injur}' was about the same tinoc 
(B.C. 167) inflicted on Syria by the folly of Epiphanes 
himself. Not content with replenishing his treasury by 
the plunder of the Jewish Temple, he madly ordered the 
desecration of the Holy of Holies, and thus caused the 


ly. Thirteen yeim sfier the dale meiilioned by Luke I 
(A.D. 38), the heir of Caligula bestowed "the (elrarchj' | 
of Ly««iii»«," by which Abilene is no doubl intended, on i 
the elder A(;ri|>pa (Joiephiw, ^sf. xviii, 6, 10), and foar | 
yean later Claudiii* conflnned the aame prince in the 
poeaeasion of the "Abila of Lyitniaa" (tUtt xix, 5, 1). 
Finally, in A.D. 53, Claudiua, among other grauta, con- 
ferred un the younger Agrippa " Abila, which had been 
the tetrarchy of Lyaaniaa" {itiii. xi, 7. 1). Abila waa 
laken bv Placidua, one of the general! of Veapaiian, in 
B.C, 69"(Josephus, War, W, 7, 0), and thenceforth wae 
annexed to Syria, (r.) Palmyra appears (o have occu- 
pied a diSerent poaition from the rest of the Syrian 
principalities. It was in no aense dependent upon Kome 
{Pliny, H. ,V. v, 2S), but, relying on its position, claimed 
and exercised the right of self-govemnient from the 
breaking-up of the Syrian kingdom to the reign of 
Trajaiu Antony raade'an attempt against it in RC. 41, 
but fuled. It was not till Trajan'a successes agunsl the 
farthisns, between A.D. 114 and A.D. Ilti, that PalmiTa 
D the empire. {/.) Damascus is Ihe last of 

It appears lo have been left by Pompey in the hands 
an Arabian prince, Arelaa, who, however, was to pay a 
tribute for it, and lo allow the Romans lo occupy it at 
their pleasure with a garrison (Josephus, .Inf. sii-,4, &; 
6, 1 : 11, T). This state of things continued most likely 
to the settlement of tbe empire by Augustus, when 
Damascus was attached lo the province of Syria. Dur- 
inK tbe rest of Augustus's reign, and during Ihe entire 
rcign of Tiberius, this arrangement waa in force; but it 
seems probable that Caligula, on his accession, scparateil 
Damascus From -Svria and gave it lo another Aretas, who 
was king of Petri, and a relation (son?) of Ihe former. 
Kce Aketas. Hence the fact noted by Paul (i Cnr. xi, 
Xi), that at the time of his conversion Damascus was 
held by an "ethnaicb of king Arelaa." The semi-inde- 
pendence of Diunaacus is thought to have continued 
through the reigns of Caligula and Claudius (fratn 
A.D. 37 to A.D. M), but to have come to an end under 
Nero, when tbe district was prubaUy reattached to 

The tiat of the governors of Syria, from ju conquest 
by tbe Komans to the destruction of Jcrasalem, has been 
made out with a near approach tu accuracy, and is as 
shown In the adjoining table. 

Tbe general history of Syria during this period may 
be summed up in a few words. Down to the battle of 
Pbarsalia, Syria was fairly lrani|uil, the only tioublea 
being with the Arabs, who occaNonalty attacked the 
eastern frontier. The Koman governors labored hard 
(0 raise the condition of Ihe province, taking great 
(laina to restore the cities, which had gone to decay un- 
der the later Seleucidie. Gabiniu^ |>rocnnsul in the 
yean B.C. I>6 and 55, made himself particularly con- 
spicuous in works of this hind. After I'harsalia (RC 

};ave the province tu his relative Sextus in ll.C. 47 ; but 
Pompey's party was still so strong in the Kast that in 
the next year one of bis adherents, (;>cilius Rassus, put 
Seilua to death, and established himself in the (govern- 
neutso firmly that he was able to resist for three years 
three proconsuls appointed by the Senate to dispossess 
liim, and onlj- tinnlly yielded upon terms which he 
himself oflereil to his antagoiiiets. Many of the petty 

madic Arabs took his par and fought under his banner 
(Strabo, xvi, 2, 10). Baesus had but just made his 
•uhmiasion, when, upon the awassi nation of L'mar, Syria 
was disputed between Casaius and Dolabella. the friend 
of Anlunv, a dispute terminated hv the suicide of Dola- 
bella, aC, 48, at Laodii ' ' ' 

ili SYKIA 

the Parthians lo seek a furthn- extension of their do- 
minions at the expense of Rome, and Pacorus, the crown- 
prince, son of Araaces XIV, assisted by the Roman ref- 
ugee Labienus, <ivernin Syria and Asia Minor, defeat- 
ing Antonv's generals, and threatening Rome with the 
loss of all' her Asiatic posaesaions (B.C. 40-39). Ven- 
tidius, however, in KC. 38, defeated Ihe Parthians, slew 
Pacorus, and recovered for Rome her former boundarv. 
A quiet time foUuwed. From RC 38 to RC 31 Syria 
was governed peaceably by the legates of Antony, and, 
after his defeat at Actium and death at Alexandria 
in that year, by those of Augustus. In B.C ST took 
place that formal division of the pmvincea between Au- 
gustus and Ihe Senate frotn which the imperial admin- 
islrative aystem dales; and Syria, being from its ex- 
posed situation among theprorincici/jriin'^ns, continued 
lo be ruled by legates, who were of consular rank (am- 
nlarei), and bore severally the full title of " Legalus 
Angusti pro prtelore." During Ihe whole of this period 
the province enlarged or contracted its limits aoawd I ng 
as it pleased the reigning emperor lo bestow tracts of 
land on the native princes, or to resume them and place 
them under his legate. Judna, when attached in this 
way to Syria, occupied a peculiar position. Partly, per- 
haps, on account of its remoteness from the Syrian cap- 
ital, Anliocb, partly, no doubt, because of the peculiar 
character of ils people, it was thought best to make it, 
in a certain sense, a separate government. A special 
procurator was therefore ap|ioiiited to rule it, who waa 

own province bad the power of a Icgatus. Set Jvdxa. 
Sviia continued without serious disturbance from Ihe 
expulsion of the Parthians (B-C 88) to tbe breaking- 
out of the Jewish war (A.D. 66). In RC. 19 it waa 
visited by Augustus, and in A.D. IS - 19 by Germani- 
cus, who died at Antioch in the last-nanml year. Ill 
A.D. 44-47 it was the scene of a severe famine. See 

» Oovn 

■r SvaiA. 

M. Cnlpamliis Blbalni 

((J. fonitflclos 
C.CaHlUH LonEin 
L. Decidii " 

The II 


ippi, where, after the Hrsi unsuccessful 

appointed as his legate L. Decidius Sa 


The troubles of the empire now tern. 




and that the divers religious sects really constituted 
one race. It was also agreed upon that wherever small 
companies were ready to make a credible profession of 
piety, they were entitled to be recognised as churches, 
and had a right to such a native ministry as could be 
given them. About that time a cal] for preaching came 
from Hasbeiya, a village of four or tive thousand inhab- 
itants, situated at the foot of Mount Ilermou. and about 
fifty miles south-east of Beirdt. A considerable body 
of Hasbeivans had seceded from the Greek Church, de- 
clared themselves Protestants, and made a formal ap- 
plication to the mission for religious instruction. Sev- 
enty-six of these people were added to the Church of 
Christ, A persecution against the Protestants now en- 
sued, who tied to Abeih, where the high-school was re- 
vived under the charge of 3Ir. Calhoun. A chapel for 
public worship was fitted up, and here, as also at Beirut, 
there was preaching every Sabbath in the Arabic lan- 
guage, with an interesting Sabbath-school between the 
services. In the spring of the year 1845 war broke out 
afresh between the Druses and Maronites, and Lebanon 
was again purged by fire. The consequence was that 
the schools in the mountains were broken up; but in 
the following year, when Dr. Van Dyck was ordained 
to the work of the Gospel ministry, there were ten 
schools in the charge of the station at Abeih, with 436 
pupils. Connected with the Beirut station were four 
schools for boys and girls, and one for girls alone. In 
SAk el-GhArb, a village four miles from Abeih, a Prot- 
estant secession from the Greek Church was in progress, 
embracing fourteen families, and religious services were 
held with them every Sabbath. At BhamdAn, the 
summer residence for the brethren of the Beirut station, 
there were a number of decided Protestants, and even 
in Zahleh, the hot-bed of fanaticism, there were men 
who openly argued from the Gospel against the pre- 
vailing errors. Missionary work had now so increased 
that in the year 1847 an earnest and eloquent ap|)eal 
from the missionaries for an increase to their number 
was made to the Prudential Committee. The appeal 
was published, but it continued painfully true that the 
harvest was plenteous, while the laborers were few. In 
the same year the Protestants of Hasbeiya sent one of 
their number to Constantinople to lay their grievances 
before the sultan. The appeal was successful, and the 
principle of tolerating and acknowledging the Protes- 
tants as a Christian sect was recognised, in spite of the 
bull of excommunication of the (ireek patriarch. The 
most important event, however, in the year 1848 was 
the formation of a purely native Church at BeirAt, and 
the beginning of translating the Scriptures into Arabic, 
which was committed to Mr. Eli Smith, who was assist- 
ed by Butrus el-Bistany and Nasif el-VasiJI. In the 
same year Aleppo was made a missionary station, but it 
was left in 1855 to be cultivated by the Armenian mis- 
sion, the language in that region being chiefly the Turk- 
ish. At that time the Gospel was preached statedly at 
bixteen places. At four of these — BeirOt, Abeih, Sidon, 
and Ilasl^iya — churches had been organized. The 
anathemas of the Maronite clergy, once so terrific, had 
lost their |>ower, and the most influential inhabitants 
were on friendly terms with the mission, and in favor 
of education and good morals. Things liad changed in 
the last fifteen years for the better in a most remarka- 
ble wav. We have now arrived at the vcar 1857, which 
opened with the death of Dr. Eli Smith, the translator 
of the Bible into Arabic. He had departed at Ik>irut, 
Sabbath morning, .Ian. 11, and was succeeded in the 
work of translation bv Dr. Van Dvck, who had been re- 
movetl ft)r that pur|K>se fnmi Sitlon to lieirfit. In the 
vear 1H59 the translation of the New Test, was com- 
pleted and published under the care of Dr. Van Dyck, 
who then pnwecded with the translation and publica- \ 
tion of the Old Test., which was completed Aug. 22. 
I8t>4. The British and Foreign Bible Society reijuested 
|)ermi.Hiiion to adopt this version, instead of the one f«)r- 
njerly issued by them. The result of a friendly nego- 

tiation was that the American and the British and 
Foreign Bible Society agreed to publish the version 
conjointly from electrotype plates funiished by the for- 

The civil war which broke out in Syria in I860, and 
which was noteil for savage massacres on Lebanon, at 
Hasbeiya, Damascus, and elsewhere, although doubtless- 
injurious to the missionary work in its direct effects,, 
was the means of an interesting development of the 
missionary spirit. Not less than six different mission-^ 
ary societies were formed, embracing nearly all the 
Protestants of the various towns and villages, and a 
commendable degree of liberality was shown by the 
natives in collecting and contributing. The number of 
converts increased, churches and stations were multi- 
plied and provided with native preachers and pastors^ 
and a proposal was made for a Protestant college. I'he 
demand for the Scriptures and other religious works 
was so great that the press was unable to meet it. In 
1862 the printing alone amounted to 8000 volumes and 
9000 tracta, making an aggregate of 6,869,000 pages. 
Besides the Protestant college, which was propose<l in 
1861 and incorporated in 1863, in accordance with the 
laws of the state of New York, a theological seminary 
was commenced at Abeih in May, 1869, which opened 
with seven students. In the vear 1870 the Svrian mis- 
sion was transferre<l from the American Board to the 
Presbyterian Board of Missions, under whose care it is- 
still carried on. 

BeirAt is one of the missionan' centres for the revival 
of Bible Christianity in Bible lands. Among the chief 
instrumentalities for the development of this city are 
the benevolent and literarv institutions founded bv for~ 
eign missionar/ zeal. First among them are the Amer- 
ican Protestant institutions under the care of the Pres- 
byterian BoaRl of Foreign 3Iissions in New York. They 
are manned bv a noble band of Christian scholars a« 
Drs. H. H. Jessup, D. Bliss, C. V. A. Van Dyck, G. E. 
Post, and Profs. James S. Dennis, E. K. I^wis, and Hall. 
In the year 1877, when Dr. Philip Schaff visited Ik'irut^ 
a new mission chapel, with a native pastor, had Just 
been opened in the eastern part of the city. There are 
the American Female Seminary an<l the print ing-pres» 
and Bible depository, which sent forth in 1876 no less 
than 38,450 volumes (or 13,786,980 pages) of Bibles, 
tracta, and other books, including a series of text-books 
and juvenile works. There is the '' Syrian Protestant 
College," which is independent of the mission, but grew 
out of it, and promotes its interest. In 1877 it num- 
bered over 100 pupils of different creeds and nationali- 
ties. The college embraces, besides the literari' de- 
l)artment — Arabic language and literature, mathemat- 
ics, the natural sciences, the moilern languages, and 
Turkish law and jurisprudence — a medical school, un- 
der the management of Dr. Post ; an observatory, un- 
der Dr. Van Dyck, who sends daily by telegrapli me- 
teorological observations to the observatory of Constan- 
tinople; a library, and a museum of natural curiosities. 
The entire Syrian mission of the American Presbyte- 
rian Board embraces, according to the statistics of 1879, 
29 American missionaries (12 men and 17 women). 3 
native pastors, 112 teachers, 15 licensed preachers, 10- 
other heli)ers — total force, 140; 12 churches, 716 com- 
municants, 115 received on profession, 66 preaching- 
places, and 45 Sunday-schools with 1895 pupils. The 
princi])al stations outside of Beirut are Tripoli, Abeih,. 
Sidon, and Zahleh. Besides these flourishing Presby- 
terian institutions, the schools of Mrs. M. Mott, Misa 
Jessie Taylor, and the deaconesses of Kaiserswerth de- 
serve most honorable mention. The Jesuits are also 
very active in BeirAt in the interest of the Roman Cath- 
olic Church. They are just now issuing a new Arabic 
translation of ihe Bible, evidently in opposition to Dr. 
Van Dvck's tran!<lation, which is widelv circulated \\\ 
the East. From Dr. SchafTs work. Through Bible 
Lands, we subjoin the following statistics concerning 




*'?7 -' ^^Ofneeo^ used adverbially i. q. Aramalce, iu 
Aramaic. See Aram.«an. 

Syriac Language. This represent the West- 
ern dialect of that branch of the Shemitic or Svro- 
Arabian languages usually termed the Aramiean (q. v.)» 
the Eastern being represented by the Chaldee (q. v.). 
The affinity between the Chaldee and Syriac is in- 
deed so close that but for a few orthographical changes, 
ami especially the difference in written character, they 
would scarcely be distinguishable. In speech they 
<couId hardly have differed more than the several dia- 
lects of the Greek (e. g, the Doric, iEolic, Attic) from 
-each other. While the Chaldee is written in the 
aquare character, now usually called the Hebrew, the 
Syriac is written in a verv different and more cur- 
-sive hand, and exhibits (in addition to the peculiar 
/orms for final letters, as usual in all the Shemitic 
■group) a method of combining certain letters or run- 

in Arabic There are also two forms of the charac- 
ters (which correspond precisely to the Hebrew in 
number and power) — the ordinary or light-stroke form 
now generally used in printing, and an older form 
called the Estrangelo, of heavier strokes and more un- 
couth shape. The vowel-points aim (of which there 
are five, corresponding in general to the modem vowels 
a, f, t, o, and u, as pronounced in Italian) differ entirely 
from the Hebrew (and Chaldee), and, moreover, vary 
in these two methods of writing; with the ordinary let- 
ters they consist of modified forms of the (Jreek vowels 
(a, €, I, o, u), while in the Estrangelo they are denoted 
by two dots in various positions. Other orthographical 
peculiarities of the Syriac as compared with the He- 
brew and Chaldee are the use of a small line (linea or- 
cuitaru) beneath silent letters, the suppression altogeth- 
er of the Sheva when silent, the disuse of the Dagesh 
(some writers, however, employing a dot above a Begad- 
Kephath letter, called Ktishoi^ i. e. " hardness," to re- 























5 Thau 

Simple. Joined. 

1 w 
















^ or w^u 
^ or >^ 
y or y- 
>o or >a 






^J9 or wm 


'^or ^ 

^d or s.a 

^-0 or ^^ 


Spiritus lenis 






Qermau CH 










. SH 
TH or T 


1 1 

















































4iing them together in writing, similar to the practice I move the aspiration, an<l a dot beneath it, calle<i Rukoky 

i. e. " softness," to retain 
the aspiration), and the 
indicati()n of the phiral 
(when identical in form 
with the singular) by 
two horizontal dots 
placed above it, called 
Ribbui, i. e. "increase." 
For the leading differ- 
ences in the formation 
and construction of 
words in Syriac, which 
are throughout analo- 
gous with the Chaldee, 
see Akam^an Lan- 

The ancient or proper 
Syriac is believed to be 
now wholly a dead lan- 
guage, and is used only 
in the old liturgies and 
sacred books. The mod- 
em Syriac, which is used 
almost solelv bv the Nes- 
torian Christians of Per- 
sia, and to some extent 
by their Koordii>h neigh- 
bors, differs couhitlerably 
fn>m the old Svriac, or 
that of literature. The 
principal value of a 
knowledge of the latter 
id its use in tlie elucida- 
tion of nire words in the 
Old Test, and the com- 
parison with the lleb. 
roots; and it is also of 
much importance from 
the fact that the oldest 
an<i best version of the 
New Test, (the Peshito) 
is in this language. See 
SvuiAC Vkksions. The 
principal literatureof the 
Syriac, l)eside8 this and 
the inferior version of the Old Test., consists 
of certain historical works of the Karlv and 
Middle Ages, particularly the writings of 
Ephrem Syrus (q. v.), and a numl)er of re- 
ligious poems and hymns (see Stlecf ffymns 
and Ilomilifs [Lond. 18.W], traiislateil from 
the Syriac by Kev. H. Burgess). 

(ieneral treatises on the Syriac language 
and literature, many of them in connection 
with the Hebrew, but exclusive of those that 
treat likewise of the Chaldee, are by the fol- 
lowing: Lysius (Kegiom. 1726), Michaelia 












Form. Power. Greek. Hebrew. 





or o 









JJJ. B.] (H*L 1766), Michaelis [J. D.] (Gott. 17r»8, etc.), which arc not found in Lee's edition of the Peshito, 

J!^gre\l (Upsal, 1791; Lond. 1816), Svanborg (Up«il, were already translated before the 4th centurj*, ft»r 

i 795^), Lengerke (Regium. 1836), Larsow (Berol. 1841). Kphrem the Syrian already quotes them. Thus under 

I  ce th« Jour, of Sac, Lit, Oct. 1862; an art. on the the formula of yiypairr at he cites Kcclus. iii, 6, 7, 9, 12, 

^'Tr^yrO' Arabian Lanffuugex and Literature y'\\\ the Christ. 13 (Opp, Grac, i, 86) ; xi, 5 {ibid. p. 92); iv, 7 {ibid. p. 

^^rr. xvii, 393 sq.; on JSyriac Biblical LUerature/xw the 101) ; with KabC*Q ytypatrrai he <{uotes Wisd. iv, 7; 

fl 'hurch Rer.Y,^ sq.; on Syriac PhUohgy/m the Bibli- viii, 1-17 {ibid. p. 241) ; iii, 1 ; iv, 15 {ibid. p. 266); vii, 

'^Jit. /?a<rr<i, Tiii, 664 sq.; and the list in Uhlemann's /iVyr. 16 {ibid, ii, 28) ; Kct^lus. ii, 1 he introduces with wq ij 

r ^rumjuar, p. 22 sq. ypa^h 1>V<'^ {ibid, ii, 327). etc. In 1861 Lagarde pub- 

CTrammars on the Syriac, exclusively, are those of lished the apocrj-phal books of the Old Test, under the 

f;;rHlherr (2d ed. Hal. 1646), Opitius (Leips, 1691), l-ieus- title Libn Aftocryphi T. T. Syriace; C^riani, in his 

^«n CUltraj. 1668), Beveridge (Lond. 1668), Michaelis Mtmumenta Surra t-t Pro/ana j tom. i, published the 

' <^. BL] (HaL 1741), Michaelis [J. D.] (Gott. 1784), Adler a|K)calypse of lianich and the epistle of Jeremiah; in 

^ JVllrtn. 1784), Zel (Lemgo, 1788), Tyschen (Kost. 179:}), the 6th vol. the 4th bwk of Esdras; and in the 7th vol. 

^^ate» (Lond. 1821 ), Ewald (Krlang. 1826), HoflTmann, (Metiiol. 1H74) he published the Wisdom of Solomon and 

r WaL 1827), Uhlemann (Berl. 1829; N. Y. 1866), Tull- Ecclesiabticus. 

_ ^^«rg (Lond. 1827), Phillips (2d ed. ibid. 1846), CJowper The apocryphal literature of the New Test., as far as 

■§. bid. 1860), Merx (Halle, 1867). A Grammar of the it has l)een published, is given by Kenan, Fragments du 

£ M-utbir (Hamb. 1667; new ed. by Henderson, Lond. JHdascalia AjwMtolortim Syriace (Lips. 1864); by Cu- 

^1336) and Schaaf (Lugd. Bat. 1708); the abstract of reton, in )\\b Ancient Documents, and Lagarde's Reiiquice 

^Tic Syriac part of Ca-ntell's Heptaglot Lex, by Michaelis Juris Ecdes. A ntiguissima Syriace, 1866 ; by H. Coivper, 

^^ J. D.] (Gott. 1788) ; Smith, Thesaurus (Lond. 1868), in the A/)ocr. Gosjiels and other Documents, etc (2d ed. 

\9M..\. A new and extensive Syriac lexicon was under- Lond. 1867); and by Wright, Contributions to the Apoo- 

\ aken by Prof. Bernstein of Germany. Syriac chresto- ryphal Literature of the New Test., collected and ed' 

mathie« are those of KLirsch (Leips. 1789). (jirimm (Lem- ited from Syrian MSS. in the British Museum (ibid. 

t5o. 1795), Knaes ((lott. 1807), Hahn and SieflFert (Leips. 1866). 

^**i)). Oberleitner (Vien. 1826), Dcipke ((Jott. 1829), Between the translation of the Scriptures and the 

^Venij5 (Innsbr. 1866), and Kddiger<2d ed. Halle, 1868). classic period of Syriac literature there existed a gap 

fbe moAt convenient reading-book for beginners is the covering about three hundred years, which is now filled 

'^Sruic Sew Test., published by Bagster (Lond.), and through Cureton's Ancient Syriac Documents relative 

coiiuuiiing a brief lexicon edited by Dr. Henderson, to the Earliest Establishment of Christianity in EiUssa 

^ Shemitic LANGUAtiE8. (Lond. 1864). Eusebius, in his Church I1istor\', tells us 

Syriac Literature. The Syriac literature is pre- ^*^*^'?« traiislated the corres|)ondence between (Christ 

tDiuendv religious. The oldest monument is the Svri- «"^^king Abgar of Edessa, together with the narrative 

ac v,mm of the Bible, calle<l the Peshifha or Peshito, of the healing and conversion of that king by Thaddleu^ 

for which see Syriac VEitHioxs. Like the Jews, the «"^ «^^^« f r^"*>' J»«^'P»f » f'^^' ^he archives of Edessa. 

J^JTiins treated their Bible in Masoretic manner, which ^ part of this rei^ort has been found m Nitrian MSS. of 

^.„ . , ^, . ^. J 1 1 / the 6th and 6th centunes. under the title The Dodnne 

nwy be seen from the superscriptions added to some ^ < jj • /i . i ui- u j -.u -c r u *— i *• 

, , „. , *. , » , . V oA/lcKkit (latelv published, with an Enghsh translation 

Mca. Thus we read at the end of Jo^ KSPa Obia h^. Philippe, Lond. 1876). From this we learn that Ad- 

i-^ K^SPB % nnr-^X Xn-^na Kp^i:S ni'^XI, i. e. dai, one of the seventy, converted not only the king Ab- 

"Here ends the book of the just and noble Job; it con- Rar Ukkama, but also a great many of the people, and 

i*ins 2563 verses." The result of critical care for the *^"^*t churches in and about Edessa. Addai was suc- 

Peshito is contained in a work speaking of the variety ceeded by Aggajus, who was murdered. Besides Ag- 

oNngle readings, of the correct reading of difficult g»u8, a gootl many others suflTered martyrdom, for which 

cordis and in which the pronunciation of proper names comp. /I c/ci Martyrorum Orient, et Occident, (Bom. 1748, 

a«wmiing to the (ireek mode is taught. The title of '^ tomi, ed. Assemani). 

'»>» collection is Krp-rri Xn^-ipTI Kn-STI XD-I1= \ ^''^t !' "[^^^--Towanls the middle of the 4th 

. ^ ^ centur\' begins the golden trra of Synac literature, and 

^♦•'B'^p Xn^a^J^SIS -j-^K Xnmi, i.e. "Book of the under 'this head we mention Jacob, bishop of Nisibis 

•lamestnd reailings of the Old and New Test, according (q. v.). Although later MSS. contain something under 

*<* the Karkaphic recension.'' The latter expression his name, yet no genuine works are now extant. 0>n- 

denotes that the work was prepared in the Jacobttic temporary with Jacob was Aphraat or Farhad, siir- 

TOonastery Karkaph, which by a mistake lent the name named the " Persian sage," the author of homilies writ- 

3<Mi idea of a Karkaphic or Karkaphensian recension ten between 887 and 345, and pul)li8hed by Anton<-lli in 

' *<« Martin, Tradition Karkaphienne, on la Massore the Armenian, witli a I^tin paraphrase, in 1766, but of 

'^zUiSyrinu [Paris, 1870]). After this, all notices late in the original Syriac by Wright (I»nd. 1869). 

'^nccniing a Karkaphensian version which are found Prof. Bickell translated eight of these homilies into 

»> the introductions to and cyclopaedias and diction- German (in the BiUiothek der Kirchenrdter [Komp- 

aries of the Bible must disappear once for alL The ten, 1874 ), No. 102, 103). On Aphraat see Sasse, Prole- 

'•n»« French writer also calleil attendon to the fact gomena in Aphraatis Sapientis Persce Sei-vinnes Homi- 

'h«t,like the Jews, who have an Eastern and Western, leticos (Lips. 1878), and Schcinfelder, in the Titbinger 

« Babylonian and Palestinian, Masorah, so likewise we theolog. Quartalschrift, 1878, p. 196-266. 

<^a«* (ibid. 1872) :" Eissai sur les deux principaux tic, Arabic, Abyssinian, and Slavonic. Besides Ephrem, 

^lalectea Arameens ;" to which we may add a third essay we mention Gregorj', abbot in Cyprus about 390, author 

i>y the aanie author : Histoire de la Ponctuation ou de la of epistles; Itelieus, whose hymns are given by Over- 

^(Utort chez les Syriens (ibid. 1876). These three es- beck in his *S'. Ephrtrmi Syri,'Babtilfr, Bala>i nli'orumque 

«>"• ire very important for the reading and understand- Oi>era Selecta (Oxford, 1«66) ; by Wcnig, in his Schola 

«»g of the Syriac version. Passing over the other ver- SyHaca (Innsbruck, 1 86(5) ; and in a German translation 

*«>Di, which will be treated in the art. Syriac Vkr- by Bickell, in A usgeurdhlte Gedichte der syrischen Kir- 

$ioxs,we must ttate that the deuterocanonical books^ chenvdter (Kempten, 1872). Balceus's contemporary 


was Cyrillonas, whose hymns were also translated by ' 3d vol. of his Biblioth. OnenL Besides, we find many 

literary and historical notices in Assemani*s catalogue 
of the Oriental MS8. of the Vatican Library , or in the 
Bibliothtca Apostol, Vatic, Codicum MSS, Catalogus 
S. E, tt J, S. Ass, recensuerunt Tom, 11^ compUctetu 
Libros Chald, sire Stpros (ibid. 1758), and in the Ap- 
pendix by Cardinal Mai, in the Catul, Codd, Bibl, Vatic 
Arabb, etCj item ejus jmrtis IJebn; et Syriacc, qvatn 
Assemam in editione prateitniserunt (ibid. 1831). See 

The earliest writers among the Nestorians were Bar- 
suma (q. v.), bishop of Nisibis and author of epistles : 
Narses (d. 496), sumamed ''the Harp of the Spirit,*' 
author of commentaries on the Old Test^, three hundreil 
and sixty orations, a liturg}',a treatise on the sacrament 
of baptism, another on evil morals, various interpreta- 
tions, paracletic sermons, and hymns (see Schonfehier, 
Uymnen^ ProkUimatio/ten u, Martyrergesiinge des Ne- 
storitm Breviers, in the Tiibinger (heoloy, Quartalschfi/}^ 
18ti6, p. 177 sq.); Mar Abba (d. 652), who wrote a 
commentary on the Old Test, and a translation of the 

Bickell (loc, cit,). 

Towards the end of the 4th and beginning of the 5th 
century lived and wrote Maruthas, bishop of Ta^r, au- 
thor of a martyrology (printed in Asscmani's BUdiotheca) 
and hymns. The canons of the Synod of Seieucia (410) 
concerning Church discipline, and bearing his name and 
that of Isaac, bishop of Seieucia, have been published 
after a Paris MS. by Lamy: CotKilium Seieucia et 
CteJtiphonti habitum anno 410, ed. cert, iliustr, (Lou vain, 
1869); KabuUi, bishop of £dessa (died 435), author of epis- 
tles, canons, and hymns, for which comp. Overbeck {loc, 
cit.) and BickelL In the year 460 died Isaac the < treat 
(q. v.), presbyter of Antioch. His hymns are translated 
by Zingerle, in the Tiibinger thevlog, Quartalschrift, 
1870, and by Bickell, in the Kemptrier Bibliothek der 
Kirchenvdter^ 1872, No. 44. The latter has also pub- 
lished /S?. fsaaci Antiocheni, Doctoris Syrornm, Opera 
omnia^ ex omnibus^ quotquot extant^ Codicibus Mtmu- 
scriptis cum varia lectione Syriace A robiceque primus 
edidU, [jOtine vertit^ Prolegomenis et Glossario auxit 

(Giessen, 1873-77, 2 vols.); see also Zingerle, Monu- Old Test, from the Sept., the hitter not extant; Abra- 
menta Syriaca ejr Romanis Codicibus Collecta (CEni- ' ham of Kashkar, author of epistles and a commentary' 
poutif 1869), i, 13-20. Contemporary with Isaac was on the dialectics of Aristotle; Paul of Nisibis, an exc- 
the monk Dada, who wrote about three hundred works getical writer; Babopus or Babi, surnamed *'the Great.** 
on Biblical, homiletical, and hagiographical matter. | archimandrite of Nisibis in 563, a voluminous writer 
About the same time lived Cosmas, the biographer of and author of On the IncarnatioHy an exposition of the 
Simeon the Stylitc (see Biblioth. Orient, and Acta ascetical treatise of Evagrius of Poutus, a history of the 
Martyrornm Oriental.). Towards the end of the 5th Nestorians, hymns for worship through the circle of the 
and beginning of the 6th century lived Joshua the year, an ex|)osition of the sacred text, monastic rule&s, 
Stylite of Kdessa, author of a chronicle covering the ' etc.; Iba, Kuma, and Proba, doctors of Edcssa, wh<>^ 
years 495-507, which has been edited bv Martin, Chro' translated in the 5th centur\' the commentaries of T)iei»- 
uique de Josue le Stylitf,, eciHte rers Can 515. 7Vx^e j dore of Mopsuestia and the writings of Aristotle inu> 
et Traduction (Leips. 1876), and Jacob, bishop of Sanig Syriac; Hanana of Adiabene, an exegetical writer: 
(q. v.). In the work by Al>l>cli^s, De Vita et »Scriptis .Joseph the Hiizite, a mystic; John Saba, author of 
S, Jacobi Batnarum Sanuji in Mesopotamia Kpiscopi \ o])istles; John of Apamea, author of ascetical treat i8e>. 
(I^uvain, 1867), three biographies of Sarug are given. Famous as grammarians and lexicographers were Ho- 
More recent is Martin's Kceque-Poele au Ve ct an Vie ■. nain Ibn-Ishak (<!. 876), Bar-Ali (about 885). Bar-Bah- 
JSiecleSj ou Jacques de Saroug^ sa I-'te, son Temps, sts i lul (about 963), and Elias bar-Shinaja (d. 1049), 
(KurreSy ses Croyances, in the Rerue des Sciences Kc-  Of the writers whose works were published, at lea»t 
cUsiastiques, Oct. and Nov. 1876, p. 309-352, 385- in parts, we mention Jesujabh of .Vdiabcne, patriarch 
419. According to Martin, Sarug was a heretic, for he about 660, and author of Ihi-Huphok Chusitbet\ or On 
says, "Jacob was bt^rn, lived, and died in heresy; lie the foncrrsion or Change of Opinums, an exhortation to 
loved everything which the Church condemned, and | certain disciples, and a ritual ; Thomas Margensis, about 
condemned everything that the Church loved at that , the middle of tlie 9th century, author of a hi6tor\- of 
time." His hymns Hickeil |>ublished in a German j the monastery of Iii'th-Al)e, published by Assemani: 
translation in the Amtgrwdhlte (Jedichte syi^cher Kir^ \ John bar-Abgora, |)atriarch about 900, and author of 
chencdter. Of Sanig's writings, some were published | canons, Church questions, and decisions, in part given 
in the Monumenta ♦Syrmr-n, i. 21-9<>; ii, 52-63; 76-166; by Assemani; (ieorge, metropolitan of Arbela and Mos- 
in Asseraani's Acta Afartyr. ii, 230; Cureton, Ani'ient sOl.authorof an explanati(»n of the liturgy, by Assemani; 
Documents, p. 86 s<|. ; Wenig, ScAola Syr, p. 155: by I and Timothy II, patriarch about 1318. author of a trea- 
yAnp;er\e.,'m the Xeitscftrif't der <leutsch.ntorgenl.Ot'sellsch. tise on the sftorament.s also given by Assemani. The 
1858, p. 115: 1859, p. 44; 1860, p. 679; 18«i4, p. 751 ; | ethical work. Thf Book of the Bee, by Solomon, bishop 
1866, p. 51 1 ; by the same author, six homilies were pub- of Bassora (al)out 1222), has lately been publishe<l wit Ik 
lished at lionn in 1867. Martin publislied in the Zeit' \ a Latin translation by Schonfelder. Salomottis /./>. Bas~ 
schrift der dtutHch. ntorgenl. (Jest^llsch, IHlb, \K U)7-IS7, sorettsis l.ilter A}m, Syriacum Arabicnnupte tejctutn 
Pisconrit df ,/acqius d*- Saroug sur la i'hute des Iihles; \ Latine vertit (Bamberg, 1866); George Varda, two of 
an<l ilhd. 1876, p. 217-275, /^ettrfs de .Jacques de Saroug ' whose hymns are given in an English translation by 
iiux moinsdu Concent de Mar Bassus et a PauldKdessv, Badger, in his Th*> Sestorians and their Rituals (Ix>nd. 
relevecs et traduits; Dr. K. Schroter, ibiti, 1877, p. 36t>, \ 1852), ii, 51,83, 95; Chamis liar-Kardache, whose hymn 
the ConsoUUory Kpi.^tle to the //imyaritie Christians, in on tlie incarnation is also given by Badger (loc. cit. p. 
the <»riginal Syriac, with notes. In the 6th century also 39). The latest writer among the Nestorians was Ebed- 
lived John Saba, a monk, a native of Nineveh, author ' jesu (q. v.), metropolitan of Saba (<i. 1318). 
of sermons and e|)iHtles, published in Greek (Leips. | After tlie 16ih century, a great part of the Nestorians 
1770). and Isaac of Nineveh {{\. v.) (see Monumenta returned to the Church of Rome. Fn»m their midst a 
Syriaca. i, 97-101), author <>f an ascetic work in seven number of {polemical writings in the Syriac languag*^ 
books, and known in the Greek translation, made by 1 were publislietl against the errors of their countrymen, 
Kabricius and Abraham, and given under the title Libri as the Three Discourse* on Faith, about the year 16<X>,. 
f//' Contemptu Mundi. in the 1 1th vol. of the Mfttpui Bi- by the archimandrite Adam (afterwards as bishop of 
hliotheca Pat rum, where they are erroneously ascril»e«i .\mida. called Timothy). These discourses are given 
to Isaac of Antioch. With Isaac of Nineveh the list by P. Strozza, in his De Dogmatibus Chakkeomm Dis- 
of i»rthodox writers is closed, and we come now to put. (Kom. 1617), and in Synodalia Chaldteorum (ibid.>, 

II. Heterodox Writers. — 1. The Xestorians, — Without ' where also tlie syno<lical letter of the patriarch Elias ii» 
entering upon the history of these Christians, we will Paul V. in a Ijitin translation, and the hymn of the pa- 
only remark that the catalogue of Ebedjesu on Nesto- triarch Ebedjesu in honor of Pius IV, in the Syriac, is 
rian writers was first publisheil by Abraham Ecchellen- given. About 17t»0 the patriarch Joseph II wrote tlie 
sis (Rome, 165,'}), but more correctly by Assemani in the ' fUear Mirror, parta of which are given by Assemani, and 


i.11 our days the Chaldean priest Jos. Guriel published I 3 vols.) : that part of the chronicle which treats of the 
jac Rome (^1858) his /jfctiones Doffmattde Dicini Jncar- crusade of king Hichard I of England is given in the 
M^tiome qua* in Perside habebat. original with an English translation in the tSytiac 

2. The Afonopk^sUes. — Of this class of writers we ^^at/t/ij^ /^mom, published by Bagster and Sons (Lond.). 
:93^nu4>n John, bishop of Telia, whose canons were pub- Of his dogmatical works, we mention Mtnoratk KuUfhu 
^shed by Lamy in IM Hjp'orum Fide in Re Kucharistiai, i. e. " the lamp of the sanctuary," a body of theology ex- 
■^. 62-97 {fiee also Land, Anecdota SyriacUy ii, 169, and tant in Arabic, written in the Syrian character; Kothoho 
'S^imL Afut, Brit, add. 12,174, fol. 152); Paul, bishop of Dazeijie, i. e. "the book of rays," a compen<lium of 
J^allinicum, the first translator of Severus's writings ; theologj', extensively described by Assemani. He also 
«C[enaj«s or Philoxenus (q. v.), bishop of Hiera|)olis wn)te Kothobo da-Dubori, i.e. "the book of morals," a 
Mabug), the author of a Bible translation, c<mimen- compendium of ethics, chiefly deiluced from the fathers 
furies IM Trimtale et Incamatione and I>t (J no ex Tri- \ and ascetical writers, and Kothobo da-Tuno^e Mnphre^ 
^ it ate IncarmUo et Passo (Jacob of Edessa calls Xenajas ywni, " the book of pleasant narratives." a wllection of 
;^ne of the four classic writers of Syria); Simeon, bishop anecdotes, stories, and sentiments from Persian, Indian, 
 ^ f Betbanam (d. 625;, author of epistles, given by Asse- Hebrew, Mohammedan, and Christian writers, in twen- 
^^^aui in tht Bibi, Orient. {^346,361 ; Peter of Callinicuro ty chapters (see Adler, Brtris lAiiyvo' St/ri<tca' /v«(i- 
^ -D78-591), author of polemical works and hymns (see j tutio [Altona, 1784];. The ecclesiastical and civil law 
I^J'oiK Mus. Brit, add. 14,591, p. 69); John of Kphesus i he treats in his Kothobo da-Uvdnye^ i. e. "the book of 
^ «4. v.), author of an ecclesia^ical historj- ; Jacob of directions," published in a I^atin translation by Mai in 
jtj^essa (q.v.), author of a recension of the Syro-Hexa- the 10th vol. of his Sn-iptomm Vettrvm Nora ColUctio 
laric translation, fragments of which are given by O- j (Kom. 1838). His Avtsar Rozi, or "treasur>' of mys- 
iani in the 2d and 5th vols, of his Monvmenta Sacra ; \ teries" — his greatest exegetical work — is a commentar}' 
l:3itf»des,he wrote commentaries and scholia on the Holy on the Holy Scriptures, and has elicited many mono- 
r^criptures (published by Philipps, Scholia on Pasiagea ^ graphs. Larsow's intention to publish a new edition 
^f'tke Old Test, [I>ond. 1864]), epistles (given in the ) has not been realized. Of monographs, we mention the 
JEfihL Orient, i, 479. and by Wright, in the Jour, of \ general Proamion an<l the Scholia on Job, in Kirsch 
^yuc. Lit. Jan. 1867), canons (given by Lagarde. in JRe- ' Chreitom, Syr. (Leips. 1832, ed. Bernstein), p. 143, 186; 
Uijpm Juris Kcdri, Syr, p. 117, and by I^my, in l)e • Rhode, AhulpharnffH Scholia in Psa.v et arrttV(Breslau, 
Syrorum Fide in Be Fucharistica, p. 98); his essay on i 1832) ; Winkler, Carmen JJtborce cum Scholiis Barhe- 
tbe Skem llatnmephorafh was published by Nestle in I braam* (ibid. J 839); TuUbei^, *Vf Ao/Vrt in Jesajam et in 
the ZeitickriJ} der deutsch. moreen/, GeselUchafi^ 1878, iii, Psalmos Scholiomm Sj>ecimen {Proam. et Scholia in Psn. 
46i)»q.; he also introduced a more correct vocalization 1 1, tV, xirtt [IJpsala, 1842J); KnoblochfOreg. B. H. Srholia 
(see Martin, Jacques tfFdesse et les Voytlles Synennes ' in Psa. Ixriiiy primum ed. et ill. (Breslau, 1852); Konen 
J*ww,1870]); George, bishop of the Arabs, in the be- and Wennberg, (ireff. B. H. Scholia in Jerem, (Upsala. 
{dmung of the 8th century (see Lagarde, ^n<f/(>r/a, lSb2) ; 'n\. Orer/, B.J/. Scholia in Psa. riii^xl^xli^K Bres- 
!». U»8-134); Dionysius, patriarch of Telmachar, who, lau, 1857, ed. K. S. F.Schroter); id. Scholia in Gen.xlix. 
perusing the works of Eiisebius, Socrates, and John of /; Fxod.xxxii-xxxiv ; Judy.Vt'm Zeitschrift der deutsch. 
Eph«su9, wrote annals from the Creation to A.I>. 775, tnorffetd.(reseUsch,Kx\yf49b»(\.; ii\. Scholia on Psa. iri,ir. 
the first book of which was published by F. Tulll)erg, ri, vii^ ix-xr, xxiii, liii (together with bar-Hebneus's 
/^nyn't Telmahhrensis (Upsala, 1850), lib. i; .John of preface to the New Test, in the same review, xxix, 247- 
f^^t (q. v.), author of four books on the resurrection 303) ; id. Greg, B, //. Scholia in Jobi i (Breslau, 1858, 
of the body (extant), two books on the ecclesiastical ed. Bernstein); Schwarz, Gregorii bar-Fbhraya in 
«nd celestial hierarchies, four books on the priesthood, Frangelium Johannis Comment a rius. F Thesauro Mys- 
«nd a liturgy (see Zingerle. in the Tubiwfer theolof/, teriorum fJesumptum, edi<Kt (Giitt. 1878); Klamroth, 
<^ffa»ltt/*cAn^hl867, p. 183-205; 1868, p. 267-285 ; Mo- Gregorii Almlfaragii bar-Fbhraya in Actus Aposto- 
"^ifieiUa Syriaat ex Bo/n, Collecta. i^ \0b sq., ami OveT' lorum et Fpisttilas Cafholicas Adnotationes^ Syrince 
beck, /oc. ci/. p. 409) : Moses bar-Cephas (q. v.), author (ibid. 1878). He was also not only distinguished as 
ofaoommenrary on the Paradise (published by Masius ' a poet and grammarian, but combined also both quali- 
iuaUtin translation at Antwerp in 1569); l>esides, he ties in that of a grammatical poet. His short gram- 
wrote on the hexswneron, an ex|>osition of the (^Id and mar in metre was pnblishe<i by Berthoau, Gng. B. //. 
^fvTest., tracts on the liturgy, and seven homilies: Gramm. Lingmr Syr. in Mftro Fphrtetnto ((iiitt. 1843), 
^^imii Mosis Baro^.S Libri Comment, de Paradiso while Martin published the iFvrres Grantmaticales 
»>( Igwt. I Ait, redd, is also found in the Bibl, Patr. (rAbonlfaradj dit bar-Z/elno'tts (Paris, 1872, 2 vols.). 
/.K^dii, xvii, 456; Dionysius bar-Calib (d. 1171), com- Of his |>oem», Wolff published a *Syjfciwfn Carmimimpr. 
oetiutor; of his commentaries only those on the four ! ed, rert. iU, (Lips. 1834), and Lengerke, Ab. Cannm. 
^*^U are extant: he also HTote on the incarnation ' Syrr. aliquot adhuc inedita ed. rert. ill, (Konignberg, 
>Q*i sacraments (not extant), against certain heresies 1 886-38 V. but lately they have been published by A. 
W extant), and an oration and tracts on <»rdination, , Scebabi, Gregorii iHir-Uebrofi (Un-mina Correcta, ac ab 
^hi«D, and confession (extant); John of Mardin (d. ' eof/^m Lexicon Adjnnctum (Kom. 1877). Sec MoNO- 
^18^) (see the BibL Orient, ii, 217 sq.) ; Jacob of Mai- imiysitks. 

[tritin, author of a dogmatical work, The Book of 3. Afonothelitic Writers. — The only writer who cer- 
^f'mireSf mentioned by Assemani, and an address to tainly belonged to this sect was Thomas of Haran, 
^b as are to be ordained (given in part in a Latin bishop of Kapharlab, who in 1089 sent an apol(»gy of the 
translation by T^enzinger in his Bitus Orientalium in monothelitic doctrine to the patriarch John of Antiooh. 
•^</«imitfr(iiii^5rfcrafniR. [Witrzburg, 1863], ii, 106 sc|.)' i But there is a controversy whether the patriarch of 
^€ aeries of monophysitic writers is closed by a man | Antioch, John Maro, was a Catholic, monothelite, or a 
vho surpassed all his predecessors, namely, Gregory ; mystical person, and whether the Maronites were al- 
.Uwlfaiaj bar-Hebneus. As the literature given under ready orthodox before the crusades. The writings 
'^«n.ABiTLKARAj (q.v.) is very deficient, and has of which go under his name, the Metul Kohunotha^ a 
^ greatly increased, we give it here by way of supple- treatise on the priesthood, and a commentary on the 
°)«t As a hiatorifln, Bu-Hebraus proved himself in i' liturg}', are not his— the former belongs to John of 
i>is chronicle, which is now complete in the edition by Dara, the latter to Dionysius Imr-Calib. But there is 
Abbelib and Lamy, Gregorii bar-Uebrcei Chronicon no reason to deny him the authorship of the treatise 
^^tiattieum quode Codiot Mtuei Britannici JJescrij)- ' on the faith of the Church against the Monophysites 
^ Coi^mela Opera Edtderunt^ Lafiniiaie Donarunt and Nestorians, which is preserve* I in a MS. <lated 1392, 

^swXgft o iiih tf yK^ Thmhgicit, Uistoricis, Geographicis 
f^Anhmologieit lUuttraruiU (Louvaio, 1872, 1874, 1877, 

and written in Syriac with an Arabic translation. 
III. Translations.— 1\\e translations made from the 




Greek into Syriac are very namerous, especially of the 
writings of the apostolic fathers. The Syrians had 
both epistles of Clement of Rome to the Corinthians 
(see Lagarde, Clementi$ Romam Recoffnitioms Syriact 
[Lips. 1861]; id. Clementina [ibid. 1865]; Funk, DU 
syriscke U^rtetzung der Clemenabriefef in the Theolog, 
Quartahchrifi, 1877, p. 477 ; and Hilgenfeld, Die Brief t 
des rOmischen Clemens und ihre ayrische Uebersetzung^ in 
the Zeitschrifi fur wiMensch, TheoL 1877, xx, pt. 4). 
On the seven epistles of Ignatius of Antioch, see, as for 
the controversy, the art, Ignatius op Antiocu, and 
add Lipsius, Ueber das Verhdltniss der 3 syr. Brief t 
des Ignatius zu den iibrv/eti Recenss, der ignat, Literatur 
(ibid. 18d9), and Merx, Meletemata Ignatiana (Breslau, 

A somewhat peculiar work is the Gnomology men- 
tioned by Origcn, and ascribed to Sixtus I (in the be- 
ginning of the 2d century), published in Latin by Hil- 
lesemius in 1574 and by Siber in 1725. Laganle has 
published it in the Syriac according to Nitrian MS8. in 
his Analeda. Very important also are the contribu* 
tions of the Syrian Church to the apologetic literature 
of the 2d century'. In Cureton*s Spicilegium we tind an 
oration of Melito of Sardcs, written al)out A.I>. 160 to 
Marc Aurel, in which he tries to show the folly of 
polytheism and seeks to gain him for the Christian 
faith. A German translation of this oration was made 
by Wette, in the T'ubinger QuartaUchr\ft, 1862. Besides 
this oration, Curcton also gives some fragments from 
Melito*8 writings on the body and soul, on the cross and 
faith. In the same Spicilegium we tind another apolo- 
getic work, which is otherwise mentioned as the *' ora- 
tion to the Greeks" by Justin. The Syrian text as- 
cribes it to Ambrose, a Greek. Fragments of a Syrian 
translation of Irenceus are given by l*itra in the Spicile- 
gium Solesmense (Paris, 1852), i, 8, 6. 

The Nitrian MSS. also contain much material per- 
taining to the works of Hippolytus, the author of the 
Philosophumena, Lagarde, who published a Greek edi- 
tion of Hippolytus {Uippolyti Romani qua ferunlur 
omnia Grace [Lips. 1858]), has collected the Syrian 
fragments in his AnalectOy p. 79-91 ; and in his Appen- 
dix ad AnaUcta sua Syriaca (ibid. 1858), be gives 
Arabic fragments of Ilippolytus's commentary on the 
Apocalypse. As for the Syriac fragments, they contain 
an extract of Hippolytus's commentary on Daniel 
Chapters viii and xi he refers to Persia, Alexander, and 
Antiochus Epiphanes; the four kingdoms (ch. ii and 
vii) are the Babylonian, Persian, Macedonian, and Ro- 
man; the ten horns (ch. vii) he refers to ten kingdoms 
growing out of the Roman empire, three of which — 
Egypt, Ethiopia, and Libya— will be annihilated by the 
antichrisL Besides the commentary on Daniel, these 
fragments also contain a scholium on the authors, di- 
vision, collection, and onler of the Psalms, fragments of 
a commentary on the Song of Songs, also fragments of 
a treatise on the resurrection (in which the deacon 
Nicolaus is designated as the author of the Nicolaitans) 
addressed to the empress Mamma;a, on the Passover, the 
four animals by Ezekiel, and the genealogy of Jesus 

In Lagarde's Reliquite Juris Ecchs, Antiquissima 
Syriace (Lips. 1856), we also have the minutes of the 
Carthagenian Synod of 256, together with Cyprian s 
epistles and the Epistola Canonica of Peter of Alexan- 
dria in the Svrian version, while the Analtcta bv the 
same author contain Syriac writings and fragments of 
Gregory Thaumaturgus. A fragment of an epistle of 
pope Felix I to Maximus of Alexandria is contained in 
Zingerle's Monumenta Syriaca, This much for the ante- 
Nicene period. As to the post-Nicene period, we men- 
tion two works of Harris Cowper, AnaUcta Nicama 
(Lond. 1857), fragments relating to the Council of Nice, | 
and Syriac Miscellanies ( ibid. 1861 ), or extracts re- j 
lating to the first and second general councils, and va-  
rious quotations. In these two works we have Constan- 
tine's invitatory address to the bishops of the Nicene 

Council, his decree against Arius, and the episcopal sig- 
natures to councils of the 4th centur\% 

A great favorite with the Syrian translators was 
Eusebius of Csesarea, whose ecclesiastical history is pre- 
served for the greatest part in London and St. Peters- 
burg MSS. of the 5th and 6th centuries. Specimens of 
the Syriac translation were given by Cureton in the 
Corpus Ignatianumj in the Spicilegium and AncietU 
DocumentSy while Wright is preparing a Syriac edition^ 
who also edited and translated in the Jour, of Sac, 
Lit, July, Oct., 1866, a treatise On the Stary ascribed U> 
Eusebius, and which is found in a MS. of the 6th cen- 
turj'. The Theophany {^eo<pav€ia)y long lost, was dis- 
covered by Tattam in a Nitrian monaster}*, and was 
edited, under the title Eusebius on the Theophania or 
Divine Mardfestation of Jesus Christy by Lee (Lond. 
1842), who also translated the same into English (ibid.^ 
1843). The MS. is now in the British Museum, and 
Lee assigns it to A.D. 411. The Theophania has the 
same object in view as the aTroiu^tc iifayyfXucrfy the 
DemoHstratio Evangelica, It speaks in the ^rst boot 
of the Logos, the mediator between God and the world,, 
and the prototype of the divine ideas expressed in the 
Creation, refuting at the same time athebm, polythe- 
ism, pantheism, and materialism. The second book treats^ 
of the fall and sin, and of the necessity of a divine inter- 
vention for the conversion and sanctitication of man- 
kind; the third speaks of the incarnation of the divine 
Logos, his redeeming death, resurrection, etc. ; the fourt/t 
speaks of the fulfilment of the prophecies of Christ con- 
cerning the extension of his kingdom, the destruction 
of Jerusalem, the Temple, etc. ; the Jifih book refutes 
the objections made to Christ's miracles as bouig magi- 
cal humbug or invented by his disciples. 

Of greater import are the Festal Letters of Athana- 
sius, long lost in the Greek original, but found in a 
Nitrian MS., from which thev were edited bv Cureton 
in 1846, who also published an English translation in 
1848; another English translation is given by Buigess 
and Williams in the Library of the Fathers (Oxfonl, 
1854) ; they were translated into German and annotated 
by Larsow (Leips. 1852), while the original, with a Latin 
translation, is given by Mai in the A^ora Patrum Bibti- 
otheca (Rom. 1853), vi, 1-168. 

Besides the writers already mentioned, we must name 
Titus, bish<»p of Bostra, who wrote four books against 
the Manichteans, imperfect in the Greek, but complete 
in the Syriac translation, and edited by Lagarde, Titi 
Bostreni contra Alanichaos Libri IV Syriace (Berl. 
1859) ; Cyril of Alexandria, whose commentary on Luke 
has been edited by Payne Smith, S, Cyrilli A lex, A r- 
chiep, Commentarii in Luces EmingeUum (Oxford, 1858). 
Of the translations of Gregory of Nyssa and Chrysostom 
only a few fragments have been published (see Zin- 
gerle, Monumenta Syriacay i, 111, 117). The Phyriolo. 
gusy erroneously ascribed to Basil, was published (1795) 
by Tyschen, Physiologus SyruSy seu Hist, Anim€ilium 
xxxii in Saaa Scriptura Memoratorum, A part of 
the Paradisey an account of the acts and discourses of 
the m(Mit eminent Egyptian monks, erroneously ascribed 
to Palladius and Jerome, has been published by Diet- 
rich, Codd, Syriacorum SpeciminOy qua ad Illustrandam 
IJogmatis de Cana Sacray nee non Scriptura Syr, Histo^ 
riamjacerent (Marburg, 1855). 

After the 5tti century the translations from Greek 
Church fathers gradually cease, because the Syrians 
from that time on either belong to the Nestoriaiis or 
Monophysites. The Nestorians translated the writings 
of Diodorus and Theodore of Mopsuestia for excer|>ts 
from their writings (see Lagarde, A nalecta)y while The- 
odore's commentary on Genesis has lately been publish- 
ed by Sachau, Thtodori MopsuestetU Fragmenta Syri- 
acay etiidit atqne in Lat, semi, vertit (Lips. 1869) ; the 
Monophysites translated Sevenis's writings, whose hom- 
ilies were translated at the same time by Paul of Cal- 
linicuro, and later by Jacob of Edessa. Four visitation 
discourses of Severus are translated into Latin from the 




sacrament of "extreme unction" has graduaUy disap- 
peared among the Nestorians, although there is no 
<ioubt that it existed at an early time, as may be seen 
from several allusions made to it by Ephrcm (see also 
Cod, Vat. Syr, 119, p. 127-128). the Jacobitic Ordo 
Latnpadis (as this sacrament is called by the Western 
Syrians), Denzinger gives after Trombellii Tractahu 
III de Exfrema Unctione (Bologna, 1776). In conclu- 
sion, we only add that the extensive Nestorian ritual 
for the burial of a priest is given in English by Bad- 
ger {he, ciU ii, p. 282 sq.), and in the Officium Defunc- 
4oruin, ad Usum Maronitarum Gregorii XI fl Impensa 
ChaUlaicis Characteribus Impressum (Rom. 1585), we 
find the ritual for the dead, both clerical and lay. 

VI. The Breviary, — On this subject see, besides the 
breviaries. Badger {loc. cif. ii, 16-25), Dietrich (Com- 
mentatio de Psalterii Um Pubfiro et Didsione in Ec- 
<l€»ia Syriaca [Marburg, 1862]), and the art. Brev- 
iary in this Oycloiwwiia, The Nestorian office in its 
present form may be traced baclc to the 5th century. 
As early as the 5th century Theodul wrote on the mode 
of the recitation of the psalms in the office (q. v.). 
Narses wrote proclamations and hymns for the same, 
and Micha and Abraham of Bethrabban treat of the 
Kathi$mata (q. v.) of the noctum. In the 6th century, 
Marabba instituted antiphons (canons) for all psalms, 
while Babffius arranged the hymns for the days of the 
saints and other festivals. In the 7th century, accord- 
ing to the testimony of Thomas Margensis, the Pro- 
prium de Tempore (chudra) was arranged by Jesujab of 
Adiabene, which occasionally was altered by the inser- 
tion of new prayers and hymns, until it received its 
iinal revision about 1250 in the monastery of Deir 
Kllnitha at MosiM. 

For better imderstanding, it is necessary to know the 
<livii(ion of the Psalter among the Nestorians, which 
almost corresponds to that of the Greek Church. The 
book of Psalms is divided into twenty huUalas, to which 
is added as the twenty-tirst the song of Exod. xvi and 
Deut. xxxii. The huUalas are again subdivided into 
lifiy-aeven (inclusive of Exod. xvi and Deut. xxxii, 
sixty) marmithas. Each marmitha is preceded by a 
prayer and succeeded by the Gloria Patri, Each psalm 
has an antiphon (canon) after the first verse, which 
serves very often to impress the whole with a specific 
Christian character. The psalms thus arranged were 
printed at Mosiil in 1866 and twice at Rome, Psalterium 
Chatdaicum in Usum yntionis Chald, editnm (1842), 
and Brtriarium f'halti. in Usum Nat, Chald, a Jos, 
G Uriel, secumlo editnm (1865). As it is not the object 
of this article to give a description of the breviary, we 
here mention only, for such as are intcrestecl, Dietrich, 
M orffenffehete der alten Kirche des Orients fiir die Fest- 
zeiten (Leips. 1864>; Takhsa de teshmeshatha itanjatha 
de jaumiitha shechime re da star re methida Kethaba 
dahlam vadebaihar (MosAU 1866); Schunfclder, in the 
Tiibinffer Qnartalschrijf, 1866, p. 179 w\. 

The Western Svriac or Jacobitic office, with which 
the Mnronitic corresponds for the greater part, is distin- 
guished not only from the Eastern Syriac. but also from 
all others in not having the psalms as its main sub- 
stance. The Jacobitic office is found in Breriarium 
Feriale Syriacum SS, Kphrcsmi et Jacobi Syrorum 
jurta Ritnm ejusdem Nationis, quod incipit a Ueria II 
usque ad Sabbatum indusire; additis rariis I/ymnis 
ac Beuedictiotiibus, Ab Athan, Saphar Episcopo Mar- 
din (Rom. 1696). The Sunday office may be found in 
Officium Fei'iale juxta Ritum Ecclesm Syrorum (ibid. 
1851). The office for the Passion week was published 
by Clodins from a Leipsic MS. in 1720, Liturgia Syri- 
ac(B SeptimuTuv Passionis Dom, N, I, Chr. excerptum 
€ Cod, MS. Biblioth, Lips, e.d, ac notis illustr. 

The Maronitic festival office is found in Officia Sane- 
torumjuxta Ritum EcdesitK Maronitarum (Rom. 1666, 
2 vols, fol.), and in Breriarium Syriacum, Officium Fe- 
ruile juxt. Rit, Eccl, Syr, Maron, Imwcentii X Pont, 
Max, Jussu Editumf Detmo Typis Excusum (5th ed. 

ibid. 1863), with an appendix containing the Officium 
De/uttctorum and other prayers. An edition of the of- 
fice was published on Mount Lebanon in 1855, Be shem 
abba ra bera va ructia de Kud»ha alaka sharira t<tbei- 
nan shfchimetha akh ejada de it a de Maronaje, 

It may not be out of order to speak here of the Syrian 
Church lectionary. The MSS. of the Syriac New Test, 
are strangers to the modem division of the books into 
chapters and verses, instead of which they divide the 
several books (except the Apocalypse) into reading-les- 
sons of different lengths, but averaging about fifteen 
of our verses. Thus the first lesson (Matt, i, 1-17) is 
for the Sunday before Christmas; the second (ver. 18- 
25) is entitled the revelation to Joseph ; the third (U, 
1-12), vespers of Christmas; the fourth (ver. 13-18), 
matins of slaughter of the infants, etc The four Gos- 
pels contain 248 lessons, of which seven are unappro- 
priated or ser\'e for any day, and the remaining 241 
serve for 252 different occasions. The Acts and the 
Epistles (which are collectively called the Apostles) con- 
tain 242 lessons, of which twenty are unappropriated, 
and the remaining 222 serve for 241 occasions. On 
most of the occasions there was one lesson appointed 
from the Gospels, and one also from the Apostles. A 
tabular view of these lessons is given in the first appen- 
dix to Murdock's Xew Test, from the Syriac Peshito ver- 
sion (N. Y. 1869). 

VII. //yTuno^)^.— According to Hahn, the first h\'m- 
nologist of the Syrians was the celebrated Gnostic Bar- 
desanes, who flourished in the seopnd half of the 2d 
century. In this he is in some degree supported by 
Ephrem in his Fifiy-third Homily against Heretics (ii, 
553), where, although he does not actually assert that 
Bardesanes was the inventor of measures, yet he speaks 
of him in terms which show that he not only wrote 
hymns, but also imply that at least he revived and 
brought into fashion a taste for hymnology : 

" For these things Bardesanes 
Uttered iu his wriliugs. 
He composed odes, 
And miuglcd them with mtisic; 
He harmonized psalms 
And introduced niensares — 
Bv metiBures and balances 
lie divided womIb. 
He thus concealed for the simple 
The bitter with the sweet : 
For the sickly do not prefer 
Food which is wholesome. 
He sought to imitate David, 
To adorn him»ie)f with his beauty 
So that he might be praitted by the likeness. 
He therefore set in order 
Ptiiilms one hundred and fifty. 
But he deserted tlie truth of'^David, 
And ouly imitated his numbers.*' 

It is to be regretted that of the hymns of Bardesanes — 
which, it appears, in consequence of their high poetic 
merit, exercised an extensive influence over the relig- 
ious opinions of the age in which he lived, and gave so 
much strength and popularity' to his (rnostic errors—a 
very few fragments only remain. These fragmenta are 
to be found scattered through the works of Ephrem. 
For Bardesanes. see the excellent monograph by Hahn, 
Bardesanus (Unostictis Syrorum Primus llymnologus 
(Lips. 1819), wlio makers the following beautiful ns 
mark: "Gnosticism itself is poetry; it is not therefore 
wonderful that among it^ votaries true poets should 
have been found. Tertullian mentions the psalms of 
Valentinus; and Marcus, his disciple, a contemix>rary 
of Bardesanes. inculcated his Gnosticism in a song, 
in which he introduced the Jilons conversing" (loc cif, 
p. 2«). 

Harmonius, the son of Bardesanes, stands next in the 
history of this subject, both chronologically and for hi8« 
successfid cultivation of sacred poetr}'. lie was edu- 
cated in the language and wisdom of Greece, and there 
can be no question that he would make his knowledge 
of the exquisite metrical compositions of that literature 
bear on the improvement of his own. This is said on 




the presumption that the accounts of the eccleaiastical 
hUtorians 8(»zoroen anil Theodurct arc cmlible. The 
ibrmer »tiiteft, in his /.(/e of Kphreniy lib. iii, c. IH, 
Chat ** Hamiuoius, the son of Banlesanes, having been 
"well educated in Grecian literature, was the first who 
. «uhjecte«l his native language to metres and musical 

Jaws (^TTpitTOV flfTpOl^ Kai VOflOtJQ fLOVrnKOlQ HfV TCI' 

Totov ^wi'ijv inrayayi^v), and adapted it to choirs of 
:Aingent, as the Syrians now commonly chant — not, in- 
-^eed, using the writings of Ilarmonius, but his num- 
■\»Tii (rucc lAikitfi) ; for, not being altogether free from 
liis father's heresy and the things which the Grecian 
^hilueo|)her8 boasted of concerning the soul, the body, 
-.sand regeneration (iraXiyyeveoiacjt having set these to 
«Dusic he mixed them with his own writings." The 
-^lotice of Theodoret is yet noore brief. He says (lib. iv, 
■^c 29) : " And since Harmonius, the son of Itardcsanes, 
liad formerly composed certain songs, and, mingling his 
ampiety with the sweetness of music, enticed his hear- 
'-^rs and allured them to destruction, having taken from 
^im metrical harmony {rfiv dpfioviav tov ftiXovc)» 
^phrem mixed godliness with it," etc This state- 
^ment is not confirmed by Ephrem, who attributes to 
^^he father what the Greek historians ascribe to the son. 
Habn admits, without any expressed hesitation, the 
^"f^stimony of the (xreek historians, their mistake as to 
<be invention of the metres excepted, and ingeniously 
fnces to Harmonius certain features of the Syriac poetry 
{^Cfber den Gesawf in der tyrUchen Kirche, p. 61). As- 
^mani, in his BMwtheca Orientcdisj i, 61, makes an in- 
^dental allusion to Harmonius, intimating that in the 
i^ter transcriptions of Syriac literature his name and 
influence were acknowledged, since both he and his fa- 
ther, Bardesanes, are mentioned in MSS. as the inven- 
toi>» of metres. 

l-'ntil we come to Kphrem, there is one more name 
vhieh has historical or traditionary importance in Syr- 
iao metrical literature — that is Balaeus, or more proper- 
ly Halai, who, as Hahn says (^Bardestmuif p. 47), "gave 
his name to the pentasyllable metre, because the ortho- 
dox Syrians enteruincd a horror of Bardesanes." Be- 
fore Kphrem, according to the catalogue of Ebedjesn, 
Uvc«d Simeon, bishop of Seleucia, who suffered martyr- 
dom about the vear 296. Two of Iris hvmns are, ac- 
cording to Assemani, to be found in the sacred offices 
of the Chaldeans. The greatest of all hymn- writers 
-whtMio works are extant, aud whose hymns have been 
translated into German as well as into English (see 
Burge«i«, Metrical ilymni and Homilies [Lond. 1853]), 
^M Ephrem Syms (q. v.) Besides these writers, the 
f<4Wing arc mentioned by Ebedjesu : Paulona, a dis- 
^M>le of Ephrem; Marutha, bishop of Maiphercata; 
^vws of Edessa, sumamed '* the harp of the spirit," 
^ho lued the hexas>'llabic metre; Jacob of E<lessa; 
lUlii btr-Nisibone, about A.D. 720; Jacob, bishop of 
<-'h«latia. alxHit A.D. 740 ; Shalita, bishop of Kashana, 
Jl^t A.D. 740; SaliU of MesopoUmia, about A.D. 
''^1; Chabib-Jesu bar -Nun of Bethabara, about A.I). 
^; J<nojahab bar-Malkun of Nisibis, about A.D. 1222; 
^i^niiiiia bar-Kardachi; George Varda, about 1538; 
Himeoo, bishop of Amiola, about 1616; and Gabriel 

^'in. Literature. — Assemani, Bibiiotheca Orient, Cle- 
Wflrfiw-ra/u". (Rom. 1719-28, 8 vols.; abridg. ed. by 
Pftriflbr, Erlangen, 1776, 2 vols.); Assemani [S. E. and 
J.S.]. BMotheca Apostol, Vatic, Codir^ MUS, CataL 
(^ 1785 sq.) ; Mai, CataL Codd, BibL Vatic, A rah, 
^^ v'm ejus partis Bebr, et Syriaci quam A ssemani in 
^nn sua prtttermisenmt (ibid. 1831) ; Rosen, CataL 
Codd. MSS, OrientaiiwH qui in Museo Britannico as- 
'f^^^ctitur (Lond. 1838 sq.) ; Wiseman, Bora Syriacfe 
(fioin.1829); Wenrich, De Auctomm Grac, Versvm- 
«&w d CommeniarOs Syriacis (Lips. 1842). Besides 
Um wofks already mentioned in thtB article, see the 
*tKle '^Syrische Sprache a. Literatur" in the Hegens- 
^tryr Al^ltmeme ReaUEncyldap,; Etheridge, The Syr- 
•« Ckarckss and Gospels (Lond. 1846) ; Bickell, " Sy- 

X.— H 

rischcs flir deutsche Theologen" in the Liter, ITand* 
wtiser. No. 77, 78. 79, 80, 82, 86, 88, 91, 92; i<!. Conspec- 
tus Rei Syrorum Literari<e A dditis Xittut Bihlioffrnphicis 
et Krcerptis Anecdotis (Mtlnster, 1871); Hermann, Bi- 
bliotheca Orietitalis et Lintpiuftica (Halle, 1870); and 
Friedcrici, BiUiotheca Orientalis (Lond. 1876, 1877, 
1878). (a P.) 

Syriac Liturgy. See James, St., Lititrgy ok ; 
Sykiac Litkkatl'kk. 

83rriao Versions. The following account of the 
translations of the Holy Scriptures in the ancient Syr- 
iac language is sufficiently copious on the general sub- 
ject. See Vkrsions. 

1. The Old Testament, — There are two Svriac transla- 
tions of this part of the Bible, one made <lirectly from 
the original, and the other from an ancient Greek ver- 

A. From the //ebreir. — 1. N^ame, — In the earlv times 


of Svrian Christianitv there was exociito<l a version of 
the Old Test, from the original Hebrew, the use of 
which roust have been as widely extended as was the 
Christian profemion among that people. Ephrem the 
Syrian, in the latter half of the 4th century, gives abun- 
dant proof of its use in general by his countrymen. 
When he calls it " our version," it does not appear to be 
in opposition to any other Syriac translation (for no 
other can be proved to have then existed), but in con- 
trast with the original Hebrew text, or with those in 
other languages (Ephrem, Opera Syr, i, 380, on 1 Sam. 
xxiv, 4). At a later period this Syriac translation was 
dttignated PeshitOj a term in Syriac which signifies 
simple or single^ and which is thought by some to have 
been applied to this version to mark its freedom from 
glosses and allegorical modes of interpretation (Hiiver- 
nick, Einleit, I, ii, 90). It is probable that this name was 
applied to the version after another had been formed 
from the Ilexaplar (xreek text. (See below.) In the 
translation made from Origen^s revision of the Sept., 
the critical marks introduced by him were retained, and 
thus every page and everj' part was marked with aster- 
isks and obeli, from which the translation from the He- 
brew was free. It might, therefore, be but natural for 
a bare text to Xie thus designated, in contrast with the 
marks and the citations of the different (vreek transla- 
tors found in the version from the Hexaplar (ireek. 

2. Date, — This translation from the Hebrew has al- 
wavs been the ecclesiastical version of the Svrians; 
and when it is remembered how in the 5th century 
dissensions and divisions were introduced into the Syr- 
ian churches, and how from that time the Monophy- 
sites and those termed Nestorians have been in a state 
of unhealed opposition, it shows not only the antiquity 
of this version, but also the deep and abiding hold 
which it mast have taken on the mind of the people, 
that this version was firmly held fast by both of these 
opposed parties, as well as by those who adhere to the 
(ireek Church, and by the Maronites. Its existence 
and use prior to their divisions is sufficiently proved by 
Ephrem alone. But how much older it is than that 
deacon of Edessa we have no evidence. From Bar-IIe- 
brteus (in the 13th century) we learn that there were 
three opinions as to its age : some saying that the ver- 
sion was made in the reigns of Solomon and Hiram; 
some that it was translate<l by Asa, the priest who was 
sent by the king of Assyria to Samaria ; and some that 
the version was made in the days of Addai the apostle 
and of Abgarus, king of Osrhoene (at which time, he 
adds, the Simple version of the New TckL was also 
made) (Wiseman, Horn Syriaca^ p. 90). The first of 
these opinions, of course, implies that the books written 
before that time were tlien translated ; indeed, a limi- 
tation of somewhat the same kind would apply to the 
second. The gniund of the first opinion seems to have 
been the belief that the Tyrian king was a convert to 
the profession of the tnie and reveale<l faith held by 
the Israelites; and that the {KMsession of Holy Scripture 




in the Syriac tongue (which they identified with his 
own) was a necessary consequence of this adoption of 
the true belief: this opinion is mentioned as having 
been held by some of the Syrians in the 9th century. 
The second opinion (which does not appear to have 
been cited from any Syriac writer prior to Bar-Hebras 
us) seems to have some connection with the formation 
of the Samaritan version of the Pentateuch. As that 
version is in an Aramaean dialect, any one who sup- 
posed that it was made immediately after the mission 
of the priest from Assyria might say that it was then 
first that an Aramsean translation was executed ; and 
this might afterwards, in a sort of indefinite manner, 
have been connected with what the Syrians themselves 
used. James of Edessa (in the latter half of the 7th 
century) had held the third of the opinions mentioneil 
by Bar-Ilebraeus, who cites him in support of it, and 
accords with it. 

It is highly improbable that any part of the Syriac 
version is older than the advent of our Lord, those 
who placed it under Abgarus, king of Edessa, seem to 
have argued on the theory that the Syrian people 
then received Christianity; and thus they supposed 
that a version of the Scriptures was a necessar}' accom- 
paniment of such conversion. All that the account 
shows clearly is, then, that it was believed to belong to 
the earliest period of the Christian faith among them : 
an opinion with which all that we know on the subject 
accords well Thus Ephrem, in the 4th century, not 
only shows that it was then current, but also gives the 
impression that this had even then been long the case. 
For in his commentaries he gives explanations of terms 
which were even then obscure. This might have been 
from age: if so, the version was made comparatively 
long before his days; or it might be from its having 
been in a dialect different from that to which he was ac- 
customed at Exlessa. In this case, then, the translation 
was made in some other part of Syria; which would 
hardly have been done unless Christianity had at such 
a time been more <liffused there than it was at Edessa. 
The dialect of that city is stated to have been the purest 
Syriac ; if, then, the version was made for that place, it 
would no doubt have been a monument of such purer 
dialect Probably the origin of the Old Syriac version 
is to be compared with that of the Old Latin [see Vul- 
gate] ; and it probably differed as much from the pol- 
ished language of Edessa as did the Old Latin, made in 
the African province, from the contemporary writers of 
Rome, such as Tacitus. Even though the traces of the 
origin of this version of the Old Test, be but few, yet it 
is of im|K>rtauce that they should be marked ; for the 
Old Syriac has the peculiar value of being the first ver- 
sion from the Hebrew original made for Christian use, 
and, indeed, the only translation of the kind before that 
of Jerome which was made subsequently to the time 
when Ephrem wrote. This Syriac commentator may 
have termed it " our version'* in contrast with all others 
then current (for the Targums were hardly versions), 
which were merely reflections of the Greek and not of 
the Hebrew original 

3. Origin, — The proof that this version was made 
from the Hebrew is twofold : we have the direct state- 
ments of Ephrem, who compares it in places with the 
Hebrew, and speaks of this origin as a fact ; and who 
is confirmed (if that were needful) by later Syrian 
writers; we find the same thing evident from the in- 
ternal examination of the version itself. Whatever in- 
ternal change or revision it may have received, the He- 
brew groundwork of the translation is unmistakable. 
Such indications of revision must be afterwards briefly 

From Ephrem having mentioned troMlators of this 
version, it has been concluded that it was the work of 
several: a thing probable enough in itself, but which 
could hardly be proved from the occurrence of a casual 
phrase, nor yet from variations in the rendering of the 
same Hebrew word; such variations being found in al- 

most all translations, even when made by one person — 
that of Jerome, for instance; and which it would be al- 
most impossible to avoid, especially before the time 
when concordances and lexicons were at hand. Varia- 
tions in general phraseolng}' give a far surer ground for 
supposing several translators. 

It has been much discussed whether this translation 
were a Jewish or a Christian work. Some, who have- 
maintained that the translator was a Jew, have argued 
from his knowledge of Hebrew and his moile of render- 
ing. But these considerations prove nothing. Indeed* 
it might well be doubted if in that age a Jew would 
have formed anything except a Chaldee Targum ; and 
thus diffuseness of paraphrase might be expected in- 
stead of closeness of translation. There need be no rea- 
sonable objection made to the opinion that it is a Chris- 
tian work. Indeed it is difficult to suppose that, before 
the diffusion of Christianity in Syria, the version could 
have been needed. 

4. History. — The first printetl edition of this version 
was that which appeared in the Paris Polyglot of Le Jay 
in 1645 ; it is said that the editor, Gabriel Sionita, a Ma- 
ronite, had only an imperfect MS., and that, besides er- 
rors, it was defective as to whole passages, and even as 
to entire books. This last charge seems to be so made 
as if it were to imply that books were omitted besides 
those of the Apocrypha, a part which Sionita confesse<l- 
ly had not. He is stated to have supplied the defi- 
ciencies by translating uito Syriac from the Vulgat«. 
It can hardly be supposed but that there is some exag- 
geration in these statements* Sionita may have filled 
up occasional hiatus in his MS. ; but it requires very 
definite examination before we can fullv credit that he 
thus supplied whole books. It seems needful to believe 
that the defective books were simply those In the Apoc- 
rypha, which he did not supply. The result, however, 
is, that the Paris edition is but an infirm groundwork 
for our speaking with confidence of the text of tliis ver- 

In Walton's Polyglot, 1657, the Paris text is reprint- 
ed, but with the addition of the apocryphal books which 
had been wanting. It was generally said that Walton 
had done much to amend the texts upon MS. author- 
ity j but the late Prof. Lee denies this, stating that " the 
only addition made by Walton was some a|)ocr\-phal 
books." From Walton*s Polyglot, Kirsch, in 1787, pub- 
lished a separate edition of the Pentateuch. Of the 
Syriac Psalter there have been many editions. The 
first of these, as mentioned by Eichhom, appeared in 
1610; it has by the side an Arabic version. In 1625 
there were two editions; the one at Paris edited by Ga- 
j briel Sionita, and one at Leyden by Erpcnius from two 
I MSS. These have since been repeated; but anterior to 
them all, it is mentioned that the seven penitential 
Psalms appeared at Rome in 1584. An English Trans^ 
latum of the Psalms of David was made from the Pe- 
shito by A. Oliver (Bost. 1861). 

In the punctuation given in the Polyglots, a system 
was introduced which was in part a peculiarity of Ga- 
briel Sionita himself. This has to he borne in mind by 
those who use either the Paris Polyglot or that of Wal- 
ton ; for in many words there is a redundancy of vow- 
els, and the form of some is thus exceedingly changed. 

When the British and Foreign Bible Society pro|>osed 
more than fifty years ago to issue the Syriac Old Teat. 
for the first time in a separate volume, the late Prof. was employed to make such editorial preparations 
as could be connected with a mere revision of the text, 
without any specification of the authorities. Dr. \a^ 
collated for the purpose six Syriac MSS. of the Old 
Test, in general, and a very ancient copy of the Penta- 
teuch ; he also used in part the commentaries of Ephrem 
and of Bar-Hebranis (see the Class, Jounuil, 1821, p. 
245 sq.). From these various sources he constructed 
his text, with the aid of that found already in the Pol- 
yglots. Of course the corrections depended on the edi- 
tor's own judgment; and the want of a specification of 




be found, if the subject could be fully investigated, that 
there were in the hands of different parties copies in 
which the ordinary accidents of transcription had in- 
troduced variations. 

The Karkaphetman recension mentioned by Bar-He- 
brseus was only known by name prior to the investiga- 
tions of Wiseman ; it is found in two MSS. in the Vat- 
ican. In this recension Job comes before Samuel ; and 
immediately after Isaiah the minor prophets. The 
IVoverbs succeed DanieL The arrangement in the 
New Test, is quite as singular. It begins with the 
Acts of the Apostles and ends with the four (ilos()eI.s; 
while the epistles of James, Peter, and John come be- 
fore the fourteen letters of Paul. This recension pro- 
ceeded from the Monophysites. According to Assema- 
ni and Wiseman, the name signifies mountainous^ be- 
cause it originated with those living about Mount Sa* 
gara, where there was a monastery of Jacobite Syrians, 
or simply because it was used by them. There is a pe- 
culiarity in the punctuation introduced by a leaning 
towards the Greek; but it is, as to its substance, the 
Peshito version. 

B. The Striae Vernon/rom the Hexaplar Greek Text, 
— 1. Otiffin and Character. — The only Syriac version of 
the Old Test, up to the 6th century was apparently the 
Peshito as above. The Hrst definite intimation of a 
portion of the Old Test translated from the Greek is 
through Moses Aghelaeus. This Syriac writer lived 
in the middle of the 6th century. He made a transla- 
tion of the GUiphyra of Cyril of Alexandria from Greek 
into Syriac ; and, in the prefixed epistle, he speaks of 
the versions of the New Test, and the Psalter^ " which 
Polycarp (rest his soul!), the chorepiscopus, made in 
Syriac for the faithful Xenaias, the teacher of Mabug, 
worthy of the memory of the good" (Asscmani, Bibli- 
otheca Orientalis^ ii, 88). We thus see that a Syriac 
version of the Psalms had a similar origin to the Phi- 
loxenian Syriac New Test, We know that the <late of 
the latter was A.D. 508; the Psalter was probably a 
contemporaneous work. It is said that the Nestorian 
patriarch Marabba, A.D. 552, made a version from the 
Greek ; it does not appear to be in existence, so that, 
if ever it was completely executed, it was probably su- 
perseded by the Hexaplar version of Paul of Tela ; in- 
deed, Paul may have used it as the basis of his work, 
adding marks of reference, etc. 

This version of Paul of Tela, a Monophysite, was 
made in the beginning of the 7th century, for its basis 
he used the Hexaplar Greek text — that is, the Sept., 
with the corrections of Origen, the asterisks, obeli, etc, 
and with the references to the other Greek versions. 
The Greek text at its basis agrees, for the most part, 
with the Co<lex Alexandrinus. But it often leans to 
the Vatican, and not seldom to the Complutensian 
texts. At other times it departs from alL 

The Syro-Hexaplar version was made on the princi- 
ple of following the Greek, word for word, as exactly as 
possible. It contains the marks introduced by Origen, 
and the references to the versions of Aquila, Symma- 
chus, Theodotion, etc In fact, it is from this Syriac 
version that we obtain our most accurate acquaintance 
with the results of the critical labors of Origen. 

2. History. — Andreas Masius, in his edition of the 
book of Joshua (Antwerp, 1574), first used the results 
of this Syro-Hexaplar text ; for, on the authority of a 
MS. in his possession, he revised the Greek, introducing 
asterisks and obeli, thus showing what Origen had done, 
how much he had inserted in the text, and what he had 
marked as not found in the Hebrew. The Syriac MS. 
used by Masius has long been lost; though in this day, 
after the recovery of the Codex Reuchlini of the Apoc- 
alypse (from which Erasmus first edited that book) by 
Prof. Delitzsch, it could hardly be a cause for surprise if 
this Syriac Ck>dex should again be found. 

It is from a MS. in the Ambrosian librarv at Milan 
that we possess accurate means of knowing this Syr- 
iac version. The MS. in question contains the Psalms, 

Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, Wisdom, Eccle- 
siasticus, minor prophets, Jeremiah, Baruch, Daniel, 
Ezekiel, and Isaiah. Norberg published, at Lund in 
1787, the books of Jeremiah and Ezekiel from a tran- 
script which he had made of the MS. at Milan. lu 
1788 Bugati published at Milan the book of Daniel; 
he also edited the Psalms, the printing of which had 
been completed before his death in 1816 ; it was pub- 
lished in 1820. The rest of the contents of the Milan 
Codex (with the exception of the apocryphal books) 
was published at Berlin in 1835, by Middeldorpf, from 
the transcript made by Norberg ; Middeldorpf also add- 
ed the fourth (second) book of Kings from a MS. at 
Paris. Rcirdam issued Libri Judicum et Ruth secundum 
Versionem SyriacO'IIezapalarem ex Codice Musei Bri» 
tanmci nunc primum editi^ Greece translati, Notisque U- 
lustrati (in two fasciculi, 1859, 1861, Copenhagen, 4to). 
A competent scholar has undertaken the task of edit- 
ing the remainder — Dr. Antonio Ccriani, of Milan. In 
1861 appeared his Monumenta Sacra et Pro/ana (Mil- 
an, tom. i, fascic i), containing, among other ancient 
documents, the Ilexaplar-Syriac Baruch, Lamentations, 
and the Epistle of Jeremiah. In the preface the learn- 
ed editor states his intention to publish, from the Am- 
brosian MS. and others, the entire version, even the 
books printed before, of whose inaccurate execution he 
speaks in just terms. A second part has since appeared. 
Besides these portions of this Syriac version, the MSS. 
from the Nitrian monasteries now in the British Muse- 
um would add a good deal more : among these there are 
six from which much might be drawn, so that part of 
the Pentateuch and other books may be recovered. 
These MSS. are like that at Milan, in having the marks 
of Origen in the text, the references to readings in the 
margin ; and occasionally the Greek word itself is thus 
cited in Greek. The following is the notation of these 
MSS., and their contents and dates : 

12,133 (besides the Peshito Ezodns), Joshua (defectiveX 
cent. vii. ** Translated from a Greek MS. of the Hex- 
aplar collnted with one of the Teirapln." 

12, f34. Exodus, A.D. 697. 

14,484, Psalms formed from two MSS. cent viii (with the 
Song of the Three Children subjoined to ttie second). 
Both MSS. are defective. Subscription, " According to 
the Sept." 

14j437, Aumhers and 1 Kings, defective (cent vii or vili). 
The snbscription to I Kinss says that it was translated 
into Syriac at Alexandria In the year 927 (A.D. 616). 

14,442, Genesis, defective (with 1 Sam, Peshito). ** Accord- 
ing to the Sept" (cent vl). 

17,108, Judges and Ruth^ defective (cent vll or viii). Sub- 
Bcriptiou to Judges, " According to the Sept ;*' to Ruth, 
"From tlie Tetrapla of the Sept" 
Rordam issued at Copenhnsen in 1859 the first portion 

of an edition of the MS. 17,14)3: another part has since 

been publiiihed. Some of these MSS. were written in the 

same century in which the version was made. They may 

probably be depended on as giving the text with general 


C. Other Texts,— The list of versions of the Old TesL 
into Syriac often appears to be very numerous; but on 
examination it is found that many translations, the 
names of which appear in a catalogue, are really cither 
such as never had an actual existence, or else that they 
are either the version from the Hebrew, or else that 
from the Hexaplar text of the Sept, under different 
names, or with some slight revision. To enumerate 
the supposed versions is needless. It is only requisite 
to mention that Thomas of Harkel, whose work in the 
revision of a translation of the New Test will have to 
be mentioned, seems also to have made a translation 
from the Greek into Syriac of some of the apocryphal 
books — at least, the subscriptions in certain MSS. state 

II. TAe Syriac Neio-Testament Versions, — ^These we 
may conveniently enumerate under five heads, indading 
several recensions under some of them, but treating sep- 
arately the notable " Curetonian text" 

A. The Peshiio-Syriac New Test, (text of Widmin- 
stadt, and Cureton's Gospels).— In whatever fonna the 
Syriac New Test may have existed prior to the time 




Gneoo-Latinb et vetustioribus Latiuis omnibus solus dis- 
cedit, et in Gnecorum partes tran»it." Some proof that 
the text of the common printe<l Tesliito has been re- 
wrought will appear when it is compared with the 
Curetonian Syriac Gospels. 

4. Minor Recetuitms, — Whether the whole of this ver- 
sion proceeded from the same translator h&n been ques- 
tioned. Not only may Michaelis \)e ri^ht in sup()osing 
a peculiar translator of the Epistle to ttie Hebrews, but 
also other parts may be from diflfercnt hands ; this opin- 
ion will become more general the more the version is 
Btudied. The revisions to which the version was sub- 
jected may have succeeded in part, but not wholly, in 
•effacing the indications of a plurality of translators. 
The AcU and Epistles seem to }>e either more recent 
than the Gospels, though far less revised; or else, if 
coeval, far more corrected by later Greek MSS. 

There is no sufficient reason for supposing that this 
version ever contained the four catholic epistles and the 
Apocalypse, now absent from it, not only in the printed 
editions but also in the MSS. 

Some variations in copies of the Peshito have been 
regarded as if they might be styled Monophysitc and 
Nestorian recensions ; but the designation would be far 
too definite, for the differences are not sufficient to war- 
rant the classification. 

The MSS. of the Karkaphensian recension (as it has 
been termed) of the Peshito Old Test, contain also the 
New with a similar character of text. 

B. The Curetonian Syriac Gospels, — This, although in 
realitv but a varietv of the Peshito, exhibits such mark- 
cd peculiarities that it may almost bo called a distinct 

1. History^ Datfy and Contents, — Among the MSS. 
brought from the Nitrian monasteries in 184*2, Dr. Cure- 
ton noticeci a copy of the Gospels differing greatly from 
the common text; and this is the form of text to which 
the name of " Curetonian Syriac" has been rightly ap- 
plicil. Every criterion which proves the common Pe- 
shito not to exhibit a text of extreme antiquity, equal- 
ly proves the early origin of this. The discovery is in 
fact that of the object which was wanted, the want of 
which had been previously ascertained. Dr. Cureton 
considers that the MS. of the Gospels is of the tiflh cen- 
tury, a point in which all competent judges are proba- 
bly agreed. Some persons, indeed, have sought to de- 
preciate the text, to point out its differences from the 
Peshito, to regard all such variations as corruptions, 
and thus to stigmatize the Curetonian Syriac as a cor- 
rupt revision of the Peshito, barbarous in language and 
false in reading)*. This peremptory judgment is as rea- 
sonable as if the old Latin in the Codex Vercellensis 
were called an ignorant revision of the version of Je- 
rome. The judgment that the Curetonian Syriac is 
older than the Peshito is not the peculiar opinion of 
Cureton, Alford. Tregelles, or Biblical scholars of the 
school of ancient evidence in this country, but it is also 
that of Continenul scholars, such as Ewald, and appar- 
entlv of the late Prof. Bleek. 

The MS. contains Matt, i-viii, 22; x, dl-xxiii, 25 i 
Mark, the f«»ur last verses only ; .John i, 1-42; iii, 6-vii, 
37; xiv,ll-2»; Luke ii, 4«-iii, 16 ; vii,.S3-xv,21 ; xvii, 
24-xxiv, 41. It would have been a thing of much value 
if a |>errect copy of this version had come down to us; 
but OS it ii*. we liuve reason greatly to value the discov- 
crv <»f Dr. Cureton, which shows how trulv those critics 
have argue<l who conolude<i that such a version must 
have existed, and who regarded this as a proved fact, 
even when not only no portion of the version was known 
to be extant, but also when even the record of its exist- 
ence was unnoticed. For there is a record showing an 
acquaintance with this version, to which, as well as to 
the version itself, attention has been directed by Dr. 
Cureton. Bar-Salibi, bishop of Amida in the Pith cen- 
tury, in a passage translated by Dr. C. (in discussing 
fhe omission of three kings in the genealogy in Afat- 
thew), says: "There is found occasionally a Syriac copy. 

made out of the Hebrew, which inserts these three 
kings in the genealogy' ; but afterwards it speaks of 
fourteen and not of seventeen generations, because four- 
teen generations has been substituted for seventeen by 
the Hebrews on account of their holding to the septena- 
ry number," etc This shows that Bar-Salibi knew of a 
Syriac text of the (iospcls in which Ahaziah, Joash, and 
Amaziah were inserted in Matt. i. 8; there is the same 
reading in the Curetonian Syriac : but this might have 
l)cen a coincidence. But in ver. 17 the Curetonian text 
has, in contradiction to ver. S^ fourteen generations aiwi 
not seventeen ; and so had the copy mentione<l by Bar* 
Salibi: the former point might be a mere coincidence; 
the latter, however, shows such a kind of union in con- 
tradiction as proves the identity very convincingly. 
Thus, though this version was unknown in Europe prior 
to its discovery by Dr. Cureton, it must in the 12th cen- 
tury have been known as a text sometimes found: and, 
as mentioned by the Monophysite bishop, it might be 
more in use among his co-religionists than among oth- 
ers. Perha[)s, as its existence and use is thus recorded 
in the Pith centurv, some further discoverv of Svriac 
MSS. may furnish us with another copy so as to supply 
the defects of the one happily recovered. 

2. delation to the Peshito and to Older Texts, — In ex- 
amining the Curetonian text with the common printed 
Peshito, we often find such identity of phrase and ren- 
dering as to show that they are not wholly independent 
translatitms; then, again, we meet with such variety in 
the forms of words, etc., as seems to indicate that in the 
Peshito the phraseology had been re\nsed and rerined. 
But the great (it might be said characteristic) differ- 
ence between the Curetonian and the Peshito gospeb 
is in their readings; for while the latter cannot in its 
present state be deemed an unchanged production of 
the 2d century, the former bears all the marks of ex- 
treme antiquity, even though in places it may have 
sufferetl from the introduction of readings current in 
very early times. 

The following are a few of the very many cases in 
which the ancient reading is found in the Curetonian, 
and the later or transition reading in the Peshito. For 
the general authorities on the subject of each passage, 
reference must be made to the notes in critical editions 
of the Greek New Test. 

Matt, xix, 17, Ti ftt luforifx wfpk Tov uya^ot'i the ttnetent 
reading, as we flud In the beht authorities, and an we know 
flrom Oiigen : so the Curetonian : ri fic X^tttt u7 a^uf ; the 
common text with the Peshito. Matt, zx, 22, the clause 

of the common text, nai to fta^Tiana o f'jM /3u«Ti(o^a( 

(nud the corresponding; part of the following verse), are in 
the Peshito; while we know from Origen that they were 
in his day n peculiarity of Mark: omitted In the Cureto- 
nian with the other best nuthorities. In fact, except the 
Peshito and some revised Latin copien, there is no evi- 
dence at all extant for these words prior to the Sth cen- 
tury. Matt.v, 4, 6: here the ancient order of itie beati- 
tudes, as h'upuorted by Origen, Tertnllinn, tlie canons of 
Eurebins, ana Hilary, is that of placing M^Kripioi o\ rpa- 
«ic, K. T. \., befwre natcninoi oi irtvaol'vrkK, n. t. A. ; here the 
Curetonian a^^rees with the distinct testinioniec for thin 
order against the Peshito. In i, 18, we know Trom lrena?u« 
that the name ** Jesus" was not read; and this is ron- 
firmed by the Curetouinn : in fact, the common reading, 
however widely supported, could not have originated 
until ^\n<rovK xp'o^Tuv was treated as a combined pro|;>er 
name, otherwise the meaning of tov ^ '\t\aol xpiarov h -v*^- 
vtaix would not be "the birth of Jesus Christ,'' but "the 
birth of Jesus as the Christ.'' Here the ('uretonian read- 
ing is in full acciirdance with what we know of the 
2d century in oppof^ition to the Penhlto. In vi, 4 the 
Curetonian omits ain6^\ in the same ver. and In ver. 6 it 
omits iv rif dtaicpif : in each cane with the best authori- 
ties, but against the Pechito. Matt. v. 44 has been ampli- 
fied by copyists in an extrnordinary manner: fhe words 
in lirackets show the uniplidcatlons, and the place fW>m 
which each was taken : ^7m d*^ Xt-^w vfutf. 'A^airurc rovt 

Ix^povt vfiSt%f [evXoftlrt row Karnpt^fifvovt v/u^r, Luke vl, 
28; KuXtt't iroictTf Tui^ utanvvraz t//udr, ver. S7J, Ka< irptMrci^ 
X«f^i t/ir»p T&if [fwnftaCovTWf vfAat Ka'', ver. 8!V] diw«i>VTw» 

inuK. The briefer form is attested- by Ireuens, Clement, 
Origen, Cyprian, Euxebius, etc ; and though the inserted 
words and clnnseH are fonnd in almost all Greek MSS. 
(except Codicef Vnticnnus and Sinaitlcns), and in many 
versions, including the Peshito, they are not in the Cunto- 
nian .Svnac. Of a similar kind are MatL xvlii,86, rd «a- 


iv, 4&, mat uwri^itu V, Iti, Kui »C';tuv»- avrov aironrtikat : vi, {Jokrb, cL bibL Wisinuchajt, V()L ix) and many later 

51, r> r7iii dilnrt* : ver. 89, 'rov ^Suroi-. CTlticS. 

On the other hand, the Curetonian often changes the C. The PhUoxenian Syrinc Vtrnon^ ami its Revision 

text for tlie worse, as in the following examples: *y T/tonuis of //iir^/.— Philox<-nu«, or XenaiaH, bishop 

In Lake xxivihe fortieth verse is omitted, contrary to ""^ Hierapolis or Mabug at the^ Uginning of ihc 6th 

the Peshito and the most ancient uncial M8S. A, B, K. In ^"^"7 <^*;^ ^'•^ ^"*^ "*; ^*»^^ Monophy«tC8 ll»at sub- 

Matt, xxii, 36, .ai x^t-^ i« read by the Curetonian ; but it is »cnbed the //rm>/,ro,i of the em,>eror /eno), caused Poly- 

absent from the Peshito. which is supported by B and K. f * V ^^•^'^^''^^"r"^ '*' '""H*^ * "^'^ translatum of 

,..-„.. J „u . . J J 1 I the New Test, into Svriac. 1 his was executed in A.D. 

In vii, 92, the words ** have we not eaten and drunk in -^^ i :» : -^. 'n * i m -i r 

thy namef are inserted without any MS. anihoriiy, ap- ^' *"'* »' /'* generally termo*! 1 hiloxcnian from its 

parently from Luke xiii.2«. In xl, 23, inujcad of the usual P">moter. In one passage Bar-llebneus says that it 

Oreek text, it has **thoa shuU not he exalted to heaven, was made in the time, of I'hiloxeniiH; in his tjhnmictm 

hair contrary to all authority, and betraying at the same that it was done by his desire ; and in another place of 

lime a Greek original with /iij. In xxi, l>, it is added at ^i,^ ..„,^ ^, ,. ^k-^ ;♦ «.-o i.:- ,.....- i •• ^t 

the end. -and roSuy went «.ut to meei hii, and were re- ^^^ "*"^« ^*"^*' ^^^^ >^ ^*» *»" *'^" pf'^^lottion. Moses 

Joicing and praising Uod concemiue all that which they AgheliPus (AKReniani, liiblioth. OrieutuI, ii, K3) Htates 

•aw," words wholly unauihoriMd. In ver. 28, btbacKovrt that its author was IVdvcarp, rural bishop of Philoxenus. 

l« omitted without authority. In xxlli, 18, from oc «&»- to t Arni»ir MS. rinoti'd hv ARvmani tilAd ii ^}'\\ 

i»T.r arc also left out, contrary to all external evidence, t" .*" ^^^^^? *^l.^. M""*^^** »>> Assc^mani {Un<U ii. Z6 ), 

In Luke viii. Id, la the unauthorized addition "he set Philoxenus is said by a Jacobite author to have trans- 

torth another i>arable." In xi, 29, "except the sisn of Uited the four (>ospels into Svriac. 

S:rrS^^ft"tSr;i'io^",''rhX'"i;/»r?er.\"''i: . l- «^<"y--'lh!« ve™„„;i,., .,ot beo,, tr.„sn.i.,ed 

wtntiuj?, and ver. 19 is put before ver. IT; 6i6*,ntyo* is *« "» »» the form m which it was tirst made: we only 

•Iso al^nt in ver. 19 without authority. In John v, 8, we |K>ssess a revision of it, executed bv Thomas of Harkel 

bave the addition " K^ "^aj jj> ^^^^ *^,?"'!?-" ,*S*liJ?' '" *»» the following contur>' (The Ciosi'i^ls, A.I). 616). Po- 
▼er. 9, '* and he took up his tied'Ms omitted. Invi, 20, um , ,..o., • » . r « ... i-i- • 

♦o^ic.v:-. are left out, against MS. authority. *^»^e, m U^l gives an extract from Bar-Salibi, in 

_, , „ . . - . , .^ . which the version of Thomas of Harkel is mentioned; 

Tlie following arc points of comparison with the noted ^,„i ^j,,,^^^ Pococke did not know what version Thomas 

€arly MivS. : Yitu\ made, he speaks of a Svriac translation of the Gos- 

It often aurees with B. C, D, and the old Latin version pcl» communicated to him bv some learned man whom 

t>«r«ireitwiiBCorreciedby Jerome, es|>eclally its MSS. A, b, u^ j_-^ __^ „„„,. „i.;„k fiJ»«, ;»<. „»«.:i^ »,ik»^..^» » 

c ; viih D mo«t of all. Very seldom does it coincide with \^ ^,^« "^^ "*"'^'» ^ "^.^'^ from its servile adherence to 

A stlone. Thus in Matt xix, 9 the words ko* 6 uwo\t\v- the Greek, was no doubt the Harklean text. In the 

i«*«^*'»it'7««*'J»"*»Mo«x«"'ai are omitted, as In D,a, b,e, (T; aud Bihliotheai Orietitalis of Assemani there were further 

*** * horities. version is contained. Thus he had two copies of the 

3. Iltbrev; Orif/inal of Afa/thew.— It is not needful for Gospels, and one of all the rest of the New Test., except 

^«?ry great attention to be paid to the phraseology of the end of the Epistle to the Hebrews and the Apoca- 

t'*^*** Curetonian Syriac in order to sec that the Gospel lypse. No other MSiS. ap|)ear to have yet come to light 

■of ^fatthew difTers in mode of expression and various which contain any of this version beyond the (iospels. 

ot Her particulars from what we find in the rest. This From the subscriptions we learn that the text was re- 

Taaay lead us again to look at the testimony of Bar-Sa- vised by Thomas with three (some copies say tiro) (ireek 

lilji: he tells us, when speaking of this version of Mat- MS8. One Greek copy is similarly mentioned at the 

t.How, "there is found occasionally a Syriac c<»py mmie close of the Catholic epistles. 

of#f of the Uehrtw;" we thus know that the opinion of Ridley published in 1761 an account of the MSS. in 

t>io Syrians themselves in the Pith centur\' was that his possession, and a notice of this version. He bad 

*l»is transUtion of Matthew was not made from the intended to eilit the text: this was, however, «lone 

^Ireek, but from the Hebrew original of the evangelist : by White, at different times from 177« to 1K()3. After 

*«ch.too, is the judgment of Dr. Cureton : •* this (iospel the publication of the (iospels, the rewarchcs of .Adler 

k 'of Matthew appears at least to be built upon the original brought more copies info notice of that part of the Har- 

• Araniaic text, which was the work of the ap<»stle him- kiean text. From one of the MSS. in f)n; V«tiran, 

*^lf" (Prefact to Syi-iae GosjteU, p. vi). John's Gospel was etlited by BernHtcin in 1X51. It will 

We know from Jerome that the Hebrew Matthew be noticed that this version differs fnmi the Peshito in 

^ "^ma where the Greek has imomiov. We do containing all the seven Catholic epihtles. 

n«t find that word here, but we read for both iiriovmov ^^' Choracter,-\u <le«cribiiig this version as it has 

^ ffmoov at the end of the verse, 'U^mstunt of the <^«'"<^ **"^'? ^? ""^ ^^»^ '"'/ »« ^*»*^ ^»^' *»'"'.*^ *^ »>e consid- 

^y." This might have sprung from the interpreta- *^^^!- ?,^»* >*. characterized by extreme Hterality : the 

<'w.n i, t. »» • *. •»M«« 1 '. >>vnac idiom is constantlv l)ent to suit the Greek, and 

»Min. "morrow by morrow,^ given to ^n^; and it ma V ' *l- • • * i • .u /. i 

. .„ . r^,, r« .' evervthing is m some manner expreiwd in the (vreek 

^ «ni»trated by Old- Test, i^assages, e. g. Numb, iv, ^^^^ ^^ „„,er. It is difficult to imagine that it could 

'.Those who think that if this Syriac version had ^ave been intended for ecclesiaMical nwiing. It is not 

^*n made from Matthews Hebrew we ought to find i„aependent of tlie Peshito. the words, etc., of which 

*Ha here forget that a traiishition is not a verbal trans- are often employed. As to the kind of (ireek text that 

'"Won. it repn»sent8, it is just what might have been ex|»ected 

We know fn>m Euscbius that Hegesippus cited from in the 6th century. The work of Thomas in the text 
^^ Kospel according to the Hebrews, and from the itsi'lf is seen in the intriHluction of obi>li, by which |ias- 
^yfUc Now in a fragment of Hegesip{>iis (Routh. i, sages which he rejecteil were condemned; and of aster- 
oid) there is the quotation, /iflucopiot oi o^aXfioi {ifiwr isks, with which his insertions were di>tinguished. His 
0* l^roi/rfc <^<i< r<> *^r<> vfAwv rd aKoiiovTa, words model in all this was the Hexa])lar (ireek text. The 
which might be a Greek rendering from Matt, xiii, 16, MSS. which were used by Thomas were of a difTerent 
M tt stands in this Syriac gospel as we have it, or prob- kind from those employcil in making the version; they 
ably aho in the Hebrew work of the a|)OHtle himself. represented in general a much older and purer text. 

From these and other particuUrs, Dr. ('ureton con- The margin of the Harklean recension contains Hike * 

clvks that in this version Matthew's gospel was trans- the Hexaplar text of the .S<>pt.) nuidings mostly, afiimr- 

laied from the apo«tle*B Hebrew (Syro-Chaldaic) origi- cntly, from the Greek MSS. used. It has been quea- 





tioned whether these readings are not a conaparison 
with the Peshito; if any of them are so, they have 
probably been introduced since the time of Thomas. It 
is probable that the Philoxenian version was very lit- 
eral, but that the slavish adaptation to the Greek is the 
work of Thomas; and that his text thus bore about the 
same relation to that of Philoxenus as the Latin Bible 
of Arias Montanus does to that of his predecessor Pag- 
ninus. For textual criticism this version is a good au- 
thority as to the text of its own time, at least where it 
docs not merely follow the Peshito. The amplifications 
in the margin of the book of Acts bring a MS. used by 
Thomas into close comparison with the Codex Bezae. 
One of the MSS. of the Gospels sent to Ridley contains 
the Ilarklean text, with some revision by Bar-Salibi. 

The mai^inal readings are probably the most valua- 
ble part of the version in a critical view. One of the 
Greek MSS. compared by Thomas had considerable af- 
finity to D in the Gospels and Acts. Of 180 marginal 
readings, about 130 are found in B, C, D, L, i, 33, 69, etc 
With D alone of MSS. it harmonizes nineteen times in 
the Gospels; with D and B seven times. With the 
Alexandrian, or A, alone, it agrees twice, but with it and 
ot hers, D, L, eight times. With the Vatican, or B, alone, 
it harmonizes twice, but with it and others four times 
(see Adler,p. 130,131). 

I). Stpriac Versions of Portions Wanting in (he Peshi- 
A».— (I.) The Second Epistle of Peter, the Second and 
Third ofjohn^ and that ofJude, — The fact has already 
boon noticed that the old Syriac version did not con- 
tain these epistles. They were published by Pocockc 
in 1630 from a MS. in the Bodleian. The version of 
these epistles so often agrees with what we have in 
the ilarklean recension that the one is at least de- 
pendent on the other. The suggestion of Dr. David- 
son {JiiUical Criticism^ ii. 196) that the text of Pococke 
is that of Philoxenus before it was revised by Thomas 
seems most probable. But, if it is objected that the 
translation does not show as great a knowledge of Greek 
as might have been expected in the translation of the 
rest of the Philoxenian, it must Ije remembered that 
here he had not the Peshito to aid him. In the Paris 
Polyglot these epistles were added to the Peshito, with 
which they have since been commonly printed, although 
they have not the slightest relation to that version. 

(II.) The Ajtocahjpse.—ln 1627 De Dieu editc<i a Syr- 
iac version of the Apocalypse from a MS. in the Ley- 
den library, written by one " Caspar from the land of 
the Indians,'' who lived in the latter part of the 16th 
ccnturv. A MS. at Florence, also written bv this Cas- 
par, has a subscription stating that it was copied in 
1582 from a MS. in the writing of Thomas of Hnrkel 
in 622. If this is correct, it shows that Thomas by him- 
self would have been but a p<H)r translator of the New 
Test. But the subscription seems to be of doubtful 
authority; and, until the Ucv. B. Harris Cowper drew 
attention to a more ancient copy of the version, we 
might well be somewhat uncertain if this were really 
an ancient work. It is of small critical value, and the 
MS. from which it was edited is incorrectly written. 
It was in the MS. which Abp. Usher sent as a present 
to I)e Dieu in 1631, in which the whole of the Syriac 
New Test, is said to have been contained (of what ver- 
sion is unknown), that having been the only complete 
MS. of the kind describe*! ; and of this MS., in compar- 
ison with the text of the AjKHjalypse printed by Dc 
Dieu, Usher says, "the Syriac lately set out at I^yden 
may be amended by my MS. copy" (To<ld, Walton^ i, 
196, note). This book, from the Paris Polyglot and on- 
ward, has been added to the Peshito in this translation. 
Some have erroneously called tins Syriac Af)ocalypse 
the Phi/ttxenitin^ a n.iino to which it has no title: the 
error secmH to have ori^iuntod from a verbal mistake 
in an old advertisc'mcnt of (ireentield's edition (for 
^whicb he was not rosfMrnsible"), which said "the Apoc- 
afypse arm the Epistles not found in the Peshito are 
girea frooQ the Philoxenian version." 

(III.) The Syriac Version of John viii, 1-11. — Fron» 
the MS. sent by Abp. Usher to De Dieu, the latter pub> 
lished this section in 1631. From De Dieu it was in> 
serted in the I^ndon Polyglot, with a reference to Ush- 
er's MS., and hence it has passed with the other edi- 
tions of the Peshito, where it is a mere interpolation. 

A copy of the same version (essentially) is found in 
Ridley's Codex Barsalibceiy where it is attributed to- 
Maras, 622; Adler found it also in a Paris MS. ascribed 
to Abbas Mar Paul. 

Bar-Salibi cites a different version, out of Marao^ 
bishop of Amida, through the chronicle of Zacharias of 
Melitina. See Assemani {Biblioth, Orient, ii, 53 and 
170), who gives the introductory words. Probably the- 
version edited is that of Paul (as stated in the Paris- 
MS.), and that of Maras the one cited by Bar-Salibi ; 
while in Ridley's MS. the two are confounded. The- 
Paul mentioned is apparently Paul of Tela, the trans- 
lator of the Hexaplar Greek text into Syriac. 

E. 'The Jerusalem Syriac Lectionary, — The MS. in 
the Vatican containing this version was pretty fully de> 
scribed by S. E. Assemani in 1756 in the catalogue of 
the MSS. belonging to that library' ; but so few copies- 
of that work escaped destruction by fire that it was vir- 
tually unpublished and its contents almost unknown. 
Adler, who, at Copenhagen, had the advantage of study- 
ing one of the few copies of this catalogue, drew public 
attention to this peculiar document in his Kurze Vebfr- 
sicht seiner bitdisch-kritischen Reise nach Rom (Altona. 
1783), p. 118-127, and. still further, in 1789, in his val- 
uable examination of the Syriac versions. The MS. 
was written in 1031 in peculiar Syriac writing; the^ 
portions are, of course, those for the different festivaliv 
some parts of the Gospels not l)eing there at all. The 
dialect is not common Svriac ; it was termed the Jeni- 
salem Syriac from its being supposed to resemble the 
Jerusalem Talmud in language and other |ioints. The- 
grammar is peculiar: the forms almost Chaldc^e rather 
than Syriac; two characters are used for expressing PH 
and P. 

In Adier's opinion its date as a version would be fron> 
the 4th to the 6th century ; but it can hardly be sup- 
posed that it is of so early an age, or that any Syrians 
then could have use<l so corrupt a dialect. It may 
rather be supposed to be a translation made from a 
(ireek lectionarj', never having existed as a substantive 
translation. To what age its execution should be as- 
signed seems wholly uncertain. A further account of 
the MS. of this version, drawn up from a comparison of 
Assemani's description in the Vatican catalogue, and 
that of Adler, with the MS. itself in the Vatican Libra- 
ry, is given in Home's Introd. iv, 284-287. The only 
complete passage ]>ublished till recently was owing to 
Adler — viz. Matt, xxvii, 3-32; and scholars could only 
repeat or work up<»n what he gave. But the version 
has been published entire by Minischalchi Erizzo (A'e- 
rona, 1861, 1864, 2 vols. 4to; the first containing the 
text, with a Latin translation ; the second, prolegomena, 
and a glossary). Critical editors of the Greek Tes> 
tament cannot now overlook this very valuable docu> 
ment, whose readings are so important. It contains- 
the following portions of the Gospels: all Matthew ex> 
ceptiii, 12; v,34-41; vi, 25-34; vii, 19-23; viii, 14-19; 
X, 9-15,23-31,34-36; xi, 16-26; xii, 1-29, 38-50 ; xiii.. 
1-43, 55-58 ; xiv, 1-13, 35, 36 ; xv, 1-20, 29-31 ; xvi, 1- 
12, 20-28; xvii, 20, 27; xviii,5-9, 11, 21,22; xix, 1, 2, 
13-15: XX, 17-28; xxi, 44-46; xxvi, 40-43; aU Mark 
except i, 12-34,45; ii, 13, 18-22; iii,6-35; iv; v, 1-23, 
35-43; vi, 6-13. 31-56; vii, 1-23; ^iii, 1-26, 82,33; ix. 
1-15,31,41-50; x, 1-31.46-52; xi, 1-21, 26-83; xu, 1~ 
27; xiii: xiv; xv, 1-15.33-42; all Luke except i, 69- 
75, 77-79; Hi, 2:^-38: iv, 1-15, 37-44; v, 12-16, 88-39; 
vi, 11-16. 24-30. 37-49; vii, 17, 18, 30-56; viii, 22-25, 
40: ix, 7-26, 45-56; x, 13-15. 22-24; xi, 1-26, 84-M; 
xii, 1, 13-15, 2-2-31,41-59; xiii, 1-10,80-86; xiv, 12- 
15, 25-35; xv, 1-10; xvi, 1-9, 16-18; xvU, 1, 2, 20-37; 
xv-iii, 1, 15-17, 28-34; xix, 11-48; xx,9-44; xxi, 5-7, 




ztT,20. "^T^a— Sept. bwoxttpiow <roir; Syr. ■{•^*T^Ka. 
XV, 6. •llflK'^1— Sept. Kai etVcv o^^; Syr. nb 10K1. 

6. l^aKPn— Sept.jcoiiir/<rTew€v''A/SpoM; Syr^'^O'^ni 

xvi, 2. K3— Sept. and Syr. omit. 

«. '^^'^a— Sept. h Tolc x«P<r« <rou; Syr. '^3'^^'^fiO. 
16. n^b'^-Sept. fTCKcv airif,; Syr. nb ^b'^HK^. 
xvii,16. '^3b«-8ept.«oi fiaaiXtJv; Syr. Ksbol. 

19. O'^nbK-Sept 6 >e6c irpoc 'A/Spoo/i; Syr.OmaKb. 
15"nTb — Sept. Kai T^ anipfxart ainov; Syr. nj'^tbV 

Xrili, 6. "^HK— Sept. <cai fxtra rovro ; Syr. "jS "^1131. 

17. DrT*1!lK73-Sept. ikiro 'A/Spaa/x tov iraidov /aov; Syr. 

20. rT3"l "^a — Sept. ireirXn^i/vTtti irpoc /ac j Syr. 


29. niSrKKb — Sept. o& /xii inroXicu; Syr. Kb 


six, 8. nSK-Sept. iw€^€* ainoU; Syr. "jinb K&K. 

7. •ITflK'^l-Sept. elire 6i wp6t airrovt; Syr. "nOKl 


12. OlpTSM 113— Sept. iic TOW Towov rowrovi Syr. "jO 

wn K*inK. 

xx,16. ■^ba'^aX— Sept. 'A/SiM^Xex Ty 'A/Spoa/i; Syr. 


XXl, 8. pnX'l — Sept. 'l<raiK 6 vl6t o^roC; Syr. fifia 


10. D:? (2.)— Sept. and Syr. omit. 

13. -^lab— Sept. «ic i^ot M*7a; Syr- ks"! Kisjb. 

14. DV-Sept. Kai ^i^fiKcv; Syr. D01. 

83. :9:d*t1-Sept. Kfiu i^ifTCMrcv 'A/3paaM; Syr. n:Cai 


xxil, 13. "nriK— Sept. etc : Syr.'nn. 

16. "^T^IT^ nX — Sept. TOV iitairnTov ii *m*; Syr. 

■'STs ■^'^T^n'^b. 

xxiii, 14. lb— Sept. and Syr. omit. 

19. ■'3B br— Sept. a «<rTi^ uwivavri ; Syr. D13^. 
xxiv. 21. W'^^ltra -Sept. Kai fraptetmwa ; Syr. KpaniSl. 

26. Dipa Da-Sept, xai rowov; Syr. niDK C)K1. 

81. iTaK"^"!— Sept. Kai etirei' ayrtpi Syr. hb "n^KV 

83. "ISI •mX'^1 — Sept. Kai ctircv, AttXno-oi'; Syr. 

173X nb T^^iTsxi. 

88. "^aab— Sept. Ty vi^ MOW ^Ker^cf; Syr. I'Q ■'"lab 

40. nb^'^-Sept. auric kfawocrtXtT; Syr. 1"nn3 ^T^. 
M. *^3nbU7— Sept. Uirifxylfari H€ iva uit^X^m; Syr. 

btx ''3i*i"iu. 

«. iT^nX ■)73J<'^1— Sept. «Iirav H ol d^deX^oi avrriti 

Syr. -j-inx nb i-iaxr 

•mX-Sept. Ktti M<Ta raura; Syr. •p*T^m. 

60. npSI— Sept. TtfitiMav riiv udcX^^/v avr&v; Syr. 

•nnnn Kpn"nb. 

XXV, 6. pn:£'^b— Sept. 'liraaK ry vl^ ainov; Syr. pHCb 

8. 5att51-Sept. Kai »XiTpnc fi/iepfiv; Syr. Sa^^l 

Without enlarging our collation, it must be seen at 
once that the agreement between the Sept. and the 
Syriac version cannot be merely accidental, and the 
nAMt sceptic must admit that the Sept, has been made 
use of by the Syriac translators. Is this inference cor- 

rect, we may go a step farther and say what holds good 
for the one must also be good fur the other; or, in other 
words, the Syriac translator made use of the Sept. for 
the other books too. And, indeed, Gesenius has pro- 
duced a number of examples from the book of Isaiah to 
show that the Sept. was followed even in free and arbi- 
trary interpretations (comp. his Commcntar uber den 
JtsaiOf i, 82 sq.) ; and, in like manner, Credner, who 
has minutely examined the minor prophets in his De 
Prophetarum Minorum Versionis Syriaca quam Peschi- 
to vocarU Indole^ thinks that the Sept. was employed 
there. A similar result will be achieved in comparing 
the book of Jeremiah. Thus, 

ii.26. t?K13— Sept. ui^dpioilMai ; Syr. b*^nnK: both de- 
rive it from ;y K, instead of from CK"^ (comp. 
also xviii, 12). 
84. nbK babr'^S-Sept. Ini naari ipui ; Syr. H'^nn 

■(b'^K ba : both probably reading nbx. 

iil, 2. '^S'J?? -Sept. Kopmvni Syr. Ka?3, reading ^"^'^D. 

8. nSTCTS— Sept. KaroiKia ; Syr. Kn-)1i;r, derivlug 
from ^^\ 

vlii, 21. •^n'lSlCn—Sept. and Syr. omit. 

XV, 6. Dn3n *^n'^Kb3 — Sept. koi ovKiri uvfiam ai^ouv ; 

Syr. Iinb pmWK Kb mm : both reading 

Dnsn for onsn. 

xvii, 16. ^!|3K 01"^— Sept. hfiipav avSpwirow; Syr. K^T' 

KW3'ia'l: both reading ^'iSX. 
xviii, 14. '^•ito IIX^— Sept. <kiro ir^Tpor ^aaroi ; Syr. ',73 

K'^^n "nia : both reading "i^^. 

Xlvlii, 2. '^ain 1^113 U^—Sepi, Kat iraliriy wavverat: Syr, 

I'^pn^rn ",« pn^*« IBK: both regarded 

*,73*173 not as n proper notin, bnt as an Arama- 
ic influitive ofCp'J. 

1. 21. Sin llpB "^niCT^ bxr in the Masoretic text 

the Athnarh nnder llpfi indicates that it be- 
longs to '^aia'1^. The Sept. connects TipB with 
mn, nltfio rending !3in vKAiKijcrotr fidxaipa; in 
like manner the Syr. connects and translates 

It would be useless to adduce more examples for our 
supposition, since we do n(»t write a dissertation, but for 
a cyclopaBdia which, so far as the point in question ia 
concerned, has treated that subject in such a full way aa 
neither the introductions to tlie Old Test, nor cyclojue-^ 
dias and dictionaries of the Bil>le have done before, if 
they ever touched this |M>int fully. 

Thejre is yet another matter which we should not pass 
over, and to which, as it seems, little attention has been 
paid. We mean the titles of the Syriac psalms, which 
are found neither in the Hebrew nor in the editions of 
the Sept. The titles are partly historical, partly dog- 
matical ; the former speak of David or the Jewish peo- 
ple, the latter of Christ and his Church. Now the ques- 
tion arises, if the Syriac translators really perused the 
Sept., as our supposition is, how is it that the titles 
found in the Syriac psalms are not to be met with in 
the Sept. ? But the question is easily answered, when 
we consider the fact that these titles are not only found 
in the commentary of Eusebius, but also in the Codex 
A UxandiHnus. From the latter they were reprinted in 
Walton's Polyglot (voL vi, pt. vi, p. 137 sq'.), and again by 
Grabe, in the fourth volume of his edition of the Sept. 
A comparison of the titles as found in the Alex. Codex 
with those in the Peshito shows that the dogmatical 
part of these titles are a later addition, otherwise we 
could not account for the omission in the Greek, if real- 
ly the latter had copied the Peshito. Deducting theae 
additions, the titles otherwise agree with each other. 
Thus the title of Psa. ii reads : irpo^rcia irtpi Xpt- 
(TTov Kai K\Tpnu)^ i^wv; Syr. KQQK1 KH^Ip bOQ 




Syr. nb •p5cnac'i '|'^b'^«b s^no'i '^m^^:^ ^i'yrh^. 

Without increasing the number of such passages, we will 
adduce some in which both versions entirely give up the 
Masoretic text and follow another reading : thus Prov. 
i, 24, for 13«73ni the Chaldee reads 13*^C«P Kbi, for the 
translation is ';in3C'^n vA^J and so also the Syriac, K^T 
•jinaa'^n : v, 9, the Chaldee reads ^3in instead of ^liri, 
for the translation is ■]b*'H, and so in the Syriac, "^bTI : 
ix, 11, for '^a'^D the Chaldee reads HS'^D, for the trans- 
lation is nm bn:37a,and in the Syriac nm h'^TS. These 
'examples, which could be increased greatly (corop. iii, 
27; v,4.9,19,21; vii, 22,23; viU,3; ix,ll; x,4; xi, 
26; xii,4, 19, 21, 28; xiii, 15, 19; xiv, 14; xv, 4; xix, 
19,23; XX, 4, 14, 20; xxi, 4, 30; xxii, 11, 16; xxiv, 5, 
22; XXV, 20, 27; xxvi,6,7, 10; xxviii,5,ll; xxix, 18,21; 
XXX, 31 ; xxxi, 6), leave no doubt that the Chaldee and 
Syriac stand in a relation of dependence to each other. 
' But in speaking of a relation of these versions, it 
must not be understood as if they relate to each other 
as the original and copy, but this relation consists in 
that the author of the one version, in preparing the 
same, followed mostly the other without giving up his 
independence entirely. This we can see from the eighty- 
two passages iu which the Chaldee follows the Masoretic 
text, while the Syriac deviates from it, as ii, 16; iii, 30; 
iv,3,ll,22,25,32; vii, 7, 8, 10, 22 ; viii,7, 11,36; ix, 12, 
18; X, 10, 12, 19,24,26: xi, 9, 10, 16, 19,24, 29; xii, 17, 
28; xiii, 1,10, 28; xiv, 7, 17, 22, 23, 33, 35 ; xv^ 10, 14, 16, 
17, 22, 30; xvi, 7, 26; xvii, 4, 9, 15; xviii, 1, 3, 6, 15; 
xix, 1, 4, 22, 29 ; xxi, 14 ; xxii, 3, 19 ; xxiii, 2, 6, 30, 34 ; 
xxiv, 10, 26, 32, 33; xxv, 4, 11, 10, 13, 21, 22; xxvi, 2, 
11-13, 17-19, 26; xxx, 15, 19; or from those |)assage8 
in which the Syriac agrees with the Masoretic text 
against the Chaldee, as vi,35; vii, 15; viii,29; x, 29; 
xi, 4; xiv, 24; xv, 82; xvi, 5, xvii, 5, 16; xviii, 17; 
xix, 2, 13; xxiii, 28; xxiv, 9, 14; xxv, 9; xxviii, 1; 
xxxi, 3, 

To these examples from the book of Proverbs we 
could altiu add a number from other books. Future in- 
vestigations based upon these must show the tcnability 
or otherwise of our assertion. See also Schonfelder, On- 
kelojt und Penchito (MUnchen, I8(»9); Maybaum, Utber 
die Sprache de^ Taryum zu dm iSpriichtfi urul de*sm Ver- 
hdUitifS znm Syrei\ in Mer.x, Archie fur irif,<fnsvhaj}' 
lit'he Erforschiniti >le* .{hen Textninents^ ii, 06 sq. ; Dathc, 
Opusculuj p. HM) Hq. ; Frankl, Studien uber die iSeptua- 
ginta uwi I*rschi(o zu .hremin^ in Frankel-Griitz, J/o- 
nutMchrift, 1872, p. 444 st|. (^B. W) 

S3rr'ia-]na'achah (1 Chron, xix, 6). See Ma- 

Sylvian Cat"^* '^ rummiy Gen. xxv, 20 ; xxviii, 5; 
xxxi, 20, 24; Deut. xxvi,5, 2 Kings v,20; fem. H'^a'^X, 
Arammiyah^ 1 Chron. vii, 14, "Aramitess;"' plur. masc. 
D"*a'1K, Aramtnim, 2 Kings viii, 28, 29; xvi, 6 [where 
the text has D"'T3T^K, which the marg. corrects to 
D"«pilJ<, KdoffUtes] ; 2 Chron. xxii, 5 ; but « Syrians" is 
elsewhere the rendering of C^K, A ram ; £t''poCf Luke 
iv, 27), an inhabitant either of Western Syria, i. e. on 
the Mediterranean (2 Kings v, 20), or of Eastern, i. e. 
Mesopotamia (Gen. he. cit.). See Syria. 

Syrian Churches, a general name for that portion 
of the Oriental Church which had its seat in Syria, and 
which was anciently comprehended in the patriarchate 
of Antioch and (after that of Jerusalem obtained a dis- 
tinct jurisdiction) in the patriarchate of Jerusalem. The 
Syrian Church of the early centuries was exceedingly 
flourishing. Before the end of the 4th century it num- 
bered 119 distinct sees, with a Christian population of 
several millions. The first blow to the prosperity of the 
Syrian Church was the fatal division which arose from 
the controversies on the incarnation. See Eutychks ; 
Jacobites; MoNoniYSiTEs; Nestorians. The £u- 

tychian heresy, in one or other of its forms, obtained 
wide extension in Syria ; and the usual results of divi- 
sion ensued in the corruption and decay of true religioiu 
The Moslem conquest accelerated the ruin thus begun ; 
and from the 7th century downwards, this once flourish- 
ing Church declined into a weak and spiritless commu- 
nity, whose chief seat was in the mountains, and whose 
best security from oppression lay in the belief on the 
part of the conquerors of their utterly fallen and con- 
temptible condition. Under the head Maronitem has 
been detailed the most remarkable incident in the later 
history of the Syrian Church. This branch of the East- 
em Christianity, although for the most part divided 
from the orthodox Greek Church by the profession of 
Monophysitism, took part with the Greeks in their sepa- 
ration from the West, under Michael Cerularius; and 
the reunion of the Maronites to Rome had the remark- 
able result of establishing side by side, within the nar- 
row limits occupied by the Christians imder the Moslem 
rule in S^nria, two distinct communities, speaking the 
same language, using the same liturgy, and following 
the same rites, and yet subject to two different patri- 
archs, and mutually regarding each other as heretics 
and apostates from the ancient creed of their country. 

The chief peculiarity of the Syrian rite, as contratlis- 
tinguished from the Greek, consists in its liturgy, and 
the language of that liturgy, which is Syriac, and with 
which the people, and, in many cases, the priests, are en- 
tirely unacquainted. The liturg}* is known as the Lit- 
urgy of St. James. The Syrians agree with the Greeks 
in the use of unleavened bread, in administering c«>m- 
munion under both heads, in permitting the marriage 
of priests (provided they marrj' bef(>re ordination), and 
in administering the unction of conflrmation at the same 
time with baptism, even to infants. 

The Christian community of Syria may at present be 
divided into four classes: the Maronites, the Greeks 
(who are also called Melchites), the Monophysites. who 
arc called Jacobites, and the primitive Syrian Christians 
(not Maronites) who are in communion with Rome. This 
last-named communitv forms the small remnant of the 
ancient Syrian Church which remained orthodox during 
the controversy on the incarnation, at the time of the 
general lapse into Monophysitism. To these are to be 
added the Christians of the Latin rite. The Maronites 
number about 150,000; the Greeks are said to be about 
50,000 ; the Jacobites of Syria and of Armenia Pn»per 
are said to reck(»n together about 40,000 families, of 
whom, however, but a small pro|K»rtion (probably scarce- 
ly 10,(H)0 in all) can be set down to the account of the 
Syrian Church. The non-Maronite Syrians who follow 
their national rite, but arc in communion with Rome, are 
supposed to amount to about 4000. The resident Latins 
arc chiefly members of the religious orders who from 
immemorial time have possessed convents in the Holy 
Land, and European Catholics who have settled perma- 
nently or for a time at Jerusalem, Beiriit, and Damas- 
cus. None of these can in any way be regarded as be- 
longing to the Syrian Church. It may be well to add 
that the belief, and, in most particulars, the disciplinary 
practice, of these several classes coincide substantially 
with those respectively of the same communities in the 
other churches of the East. All (with the exception of 
the Maronites and the few United Syrians) reject the 
supremacy' of the Roman see. The Syrians of the (ireek 
communion reject the double procesition of the Holy 
(ihost; and the Jacobites flrmlv maintain their old 
tenet of Eutychianism. Among them all are to be found 
monks and religious females. All enforce celibacy on 
their bishops, and refuse to priests the privilege of con- 
tracting a second marriage, or of marrying after ordina- 
tion. The practice of fasting prevails among all alike. 
They receive and practice the invocation of saints and 
prayers for the dead, and the use of painted, although 
not of graven, images. Many particulars regarding 
them are to be gleaned from the memoirs of recent 
missionaries of the several denominations, among which 




xvii, 884; Ptolemy, iv, 3 ; Pliny, v, 4; Solin.27; Mela, 
i, 7, 4; Sallust, Jug, 78). Modern explorations find 
both of them to be highly dangerous bays, where the 
treacherous sandy shore is barely covered with wa- 
ter, and where terrific clouds of sand are suddenly 
raised by the wind, obscuring the sight and overwhelm- 
ing men and even ships. The Greater Syrtis is now 
called the Gulf of Sidra, between Tripoli and Barea; 
and the Lesser the Gulf of Cabes, The former is spe- 
cially intended in the account of Paul's shipwreck (q. v.). 

See Smith, Diet, of Class, Geog, a. v. See Quick- 

SjrrUB, in Greek mythology, was a son of Apollo and 
Sinope, who is said to have given name to the Syrians, 

Systatitcse Q^v<rrartKaL) were letters of license 
granted by a bishop for a clergyman to remove from 
his diocese to another, called by the old canons Dismis- 
sory letters, 

Syzj^gUB. See Yoke-fkllow. 


Ta'&iach (Heb. Taanak', ?^3S[r),«an<fy [Gesenius], 
ox fortified [FUrst] ; twice [Judg. xxi, 26 ; 1 Chron. vii, 
29] more briefly Tanak\ rjjspi, A. V. "Tanach;" Sept 
Oavax or Qaavax v. r. Tavdx, "S^vcuc^ etc), an ancient 
Canaanitish city, whose king is enumerated among the 
thirty-one conquered by Joshua (Josh, xii, 21). It 
came into the hands of the half-tribe of Manasseh (xvii, 
11 ; xxi, 25; 1 Chron. vii, 29), though it would appear 
to have lain within the original allotment of Issachar 
(Josh, xvii, 11). It was bestowed on the Kohathite 
Levites (xxi, 25). Taanach was one of the places in 
which, either from some strength of position, or from 
the ground near it being favorable for their mode of 
fighting, the aborigines succeeded in making a stand 
(xvii, 12; Judg. i, 27); and in the great struggle of the 
Canaanites under Sisera against Deborah and Barak it 
appears to have formed the headquarters of their army 
(Judg. v, 19). After this defeat the Canaanites of Taa- 
nach were probably made, like the rest, to pay a tribute 
(Josh, xvii, 13 ; Judg. i, 28), but in the town they ap- 
pear to have remained to the last. Taanach is almost 
always named in company with Megiddo, and they 
were evidently the chief towns of that fine, rich district 
which forms the western portion of the great plain of 
Esdraelon (1 Kings iv, 12). It was known to Eusebius, 
who mentions it twice in the Onomiisticon (6aava^ and 
Oapari) as a **very large village" standing between 
three and four Roman miles from Legio — the ancient 
Megiddo. It was known to hap-Parchi, the Jewish 
medisBval traveller, and it still stands about four miles 
south-east of LejjCin, retaining its old name with hanlly 
the change of a letter. Schubert, followed by Robin- 
son, found it in the modern Ta^arniuk^ now a mean ham- 
let on the south-east side of a small hill, witli a summit 
of table-land (Schubert, Morgetdand, iii, 164 ; Robinson, 
nibl. Res, iii, 156; liibl. Sacra, 1843, p. 76; Schwarz, 
Palest, p. 149). The ancient town was planted on a 
large mound at the termination of a long spur or prom- 
ontory, which runs out northward from the hills of Ma- 
nasseh into the plain, and leaves a recess or bay, subor- 
dinate to the main plain on its north side, and between 
it and Lejjun (Van de Velde, i, 358). Ruins of some 
extent, l)ut |)usseHsing no interest, encompass it (Porter, 
Handbook, p. 371). The houses of the present village 
are mud hut.s, with one or two stone buildings (Ridga- 
way. The IjhiPs /jtudy p. 588 ). 

Taanah. See Taanatii-Siiiix)h. 

Ta'anath-Shi'loh (Ileb. Taanath' Shiloh', nsxn 
H'5^r, TntiTHih [(ioscnius, aj^woach; FUrst, ctrcfe] of 
Shihhy so called pn»b. from its vicinity to that place; 
Sept. Ti/i'ti^ lV/\w V. r. H^ra(Ta Kai SiXAiyc), a place 
mentioned (J(»sh. xvi, (H as situated near the northern 
border of Ephraiin at its eastern end between the Jor- 
dan and Janohah. Sec Tribe. With this agrees the 
statement of Eusebius ( Omtinast, s. v.), who places Jano- 
hah twelve and Thetmth ten Roman miles east of Ne- 
apolis. It is probably the Thena (Bijvrt) mentioned by 
Ptolemy {Geog, v, H», 5), one of the chief cities of Sama- 
ria, in connection with Neapolis. In the Talmud (Je- 
rusalem Mtgillaft, i), Taanath-Shiloh is said to be iden- 

tical with Shiloh, a statement which Kurtz (Gesch, dtt 
AU, BundeSf ii, 70) understands as meaning that Taa- 
nath was the ancient Canaanitish name of the place, 
and Shiloh the Hebrew name, conferred on it in token 
of the " rest" which allowed the tabernacle to be estab- 
lished there after the conquest of the country' had been 
completed. But this is evidently conjecture arising^ 
from the probable proximity of the two places. Taa- 
nah-of-Shiloh is probably the A in Tatui seen by Rob- 
inson north-east of Mejdel (Later Res, iii, 295), and by 
Van de Velde {Memoir , p. 121, although erroneously 
marked M&raj ed-Din on his Map), about a mile from 
the road between Acrabi and Mejdel, consisting of " a 
small tell with a ruin, on the first lower plateau into 
which the Ghor descends." 

Taanith. See Talmud. 

Tab'aoth (Ta/3aw^ v. r. Ta/3w^), a less correct 
form (1 Esdr. v, 29) of the name Tabhaoth (q. v.) of 
the Heb. lists (Ezra ii, 43 ; Neh. vii, 46). 

Tab'baoth (Heb. Tabbadth% riraa, rittgs [Gese- 
nius], or spots [FUrst] ; Sept, Ta/3/3aai^ v. r. Tafiaut^ 
and Ta/3w^), one of the Nethinim whose descendants 
or family returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra 
ii, 43 ; Neh. vii, 46), B.C. ante 536. 

Tab'bath (Heb. Tahbath', nSM, perh. celebrated 
[Gesenius]; Sept. Ta/3«^ v. r. Vafia^), a place men- 
tioned in describing the flight of the Midianitish host 
after Gideon's night attack; they tied to Beth-shittah, 
to Zererath, to the brink of Abel-meholah on (b?) Tab- 
bath (Judg. vii, 22). As all these places were in or near 
the Gh6r, Tabbath is probably the present TubuJthat- 
Fakil, i. e. "Terrace of Flihil," a very striking natural 
bank, 600 feet in height, with a long horizontal and 
apparently fiat top, which is embanked against the 
western face of the mountains east of the Jordan, and 
descends with a very steep front to the river (Robinson, 
Bibl, Res, iii, 325). 

Tab'e&l (Isa. vii, 6). See Tabe£l, 1. 

Tab'eel (Heb. TabeH', ixno [in pause Tabeal% 
bxna, Isa. vii, 6, A.V. " Tabeal"]^ (Jod is good; Sept. 
To/ieijX), the name of two men. See also Tobiki- 

1. The father of the unnamed person on whom Ro- 
zin, king of Syria, and Pekah, kuig of Israel, pru|H>sed 
to bestow the crown of Judah in case they succeeded in 
dethroning Ahaz flsa. vii, 6). KC. ante 738. Who 
"Tabeal's son" was is unknown, but it is conjectured 
that he was some factious and powerful Ephraimite 
(perhaps Zichri, 2 Chron. xxviii, 7), who promoted the 
war in the hope of this result.— ^Kitto. The Aramaic 
form of the name [see Tabrimmon], however, has been 
thought to favor the supposition that he was a S>Tian 
in the army of Rezin. The Targum of Jonathan ren- 
ders the name as an appellative, "and we will make 
king in the midst of her him who seems good to us** 
(XSb irsn --2 r'^), Rashi by Gematria turns the 

name into xbis^, Rimla, by which apparently he would 
understand Remaliah, 




El'Kuds still clings to the walls of Jerusalem. See 

5, bs'^n, heykSl^ temple (vaof, templum), as meaning 
the stately building, or palace of Jehovah ( 1 Chron. 
xxix, 1, 19), is applied more commonly to the Temple 
(2 Kings xxiv, 13, etc.)) but was used also (probably at 
the period when the thought of the Temple had affect- 
ed the religious nomenclature of the time) of the tab- 
eniade at Shiloh (1 Sam. i, 9 ; iii, 3) and Jerusalem 
(Psa. V, 7), In either case the thought which the word 
embodies is that the "• tent," the '* house,"* is royal, the 
xlwcUing-plaoe of the great king. See Temple. 

The first two of the above words receive a new 
meaning in combination with "IJI^ (moed), and with 
"nil^n (ha-eduth). To understand the full meaning 
of the distinctive titles thus formed is to possess the 
key to the significance of the whole tabernacle. 

(a.) The primary force of 1?^ is " to meet by ap- 
pointment,'* and the phrase* 151^ ^*V< has therefore 
the meaning of " a place of or for a fixed meeting.** 
Acting on the belief that the meeting in this case was 
that of the worshippers, the A. Y. has uniformly ren- 
dered it by " tabernacle of the congregation" (so Scb. 
Schmidt, "tentorium conventds;" and Luther, ** Stifts- 
hUtte" in which St\ft = Pfarrkirche), while the Sept. 
and Vulg., confounding it with the other epithet, have 
rendered both by i^ vicrivrj tov fiaprvpiovt and " taber- 
naculum testimoniL" None of these renderings, how- 
ever, bring out the real meaning of the word. This is 
to be found in what may be called the locus dasHcusy 
AS the interpretation of all words connected with the 
tabernacle^ " This shall be a continual bumt-otreriug 
, . . at the door of the tabernacle of meeting pSITS) 
where I will meet you O?^?^, yvw<r^»;<ro/iaO to speak 
there unto thee. And there will I meet pPl'IJi, raKo- 
jiai) with the children of Israel And I will sanctify 
0^*^?P) ^^^ tabernacle of meeting • . • and I will 
dwell (*^r)33t!3) among the children of Israel, and will 
be their Ciod. And they shall know that I am the 
Lord their God" (Exod. xxix, 42-46), The same cen- 
tral thought occurs in xxv, 22, "There I will meet with 
thee" (comp. also xxx, 6, 36 ; Numb, xvii, 4). It is 
clear, therefore, that "congregation" is inadequate. 
Not the gathering of the worshippers, but the meeting 
of God with his people, to commune with them, to make 
himself known to them, was what the name embodied. 
Ewald has accordingly suggested Offenbartmgszell ^tenxt 
of revelation, as the bcHt equivalent {A Uerthutner, p. KSO). 
This made the place a sanctuary. Thus it was that the 
tent was the dweUing^ the house of God (Btihr, Symb, i, 

■81). Sec CONORE«iATIOS. 

(6.) The other compound phrase, msn bnk, as con- 
necteil with "113? (=to bear witness), is rightly ren- 
dered by 1/ OKtivfi TOV fiaprvpioVi taftemacuhim testi- 
monii, die Wohnai^ des ZeugnisseSj " the tent of the tes- 
timony" (Numb, ix, 16) "the tabernacle of witness" 
(xvii, 7; xviii, 2). In this case the tent derives its 
name from that which is the centre of its holiness. 
The two tables of stone within the ark arc emphatical- 
ly the testimony (Exod, xxv, 16, 21 ; xxxi, 18). They 
were to all Israel the abiding witness of the nature and 
will of God. The tent, by virtue of its relation to 
them, became the witness of its own significance as the 
meeting-place of God and man. The probable con- 
nection of the two distinct names, in sense as well as in 
sound (BUhr, Symb, i, 83; Ewald, AlLp, 230), gave, of 
course, a force to each which no translation can repre- 
.*ient. See Testimony. 

IL History. — 1. We may distinguish in the Old Test, 
t'hree sacred tabeniacles. 

(1.) The Ante-Sinaitic, which was probably the dwell- 
ing of Moses, and was placed by the camp of the Is- 
raelites in the desert, for the transaction of public busi- 

ness. Exod. xxxiii, 7-10, " Moses took the tabernacle, 
and pitched it without the camp, afar off from the camp, 
and called it the Tabernacle of the Congregation. And 
it came to pass, that every one which sought the Lord 
went out unto the tabernacle of the congregation, which 
was without the camp. And it came to pass, when 
Moses went out unto the tal>emacle, that all the peo- 
ple rose up, and stood every man at his tent-door, and 
looked after Moses until he was gone into the taber- 
nacle. And it came to pass, as Moses entered into the 
tabernacle, the cloudy pillar descended, and stood at the 
door of the tabernacle, and the Lord talked with Moses. 
And all the people saw the cloudy pillar stand at the 
tabernacle-door: and all the people rose up and wor- 
shipped, every one in his tent-door.*' This was neither 
the sanctuary of the tabernacle described in ch. xxr 
sq,, which was not made till after the perfect restora- 
tion of the covenant (ch, xxxv sq.), nor another sanctu- 
ary that had come down from their forefathers and was 
used before the tabernacle proper was built (as Le Clerc, 
J. D. Michaelis, and KoeenmUUcr supposed) ; but an or- 
dinary tent used for the occasion and purpose (Keil, 
Comment, ad loc). 

(2.) The iSinaiiic tabernacle superseded the tent 
which had served for the transaction of public business 
probably from the beginning of the Exode. This was 
constructed by Bezaleel and Aholiab as a portable man- 
sion-house, guildhall, and cathedral, and set up on the 
first day of the first month in the second year afler leav- 
ing Egypt. Of this alone we have accurate descri ptions. 
It was the second of these sacred tents, which, as the 
most important, is called the tabernacle par excellence, 
Moses was commanded bv Jehovah to have it erected 
in the Arabian desert, by voluntary contributions of the 
Israelites, who carried it about with them in their mi- 
grations until after the conquest of Canaan, when it re- 
mained stationary for longer periods in various towns 
of Palestine (as below). 

(3.) The Ikividic tabernacle was erected by David, in 
Jerusalem, for the reception of the ark (2 Sam. vi, 12); 
while the old tabernacle remained to the dav's of Solo- 
mon at Gibeon, together with the brazen altar, as the 
place where sacrifices were offered (1 Chron. xvi, 39 ; 2 
Chron. i, 3). 

2. Varteti Fortunes of the Sinaitic Tabernacle, (1.) 
In the. Wilderness. — ^The outward history of the taber- 
nacle begins with Exod. xxv. It comes after the first 
great group of laws (ch. xix-xxiii), after the covenant 
with the people, after the vision of the divine glory (ch. 
xxiv). For forty days and nights Moses is in the mount. 
Before him there lay a problem, bb measured by human 
judgment, of gigantic difiSculty. In what fit symbols 
was he to embody the great truths without which the 
nation would sink into brutality? In what way could 
those s\'mbols be guarded against the evil which he had 
seen in Egypt, of idolatry the most degrading? He 
was not left to solve the problem for himself. There 
rose before him, not without points of contact with pre- 
vious associations, 3'et in no degree formed out of them, 
the " pattern" of the tabernacle. The lower analogies 
of the painter and the architect seeing, with their in- 
ward eye, their completed work before the work itself 
begins, may help us to understand how it was that the 
vision on the mount included all details of form, mea»- 
urement, materials, the order of the ritual, the apparel 
of the priests. He is directed in his choice of the two 
chief artists, Rezaleel of the tribe of Judah, Aholiab of 
the tribe of Dan (ch. xxxi). The sin of the golden calf 
apparently postpones the execution. For a moment it 
seems as if the people were to be left without the Divine 
Presence itself — without any recognised symbol of it 
(xxxiii, 3). As in a transition period, the whole fut- 
ure depending on the patience of the people, oa the in- 
tercession of their leader, a tent is pitched (probably 
that of Moses himself, which had hitherto been the head- 
quarters of consultation), outside the camp, to be pro- 
visionally the tabernacle of meeting. There the mind 

TABERNACLE 130 TAdc.*... 

_i(ioB.— The wi 
le ubemicle »i 

»m>Hi0B.— The wciiicii suth.ititifi for llie nt- 1«- And Ihnu ilwh m.ikt' (a! coverinB lo the Mot, ikiu^ 

iJre|i*s«diii3iiiitvi,B-88, ^^ And thou nhslt make (A* planla (3"ip) fw tb* tab- 
)nri the alifihlesc pouibk -"^ . 

nmiinl irli-en nC ills hiiilil. ernSClC, iXttt [UOWl! Of HCSCIbI (D^0>, MaDlllDK- 

L Ten cnblti (ehalt be the) leiigib of Ibe pJsDk, ud (i> 

cnbll ind (the) half of tbt cnbli (ih«> brendih uf ibc 

r. one pluk. Twu band> ('"""»] (sbsll then be) Ui 

hiiD except the one which U equallj acceuible to 

ndeeiliWO might almoit put hi* account on one 19. mnkel.irrto]ror>lllihe>plnnkBiirtbenibernad*. Aud 

it were not that, beine a Jew, and to much near- tbuu Fbali innka tlieplsnkB for ihe ubeniacle, rwau- 

time, he mav have had accc to eome traditiouaJ 'T pl.nk-for ("he) Nigeb [»u.»l lowarJaTej- 

,ta which >«;v have enabled him to realize ita at,- '»■ ">*" I'*' «""*)■ ''"^ '""T """ 07?' "' »"'" ""•I' 

eof Hebrew technical lennB may hare asa _ ^ _ 

iinderatand whac we nii|;ht othisrwiac be unable lo aeccind rib [jfanii of the lAberuicTe to (ilie) TaaphAn 

jUiii. The additional indicaliuns cont^ned in the *>■ J^^tM.^.'" '"" """" '' ~ "'"'" '"'' 

imud anil in Pbilo are ao few and imliatiiict, and aie, 

' ID. Ibeoile('nar)p'jaiikr<>r'll8''lwo'haiid>. Audfurtb 
 aeocind rib (ytin*) nf the isberuacle lo (ihel TiuphAi 

ihelr forij baM« o 

eidea, oT Buch douUrnl aiitlicnlicitv, thai tbejr practi- ti. Aud for (Ibe) Ihlghajnai-] »r thr labeniacle aeaurard 

,1ly add nothing lo our knowledge,' and may lafely be «■ C"«f) H'on chall make ati p1ankB._ Ai.d two plauka 
laregarded. abalt Ihon make fur (the) anule* (^^X|^13, oitHng s/) 

For a cmnpliaited arcbiteetnral building, iheje writ- S*. ofthetnlieniaclB iniheihlgha [r«r): and (ihej) thall 
en aotboriliea ptobablj would not auflice without some be Iwiinied iB^'a!(P,i>eihapBj(p(«(«(,ft(iifl«i(,or6nU«l> 

the arrangeroenu of the tabcniacle were »o ai'mpie ^'^$ ['..i-j iowa>.1» ihe mt riuK: ao ahnll (UVbe t<> 
, , ^ ,1 !■ L -11. ^ bulb 'tt ibem ; for the two aiiEltie nhaU (Ihey) be- 
that they are really all that are re,|uired. Every im- jj. And (there) rball be e)fibi plauk?, and their buwa of 
purtanc dimeiiMon waa either five cnbila or a multiple of allver- iliieen baaef, two baiiea under the one plank, 
Ave cubita, and all thoarranperoenta in plan were either ■"* l*" l"""" ""^'f ""e one Ibew] plauk. 
aquan*ordoublp8quBres.snthat there iji. in fad, no dif- ^ And ibnii ahalt make bars (ll'^'^Il) of treea [maf] of 
Acuity in putting Ihe whole locether, and none would „ acaciaa [SftHdml; five for (the) pianka of the one rib- 

,.., i.„'o^,u -.,. ;. -Tha. .ta dta.„.hn. ., «■ ■«' i',;;.",r A"! ;;.• isff ass 

theaanctnaiy, as nbtsiucd from the" boarda that formed ban for (the) plunka of {the) rib [JIank] of the taber- 

ita walla, appear al Brat aiebt 10 be one thing, while »■ naclo for the Ihigha (rMrj aeawnid [iw-*]. And ibe 
thoae oblaiueil fmra the dimensiona of Che curtaitia "''''"• ''" '" "B"' '"'''''''' "' """ P'»">" <»*"l" ^ 

whieh covered i. appear to give another. The appar- in-'1=?,be M(.»3 throURb) from the end to the end. 

ent discrepancy ia, however, easily expUined, aa weehaU *•■ A"*|J?1 t'hSSahaU make^of?inj5d"?aifho''lMr'io«'f 
pceeently ae^, ami never would have occurred to any one ,„, ihe%a™ ; and thou ah^lt overVay the°bara 0?1™> 

who had lived long under canvas or waa familiar with gold. 

the exiirencieaof tent architecture ^- And Ihou ahalt rear the Ubemacle like 11> Judg- 

Tbe following doae tr.nsUtion of Exotl.xxvi will Bet ""' "^"" ""'''' ' ™"^* '"" «" '" "" monntain. 

the aubject generally before the rea.lec. We have indi- i_ j.^ ^^^ (^jtn) was a Urge reetangubr enclowire, 

«ted,_by the n« of ^^U.. marked varmtmna from the ^^^ ^^ ,^^ ^^^^ -^ ^.^^ .^ ^^^^^^ « ^^^ ^„ ^,,^ 

* " Ilsdimenaionsaregiven more than once, beinjc lOOcubiCa 

1. And the tabernacle (';3ld'<3)(hon (halimakfl— ten pn> king and 6U broad. Ita oonatructiiin wu veiy nmple, 

tB<DB:[wleiedl<nei>,Hn[lVlo1etandpDrpleanilcrinii-on being eompoaed of a frame of four aides of diatinct pU- 

of owlilnenl; ehemlia.workoriiui) artfilcer.tbou ^hili Ura, with curtains hung upon them. In other wonia, it 

by tbecnblt,ihe one curtain; ouf m.-nniLrc rpli:>ll I^hi kamdii, and atill universslly uaed to enclose the pn- 

i. toall thecurialoB. Flventihe cnrLniur. -IhiII liv J.iln- vate apartments of imporUnt peraonaBea. The pillars 

iDgeach 10 Its fellow, and fl.eofLI„.™rt.,m,J,.,,,„,j; wereprobablvof(.hittim-wo<»i(thatia,lhede«ettacac>a% 

«. aaeh to Its fellow. And Ihon ah»n l.-..],s (5sai , light, close-grained, imperishable wood, easilv taking 

ofvlolel upon (the) edge ofthe one cnrtalufrcm (the) „» , flnc natural nolish thoiiirh it ia nowhere directlv 

end1nibeIolnlnK,anir»oahaltthonniakeln(the)B(« . ,.' . . , ™ Pn""'.;""'*" "■ " nownere oirectiy 

B, <ifllur~ltnotlcHrlain ill the lecmJ Joining :1lttjl.^.pi inlimaled of what material they were; they were Ave 

■ball Ihon make )n the cinecnrta<n,and fllij loopg Bhalt cubits in height (auHlcient tn prevent a person from loak- 

Ihou make lu(tbe) end oftbecuruln which is In the i„g over them into the encloaure), but their other di- 

ueond joimnj, the leapt itanding tnmiiti {niSaj?'?) mensions are not given, so that we cannot be sore 

C iheonetolnfellnw, Aud Ihoueballmake tlfi; tac'hes whether Ihev were round (Ewald) or four-comeiwl 

lO"!!?! of sol's, and tlum Shalt Join the curtains one 10 (IIHhr), probably the latter. At the botlom these pi I- 

Its feiluw wtih the lachea, and the Ubemacle aball be lars were protecleil or shod by sockete of bran (copper), 

T. Ao^ -h"o Bhnlt make eartalna of goals (■ hair) for a ^' '" "•", 1"'" "7 •" "/ *''"''" ^^™ "*'<«" *<« 

U»t ihnJK apon the tsberoacle, eleven curtalna .hall nierely for protection, and perhaps ornamenl, or .f they 

a thon make .hem. fThe) length of the one curtain «!»» helped lopve stabih.y to the p.lUr. Inthe tatljer 

(shall be) thirty by the cnbll. and {the) breadth four by ^^t we may cimceive the socket to hare been of the 

the cnlilictlie one cnrtaln: one meaaure (shall be) 10 ehape of a hollow wedge or pointed funnel driven iatt* 

V. (Ibe) eleven cunalna. And thou ahaltiolu dvoof the ihi^ umund andlhen the end nf thj- nillar iHiHh«ul dnirii 

enrtilnswpBraWly.and-lxotlhecnnaineseparalely! |ne 8""na."''t'>en We end 01 tne piUar pushed down 

and tkou Shalt dnnhle Ihe alith enrtalD Aivnnfa (Ihe) """ '" cavity; or they may have been simply plates 

l«k lUrelhHitoftheMiit. And tbousballmakeOflrlixini laid on (heground.wilh a holefor the receptionof the 

npoD (the> eimta (ht oob ctuUn-tba andinoal In tenoned fool of the pillar, as in the case of (he " boanla" 

of copper— llflj ; and ahali bring the laches In the Biniclure firomese, vii. the eommon articles of lent ai- 

loopi, and ihon Blialt]..ln the lent, and (it) tball Iw chileelure, ropes and pins (ExoU. xniv, IR). At the 

Un\-tatr^1h"e"^''eri%.'^,;^iu JlLThilirnpo^^^ ^P >he.e_pillar« bad a capital or head (xxxvtii, 17, 

et the body of the pillar was plated with any metal ia 
not said. Onneeled with the heail of the pillar were 
two other articles, Aoob, and things called D'^pltJrt. 





CurtaiD-wall of CfUrt. (DeUila BOggesied by A)st>yriau i»cul|iiure«.) 

going up the end, wc should count ten pillars and spaces 
as end, but consider the north-west comer pillar not as 
eleventh of the end, but first of the north side ; and so 
on. In this way wc gain sixty pillars and as many 
spaces, and have each space exactly 5 cubits. 






'Vft raviuf'.- 




mm ^Vv*- wuy** ** 

ckaJuJdm, rendered **dllets,'' i. e. 
oroamental chaplets in relief 
round the pillar (so Ewald, AUtr- 
tkimer, p. 33o, note 5), but roost 
(ifobaUy meaning rodt (so Ge> 
seniuR. FUrst, and others), joining 
one pillar to another. These rods 
were laid upon the hookt*, and 
Mrved to attach the hangings to 
and suspend them from. The hooks and rods were 
itilver, though Knobel conjectures the latter must have 
been merely plated (^Exod, p. 27«). The mode of ad- 
justing these hangings was similar to that of the door- 
way screens and " vail" described below. 

The circumference of the enclos- 
ure thua formed was 300 cubits, 
and the number of pillars is said to 
have been 20 + 20 + 10 + 10 = 60, 
which would give between every 
two pillars a space of ^^ = 5 cu- 
bita. There has been consider- 
able difficulty in accurately con- Curta»n-wall of Entrance to Conrt. (Details snggested by Assyrian scnlptnrcs.) 
ceiviDg the method adopted by 

the writer in calculating these pillars. This difficulty The hangings (D''?Pp, leloim') of the court were of 

ariaea from the ct>ruer pillars, each of which, of course, twined shesh ; that is, a fabric woven out of twisted yam 

belongs both to the side and to the end. It has been of the material called fheth. This word, which properly 

5oppoeed by many that the author calculated each one means irhite, is rendered by our version "line linen," a 

comer pillar twice; that is, considered it^hough one in rendering with which most concur, while some decide 

itaelf, as a pillar of the side and also as a pillar of the end. for cotUm, At all events, the curtains were a strong 

T^ia would make in all 66 actual pillars, and, of course, as fabric of this glancing white material, and were hung 

^^any spaces (Bahr, Knobel, etc.); that is, nineteen spaces upon the pillars, most likelv outside, though that is not 

cfiti each side, and nine on the end. Now since the side known, being attached to the pillars at the top by the 

-^aa 100 cubita and the end 50, this would give for each hooks and rods already described, while the whole was 

^ii\e space Vy*=^» *n^ ^«' «*«*» end space 'y»=55 cu- staved by pins and cords, like a tent. 

tjit»,ipace8 artificial in themselves and unlike each other. the entrance, which was situated in the centre of the 

\t « certainly most probable that the spaces of side and east end, and was twenty cubits in ext«nt, was formed 

eo^wereofexactly the same size, and that each of them ^ of a hanging (technically TiD^, ma^dk) of "blue, 

^ as some exact, and no fractional, number of cubits. . . i . . ^ * • ' J ,. , , . 

Thcdifficulty may be completely removed by assuming P"T^^' «"^ «^'^^^*' »"^ ^"« ^^*"^^ **"«"' ^^'^^ "^ '*»« 

the distance of 5 cubiu to each space, and counting as ^i^*!"^, rokim" (A. V. "needle-work"). The last word 

in the accompanying ground-plan. Thus, since each has usually been considered to mean embroidertr with 

Hde wai 100 cubits, this needs twenty spaces. But the needle, and the curtain fancied to have had figures, 

twenty spaces need twenty-one pillars. So that, sup- fiowers, etc., of the mentioned colors wrought into it. 

poang OS to start from the south-east comer and go Hut such kinds of work have always a " wrong" side, 

>^ng the south side, we should have for 100 cubits and, roost probably, taking into account the meaning 

twoity-ooe pillars and twenty spaces ; but of these we of the won! in Arabic, and the fondness of the Arabs at 

should count twenty spaces and pillars for the south this day for striped blankets, the word means " weaver 

side, and call the south-west comer pillar, not the twen- of striped cloth," and the hanging is to be conceived as 

ty-fint pillar of the side, but the first of the end« Then woven with lines or stripes of blue, purple, and scarlet 















-B— a 












» It 

H « W W 






















* It It IT U It 14 





Flan of the Taberaacle and Its Court (From Rlggenbach's Mo«aisehe SUfUhiitU.) 

(9fm omliMiD. Small Mdorar^-tlM Tstwrn«e1« (rortrsd). «. Ark in th« Holjr of Holl«. *. Tsblt nf >how-brMd. r. Ooldm 
d. Altar af lanwM It, «, 4 bataf la tha holy plM*. «. Lavar, or basin for wMhlnc. /. AlUr of bumi-offtrinfc- 9- Ganff or ledfa 
lUi that Aw tka piiMla ta ttaai npoa. A. Sloptng Meant ttom the groand to thli ledga. (Tbt laat two artidea arc in tba coart.) 


M the while ground of lirii (Knobel, Keil, Flc). In 
other ward), the viitti, or longicudinil Ihreads, wu of 
while linm, while the mw/ nude croas-tttn (which 
would hsDg venicall)') or brilliuitly dyed wool in  
Itehie thread. The; were merely spun and woven, 
without gold or embroidered figures. 

The fumitare of the court coaginled of the altar or 
humt-oflfcring and the laver. Thcae are lufficieiitly 
deacribed under their appropriate headings. See Al- 
tah; Laves. What concemi ub ia the position of 
tbem. In all probability, the tabernacle proper atood 
with its entrance exactly in the middle n( the court. 
that is, Hfly eubiu from the entrance of the court; and 
Tery poaribly the altar of bumt-offering atood, again, 
midway between the dvot or the court and that of thi 
tabernacle, i. *. twenty-five cubita frorn each, and some- 
where in the twrnty-Hve cubits between the altar and 
the Ubemacle atood' the laver (Joaephus, AM. iii, 6, 2). 

■2. The TatermirU »f»//:— Fultowing the method pur- 
sued with the outer court, we begin with the walls. 
These were built uf boards, or, rather, planks (O^V^p, 
ktrtukim), in close contact with each other. They wen- 
of shittim-wood, overlaid with gold on both sides, teii 
cubita high and one and a half cubit broad, their 
thickness being nowhere given. From the foot of each 
plink came out two "tenona" (jvn'^, gadSlh-'bABiit). 
which must not be conceived as connectin|; the planka 
with each other laterally, as if there corresponded to a 
tenon in one plank a mortise iu another; they were for 
coanecting each particular plank with the ground, and 
must be conceived as two weilge - shaped or pointed 
pieces (probably of copper, or perhaps of silver), pro- 
jecting from the lower end of the plank. These lenanb 
were thrust into silver socketn, of which two were pre. i 
paced for each plank, each socket being the welgbtofa ^ 


• 1 I 





heir I 

tident of Hirer. Whether these sockets were wedgc- 
ibape<I ur piiinteil, and themselves went into the gmuuU, 
or whether they were mere foot-plates for the plank, 
with holes for the tenons to pass through into the giounil 
(thelast more prubable), is luit intimated. I'mf. Paine 
has ingeniously suggested Ihc thickness of these sock- 
ets as one sixth of a cubit [sec Hk-trih/kiy], and like- 
wise their form (half  cubit sipiare'), as in the aitjoiii- 
ing cut. lie also calculates from this mzg of the sock- 
ets, or fiiflt-pUtes, that the planks should be (as Jose- 
phus sBvs) one third of a span, I e. one uxth of a cu- 
bit thick (which is 

Bottom of the Comer Planks,sh(i 
. as resting upon the Basoa (acc( 
log to PSne), 


thick, as the accompa- 
nying cut will show ; 
but we can hardly 

Plauka on tbelr Bases {sccording lo the common Tlaw). 
tet deeply into the ground, aa there was no lateral strain 
upon them, and the whole weight of the building kept 
them firmly in their place. Their only object was to 
keep the bottom of the planks level and even. The up- 
per ends of the planks, however, needed to be kept from 
separating, as ihcy wouLI certainly do under the trie 
tion of the star-corda fore and afu Hence the tenona 
mentioned in Kxod. xxri, 17 are carefully distinguisheil 
from those (already described) referred to in ver. 19; 
and they are designated (without any sockets asalgned 
to them) by a peculiar term, ni3^:^13, <aethullab6lk. 
which occurs here only. It is regarded by Gesenius as 
radically signifying noltAtd, but he underatanda it here 
as meaningjoinsl, a sense in which FUrst and Muhlau 
emphatically concur, to the exclusion of that adoptcil 
by the Sept. iairririmivTis) and the A. V. {'-set in 
order''). Prof. Paine refeis the term to the 'op of the 
planks, and rendera it ciuped, understanding a separate 
plate with holes corre- 
aponriinu to pins or ten- HZ Zr~\ 

ons (jHobably all of cop- [^ WJ 

pet) in the upper end 
of the planks likewise, 
aa in the annexed cut. 
in essential pro- 

— — ^ seems to (Kcordlua to Paine). 

h.nib»8bl. N„.r. ,,..u» .,.~w.,w- 
thelese, aa he privately 

informs na. he has since abandoned thia diatinction be- 
tween the top and bottom temins, and in his forthcom- 
ing aecond edition he will dispense with the clasps. 
The long middle bar, if pinned to each end plank, 
would subserve a similar purpose. Something of this 
sort is perhaps intimated by thetoftmff (n^^ 513, Ilia V) 
of F.xnd. xxvi. 28; xxxri,33. The roof-curtains would 
likewise assiat in balding the planks together. 

Of these boanbi, which, being one and a half cubit, 
I. c. about two and a half feet broad, mutt have been form- 
ed of several smaller ones jointed together, there were 
twenty on the north and twenty on the south aide, thus 
making each side the length of thirty cubita. For the 
west end were made six boards, yielding nine cubits, 
iml in addition two boards for the comera (Exod. xxvi,' 
ti sq.), making in all eight boards and twelve cubits; 
■nd as the eml is thought (so Josephus, Atit. iii, 6, 3) 
lo have been ten culrits (proportionate to that in Solo- 
[noii's Temple, I Kings vi, i. W), this would imply that 
each comer plank added half a cubit to the width, but 
nothing to the length, the measurements being taken 
inside. Were the planks supposed a cubit thick, which 
is the usual calculation (but an extravagant one on ac- 
count of the weight), the remaining cubit of the comer 
(ilank would exactly cover Che thickneas of the side 
plank. The description given of the corners is exceed- 
ingly perplexing, and the diversity of 0|Hniun is natural- 
lygreat. ThedilficultieBallIteinExDd.xxiv,24. Itgoes 
on, " they shall be coupled together ;" rather, tbey shall 
be "twins," or "twinned" (BCXn, loSmimy. "They" 
lividenlly refers to the comer planks; and, setting a£de 
ihe idea that they make twins logether, which cuDot 



two-legged, it 

ril7 (omething to the leiiglh, 

and thiu deatroys tbe mea*- 

-d of lb* TMk- a therefore U. reggrd the end 

R.i=inw!!?~^ ^^ oftheoomerpl.nt,,,Mlwin, 

I, e, coneipondiitg to the wile 

ptjmk a, Fnrtbei, each corner plank must be "entire 

(C^ari, fmiHiin) at or an ila head" (A. V., with many 

OtJien. contiiden ItotmSm tbe Mmeu (uamini). Kuw if 

n the top or the plank, but [he edge or 



Br plank of the end wall, though prolonging the aide 
ti^aW oulaide, must not be cut away or alo^ied, fur exain[>le, 
S r* th« iiuhion indicated by the dotted lines e d. Once 
i»»«i«, the word« are adiled " unto one ring," accurately 
•^ unto the Gnt ring." Keil ( loc.) underMandi 
cl^at '■the two comer boardaat the back were to coneiR 
of two piece* joined together at a right angle, sn aa to 
TnTja, u double boards, one single whole rmm the lop to 
>Ii« bottooi." and that "one ring wag placed half-way 
"P "le upright board in the corner or angle, in such a 

entire length of the walla, might faalen into it from 
'^1> the aide and back." Murphy {Conimfnl. ad loc.) 

which » 

But r 


mwi of b*n, the top and bottom on' 
(idea being in two pieces. Jonephua'a account ia wnne- 
what different : " Everj- one," he Mys (/1b(. iii, G, 3), 
'of the pillars or bnarda had a ring of gold affixed to 
twards, into which were inaert«d bars gilt 

b gold, . 

h of ll 

:!a; the head of oi 

together the b 
cut below, . ning into another after the manner oi one tenon iniiert- 
ni to us to I ed into another. But for the wall behind there waa 
:t all the re- | only one bar that went through all the boarda, into 
rementa of which one of tlie enda of the bats on both sides waa in- 
case in the Letted." The whole edilicc was doubtless furthet stayed 
iplp't and by ropes attached to teiit-pina in the ground from knnbi 
■t effeciual on the outside of the planks. (.See below.) 
Comer Board (according to Mnrphy). ■"•"""■ 'rhe 3. ftmpery o/ihe r«ier»aefr.-The wooden structure 
ring and staples waa completed as well as adorned by fuui kinda of 
It the top and bottom of the corner planks formed a hangings, each of which served a ' ' ' 
lwg«, so that the adjoining planks were tatirairJ, or car- ful purpose. 
lieti together as one. That the end plonks went in be- | (1.) Tkr Aon/— The drsl ip 
i«een the last side planks (a« neatness and usage in whether the rouf was Hal, like that of Oriental liounes, 

n dictated), making the in 
ihe tahnnacle the full Iwelve cn- 
lils, i> probable from the length 
■f thi imf-oinains preseiilly de- 
bribed, il they were longitndinal- 
H awinged, 

Tbt Hill, or planka, in addition 
■"'.li»ttalBLity they may ' 

width of ; or peaked i 

^wd below; but 

<* "thni^ih Uk heart of tba 

*"^ (KRoibMib), aod others 

'oiidca Walls of the Tabernacle. (From Pains,) 

•"■"^.r «* 


viii, 13]) for ihe tenr (bnkb), apparenUy as completing on which likewiae hung the side-curtains, shows both, 

the canvas or tent-like pirt of the structure. ^?*' '*>«»! latter were thus completed by a drapery on 

SaalschUtz {ArchdoL der Hdtrder, ii, 321 sq.) repre- f^« remaining side of each room (it will be remem- 
sents the hangings of the tabernacle as suspended in ^V^ that the front knobs likewise correspond m po- 
the form of a ten^ but in a peculiar form. He thinks «t»on to that of the doorway screen ), and likewise 
.1- ...»;^ I *u 1 J u *v^ proves the character and situation of the taches them- 
the 131»p was properly the space enclosed by the ^i^es (not hooks in the roof, which at the eaves was at 
boards of acacia-wood ; and that these formed the outer j^^^ g^.^ ^.^j^jj^ ^y^^ ^be top of the " vail"). As the 
wall, so to speak, unthin which the tabernacle, the bnx « yail," like the two outer screens, was stretched tight 
properly so called, was reared in the form of a peaked across the space it occupied, it was of course made ex- 
tent. Of this the byssus curtains, he supposes, formed actly long enough fur that purpose ; thus, too, the em- 
the internal drapery, while the goats*-hair curtains, cov- broidered figures (which, if of life-size, were of just the 
ered with leather and tdchash skins, formed the outer height to extend upright across the stuff— about four 
covering. The whole structure would thus present the cubits) would show to the finest effect, not being ia 
appearance externally of a peaked tent, reared within a folds like the interior side-curtains, 
high palisade of wood, and open at the front. This rep- It is not a little singular that the exact position of 
resentation has the advantage of allowing the omamen- the "vail" is not otherwise prescribed than by the 
tal curtain, and also the gilded boards with their gold- above requirement; nor is the length of either of the 
en rings and silver sockets, to be fully visible. There apartments which it separated given, although together 
seems, however, at least one fatal objection to it, viz. they amounted to thirty cubits. On the supposition 
that it does not fulfil the condition that the joinings of (sustained by the analogy in the Temple) that the Most 
the curtains shall be over the pillars that separate the lloly was an exact square, i. e. (according to our det«r- 
holy from the most holy place— a condition of essential mination above) twelve cubits each way, the knob or 
significance, as we shall see. tachc opposite which it would hang must have been 

(4.) The doorways of the tabernacle were formed or that which stood in the forward edge of the eighth 
rather closed in a manner altogether analogous to the plank from the rear of the building. Whether it was in 
entrance of the exterior court, namely, by a vertical front of or behind the pillars is not certain; but the for- 
screen or sheet of cloth made of heavy material, and mer is probable, as it would thus seem a more effectual 
(in one case) still further stiffened by embroidery, simi- barrier from without. The end pillars apparently sttNid 
lar to the piece of tapestry that hangs at the portal of in immediate contact with the side walls, both in order 
modern cathedrals in Italy, or (to speak more Oriental- to sustain the ends of the vail, and to leave a wider s|)ace 
ly) like the fiap at the opening of a modem tent and between them for ingress and egress. The vail was sus- 
the carpet or camlet partition between the male and fe- pended directly upon golden pins (A. V. " hooks'") in- 
male apartments of a Bedawin abode. Of these there serted in the face of the pillars near their summit ; and 
were two, each of which is denoted by a distinctive thus differed (as did likewise the screen of the door of 
term rarely varied. the tabernacle) from the hangings of the outer court, 

(a.) The front opening (nno, pethach ; A. V. " door") which hung upon silver rods {\. V. " fillets'*) (doubtless 

was closed sufficientlv high to prevent a passer-by from ^V ^^^ running on the rods) resting on similar pins or 

1^1- ;„ 1 - «4ul.. .:.. ," /^^--s „.«.^z. . »^M^ «• "hooks.'* The reason of this difference seems to have 

looking m, bv a " hanging (710^. /iMwa*, a jrcrecn, or . ,, , , , , , .u —^ mi 

*. ' ' , r.» '.»/^T c u been that the greater space between the court piUar» 

"covering' from the sun [Pna. cv, 39] or from obser^'a. ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^mit animals as well as men) wouki have 

tion [2 Sam. vii, 19; Isa. xxn. 8 J) of matenals exactly ^^^^ ^^ ^^^.j, ^^ j,, ^,,g hanging without interme- 

like that of the entrance to the court already described, digte support, which could only be furnished by the 

suspended upon five copper-socketed and gilded pillars rods and attachments along the upper edge. 
(C^TIiay) of acacia-wood by means of golden hooks 4. Supphmeniary A'c/r.— Since the above was in type 

(D-1% /w spoken onlv of these and those at the outer ^« have reconsidered a few points concerning the struct- 

'^ X 1- I. 1 1 ' I i-i ex. u • u^ ure of this edihce which admit of further elucidation, 

entrance), the whole being probably of the same height, . ^.^^ , Co,7ier-^mr</^."-The fact that the dimen- 

proiwrtions, and style m other respects as the exterior jj^,^^ ^^ j,,^ ^^^^^^^ ^„^^ j,^^ building itself were in deci- 

one just referred to. Ihe number of these pillars is ^^j proportions, and that in the temple subsequentlv 

signiticant: as there were^Arf of them, one must nece^ ^^^^^ f^^ jl,^ ^^e purpose, which maintained multi- 
sarily stand m the centre, and this one was probably j^ ^^ ^^^^^ dimensions, the holv and most holv were 

carried up so as to support one end of the ridge-pole, ^^^^^,^, ^^^^^^^ ^^^y^^^^ ^,,^^ (, ^^^^ ^j^ g), leads «► 

which we have above seen is presumable. A corre- gtroiiglv to tlie presumption that in the tabernacle 

spondmg pillar m the rear of the tent may be inferred ^j^^^ ^'^^^^ ^.^^ ^^^ ^^^^i^g ^jj^^ ^^at we are disposed 

to sustain the other end, and possibly one or more in ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ arrangement adopted in the foregoing 

the middle of the building. discussion, which gives these apartments a width of 

(6.) A"vair(nD-^D,/jarfU-WA, «f7)«ra/»-tr, used only twelve cubius leaving for the holy place the irrt'gii- 

of this particular thing, sometimes [Exod. xxxv, 12; lar dimensions of eighteen by twelve cubits. Adopting 

xxxix, 34; xl, 21 ] with tlie addition of the previous the suggestion of Keil {Commentary, ad loc.) that the 

term for emphasis) divided the interior into two apart- corner-boards were constructed of two parts, forming a 

ments, called respectively the "holy place" and the right angle with each other, we have only to take a 

"most holy." This partition-cloth differed only from plank one and a half cubits wide, like all the others^ 

the exterior ones in being ornamented (perhaps on both divide it lengthwise into two portions, one four sixths 

sides; comp. 1 Kings vi, 29) with figures of cherubim and the other five sixths of a cubit wide, and fasten these 

stitched (probably with gold thread, i. e. strips of gold- together in that manner, in order to obtain the neeiied 

leaf rolled and twisted) upon it, apparently with the art half cubit necessary at each end of the rear, and allow 

of the embroiderer (nrn n^ria, the tco'rk of an artif- «"« wing of the corner-board to lap around the end of 

icer; A. V. "cunning work").'* "'ft was suspended upon ^^^ last sideboard, and cover the joint neatly and sym- 

four pillars preciselv like those of the door "hanging," metncally. as in the following figure. This Ust is the 

except that their soikcts were of silver. A special state- adjustment adopted by Brown {The TabemacU. f^ic 

ment of the text (Exod. xxvi, 33), "And thou shalt hang t^."^*' ^«' '-]• P'f >* l^"" J^^^^.'. *;1»J"S^^.T/^ '^ 
/ ^ » „ ! ;. .-- _ \. conjectures of Josephus (.4n/. in, 6, 3), Kalisch (Cow- 
up the vail under the taches' (PDIDn PK nnrjl ,;^,/«,.^, ad loc), and Von Gerlach {ibid.). His compli- 
B'^D'llsn rnn), evidently meaning that the pillars to ^ated arrangement of the sockets, however, is unneces- 
which its ends were to be attached were to be placed sary, as may be wen fn»m the following diagram, 
directly beneath the golden knobs opposite in the walls, The statement respecting these comer -planks in 


-- . :^^smmm 






*"^S'^. "SS- * ':;»,* •s"w '"'S.s ■« "r '■'- c» «" ; 





are, as might be expected, full of interest. As in a 
vision, which loses sight of all time limits, the temple 
of the tabeniacle is seen in heaven (Kev. xv, 5), and 
yet in the heavenly Jerusalem there is no temple seen 
(xxi, 22). In the heavenly temple there is no longer 
any vail; it is open, and the ark of the covenant is 
clearly seen (xi, 19). 

4. We cannot here follow out that strain of a higher 
mood, and it would not be prodtable to enter into the 
speculations which later writers have engrafted on the 
tirst great thought. Those who wish to enter upon 
that line of inquiry may find materials enough in any 
of the greater commentaries on the Epistle to the He- 
brews (Owen's, Stuart's, Bleek's, Tholuck's, Delitzsch's, 
Alford's), or in special treatises, such as those of Van 
Till {De Tabemac, in Ugolino, Thtsaurinff viii), Bedc 
(^ExposUio Myslica et M oralis Mosaici TabeniacuU )f 
Witsius ( IM Tabem, Ltvit, Mysttriis^ in the Miscell. 
JSacr,), Strange outlying hallucinations, like those of 
ancient rabbins, inferring from *' the pattern showed to 
Moflcs in the Mount" the permanent existence of a 
heavenly tabernacle, like in form, structure, propor- 
tions to that which stood in the wilderness (Leyrer, loc. 
cit,)f or of later writers whcf have seen in it (not in the 
spiritual, but the anatomical sense of the word) a /y/>e 
of humanity, representing the outer bodily framework, 
the inner vital organs (Friederich, Symb. dtr Mos, 
iitijllgkutte, in Leyrer, loc. cit,y and Kwald, Aherth, p. 
338), may be dismissed with a single glance. The 
Judaic and patristic opinion in the main, though not 
in the details, was advocated by BHhr in his Symholik 
(1837), in which he considered the tabernacle a symbol 
of the universe, the court representing earth, and the 
tabernacle, strictly so named, heaven, though not in a 
material sense, but as the place and instruments of (rod's 
revelation of himself. In bis work on the temple, ten 
years later, BUhr retracted much of his former theory, 
and advocated the opinion that the tabeniacle sym- 
bolized the idea of the dwelling of (lod in the midst of 
Israel Another view, which seems an exaggeration 
into unwarrantable detail of the true idea that each 
Christian is a temple of God, proceeds to adapt to the 
elements of human nature the divisions and materials 
of the tabernacle. Thus the court is the body, the holy 
place the soul, the holiest the spirit — true dwelling- 
place of (jiod. This might do very well as a general 
illustration, and was so used by Luther; but the idea 
has been fully developed and defended against the at- 
tack of BUhr bv Friederich in his 8ymb, der Mot, Sfi/i- 
9hu(te (Leips. 1841). 

5. Nevertheless, as the central point of a great sym- 
bolical and typical institute, the tabernacle necessarily 
possessed, both as a whole and in its contents, a sym- 
bolical and typical significance, which has been recog- 
nised by all orthodox interpreters. On this head, as we 
see above, much fanciful and unregulated ingenuity has 
been indulged ; but this must not induce us to neglect 
those conclusions to which a just application of the 
principles of typological inter{)retation conducts. 

(1.) Under the Old-Test, economy, the primary idea 
of the tabernacle was that of a dwelling for Jehovah in 
the midst of his people, and this was prominently kept 
in view in all the arrangements concerning the con- 
struction and location of the structure. '^Let them," 
said God to Moses, '* make roc a sanctuary that I may 
dwell among them" (Exod. xxv, 8; xxix, 45); when 
the structure was completed it was set up in the midst 
of the congregation, and there it always remained, 
whether the people rested or were on their march 
(Numb, ii) ; on it rested the cloud which indicated the 
Divine Presence, and which by Us quiescence or re- 
moval indicated the will of the Great Sovereign of Is- 
rael as to the resting or the removing of the camp 
(Exod. xl, 36-38) ; and to it the people repaired when 
they had sacrifice to offer to God, or counsel to ask of 
him (I^v. i, 3 ; Numb, xxvii, 2 ; Deut. xxxi, 14, etc.). 
As Judaism was strictly monotheistic, it knew but one 

sacred place where Jehovah was to be found. The 
holy of holies, which the apostle calls '* the second tab* 
ernacle" (Heb. ix, 7), was the appropriate residence of 
Jehovah as the God of Israel. In this the principal 
thing was the ark, in which was placed " the testimony*^ 
(nM"15), and which was covered by " the mercy-seat'* 
(n^bs). The testimony was the book of the law, and 
it was put into the ark as a witness against the people 
because of their sinfulness (Deut. xxxi, 26, 27). This 
symbolized the great truth that the first relation into 
which Jehovah comes with the sinner is that of a niler 
whose law testifies against the transgressor. But this 
testimony was hid by the mercy-seat, on which the 
blood of atonement was sprinkled by the high -priest 
when he entered within the vail, and on which the visi- 
ble emblem of Jehovah's presence — the shechinah be- 
tween the cherubim of glory— was enthroned; and in 
this there whs an emblem of the fact that the con- 
demning and accusing |K)wer of the law was taken away 
by the propitiatory covering which God had appointed. 
By all this was indicated the grand truth that the char- 
acter in which Jehovah dwelt among his people was 
that of a justly offended but merciful and propitiated 
sovereign, who, having received atonement for their 
sins, had put these out of his sight, and would remem- 
ber them no more at all against them (comp. Philo, De 
Vii, Mosis, bk. iii). 

In the first, or outer tabernacle, were the alur of in- 
cense, the table with the shew-brcad, and the golden 
candlestick. The first was symbolical of the necessity 
and the acceptableness of prayer, of which the smoke 
of sweet incense that was to ascend from it morning 
and evening appears to be the appointed Biblical 8>'m- 
bol (comp. Psa. cxli, 2 ; Luke i, 10 ; Kev. v, 8 ; viii. X 
4). The second was emblematical of the necessity of 
good works to accompany our devotions, the bread be- 
ing the offering of the children of Israel to their Divine 
King (Lev. xxiv, 8), and consecrated to him by the of- 
fering of incense along with it as emblematical of prayer. 
The third was the symbol of the Church, or people of 
God, the gold of which it was formed denoting the ex- 
cellence of the Church, the seven lamps its complete- 
ness, and the oil by which they were fed being the ap- 
propriate symbol of the Divine Spirit dwelling in his 
people and causing them to shine (comp. Zech. iv, 2, 3 ; 
Matt. V, 14, 16; Rev. i, 12, 20). 

In the fore-court of the tabernacle stood the altar of 
burnt-offering, on which were offered the sacrifices of 
the people, and the laver, in which the priests cleansed 
their hands and feet before entering Uie holy place. 
The symbolical significance of these is too well known 
to need illustration. See Offering ; Purification. 

(2.) Under the new dispensation, if we view the tab- 
ernacle as a general symbol of Jehovah's dwelling in the 
midst of his people, then that to which it answers can 
be no other than the human nature of our Lord. He 
was '*God manifest in the fiesh," ^Immanuel," Go<l 
with us, and in him "dwelleth all the fulness of the 
Godhead bcniily" (1 Tim. iii, 16 ; Matt, i, 28; Col. ii, 9). 
Hence John (i, 14), in speaking of his incarnation, says, 
*'Thc Word became flesh and tabernacled (tariyraMrr) 
among us," where the language evidently points to the 
ancient tabernacle as the symbolical residence of Jeho- 
vah ; and in the book of Revelation (xxi, 5) the same 
apostle, in announcing the final presence of Christ in 
his glorified humanity with his Church, uses the ex- 
pression, " The tabernacle of God is with men." From 
these statements of the New Test, we may hold our- 
selves justified in concluding that the ancient taberna- 
cle, viewed in its general aspect as the dwelling of Jeho- 
vah, found its antitype in the human nature of Christ, 
in whom God really dwelt. Viewed more particularly 
in its two great divisions, the tabernacle symbdized in 
its inner department the reign of Jehovah in his own 
majesty and glory, and in its outer department the aer- 
i vice of God by propitiation and prayer. In keeping 




with thus the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews 
tttches (as above seen) us to regani the outer part of 
the tabernacle as more strictly typical of the person of 
Jesus Chriat, and the inner of heaven, into which he 
has now entered. Thus he speaks of him (viii, 2) as 
DOW, in the heavenly state, ^*a minister of the true [i. c. 
THiL, aXi|3(v^. as distinguished from fyinbtUical] taber- 
nacle which the Lortl pitche<1, and not man," where the 
jUusion seems to be partly to the fact that Christ is in 
heaven, and partly to the fact that he ministers there 
in human nature. Still more explicit is the language 
ciflcd in ix, 11, where the writer, after speaking of the 
0tfU9erdotal services of the ancient economy as merely 
figurative and outward, adds, " But Christ having ap- 
f7«are(l as high-priest of the good things to come, by 
f^g^emns of the greater and more perfect tabernacle not 
fiT^ade with hands (that is. not of this creation^ nor by 
f^neans of blixHl of goats and calves, but by means of his 
^^'^n bloo4l, entered once (for all) into the holy place, 
^^ avinf; obtained eternal redemption for us." In inter- 
^^ reting this passage, we woulil follow those who take 
'^ 'W^e whole as far as the wonls ** his own blood" as the 
l,iuibject of the sentence, and consequently join the 
.^ pauses depending from ^id with vapaytvofiivoi^t and 
^^^>t with tiffiiX^fv; for it seems to he more natural to 
^^ «. appose that the writer should say that it was by means 
C a more perfect tabernacle and a holier sacrifice that 
l^ "hrist became the high-priest of spiritual blessings than 
r- Y sat it was bv these means that he entere<l into the holv 
f:»lace. The objection to this construction which dean 
^^^Iford urges, that "in that case ov6$ would be left with- 
«j»^jit any preceding member of the negation to follow," is 
of nn weight, for it burdens the construction he adopts 
M» mach as that he rejects, and is to be obviated in 
e\lher case by resolving ooii into xai ov (see Meyer's 
^oteon rer. 12). Assuming this to be the proper con- 
atnjclion of the passage, it seems clearly to represent 
^« human nature of our Ijord — that in which he made 
^Baoul an offering for sin— as the antitype of the an- 
<^wt tabernacle in which the high-priest offered sacri- 
^ while the heavenly world into which he had enter- 
•<i as a high-priest was typified by the holy place into 
^hich the Jewish high-priest entered to appear in the 
^bolical presence of Jehovah. For further confirma- 
tion of this mav be adduced Heb. x, 20, where the writ- 
w, speaking of the privilege enjoye<i by l)elievers under 
the new dispensation of approaching (iikI through Christ, 
«ys we can do it ** by a new and living way which he 
listb inaugurated {iviKalyitnf) for us through the vail 
(that is, his own flesh)." The allusion here is undoubt- 
^lytothe ancient tabernacle service, and the truth set 
f*^h is that as the high-priest of old went with sacrifi- 
^ blood through the vail into the holy of holies, so 
we, tt made priests unto (jSod by Jesus Christ, may ap- 
P'^hthe immediate presence of Jeliovah through that 
P^ which the Saviour has inaugurated for us by his 
^bio haman nature— that path by which he himself 
"^ pnoeded us as our great intercessor, and which is 
•^•rfreiij and living for us. There may be some rhe- 
^^ confusion in this passage, but the general idea 
*^ plainly this, that the body of Christ, slain for us, 
^fMsQi a passage, by means of sacrifice, into the pres- 
^|f^^ God, just as the first tabernacle with its services 
' afnided an entrance to the high-priest of old into the 
H^ of holies (see Hofmann, Sckr(f\btv?tis, II, i, 405 sr^. ; 
**«««?. a. ErfuUung, ii, 189 sq.). 
. '^f the symbolism, in a New-Test, sense, of the va- 
'^ Pirts and uses of the tabernacle, such as the altar 
^^"••^rifpwv, Heb. xiii, 10), the vail (raraireraiT/ia, 
*> ^\ the mercy-seat ({Kaariipiovt Rom. iii, 25), etc., 
** ^•ch word iu iu place. 

. 7 It b proper in this connection to refer to a specu- 
'itiTe hrpothesis which, though in itself unsubstantial 
^^''^ has been revived under circumstances that have 
PJ^ it prominence. It has been maintained by Von 
"^ tad Yatke (BUir, i, 1 17, 278) that the commands 
^ ^ dCKriptioos rdatlng to the tabernacle in the 

books of Mmes are altogether unhistorical, the result of 
the effort of some late compiler to ennoble the cradle of 
his people's history by transferring to a remote antiquity 
what he found actually existing in the Temple, modi- 
fied onlv so far as was necessarv to fit it into the the- 
ory of a migration and a wandering. The structure did 
not belong to the time of the Exodus, if indeed there 
ever was an Exodus. The tabernacle thus becomes the 
mythical aftergrowth of the Temple, not the Temple 
the historical sequel to the tabernacle. It has lately 
been urged as tending to the same conclusion that the 
circumstances connected! with the tabernacle in the 
Pentateuch are manifestlv unhistorical. The whole 


congregation of Israel are said to meet in a court which 
could not have contained more than a few hundred men 
((Jolenso, Pentateuch and Book of Joshua, pt. i, ch. iv, v). 
The numl)er of priests was utterly inadequate for the ser- 
vices of the tabernacle {ibifi, ch. i^x). The narrative of 
the head-money collection, of the gifts of the people, is 
full of anachronisms (jbid, ch. xiv). 

Some of these objections — tho»e, e. g., as to the num- 
ber of the first-born, and the disproportionate smallness 
of the priesthood, have been met by anticipatitm in re- 
marks under Pkii*>»t and Lrvitel Others bearing upon 
the general veracity of the Pentateuch history it is im- 
possible to discuss here. See Pentatkltii. It will be 
sufficient to notice such as bear immediately upon the 
subject of this article. (1.) It may be said that this 
theory, like other similar theories as to the histor>' of 
Christianity, adds to instead of diminishing difhculties 
and anomalies. It may be possible to make out plausi- 
bly that what purports to be the first perioii of an insti- 
tution is, with all its documents, the creation of the sec- 
ond ; hut the question then comes. How are we to explain 
the existence of the second ? The world rests upon an 
elephant, and the elephant on a tortoise, but the footing 
of the tortoise is at least somewhat insecure. (2.) What- 
ever may be the weight of the argument drawn from 
the alleged presence of the whole congregation at the 
door of the tabernacle tells with equal force against the 
historical existence of the Temple and the narrative of 
its dedication. There also, when the population num- 
bered some seven or eight millions (2 Sam. xxiv, 9),. 
"all the men of Israel" (1 Kings viii, 2), "all the con- 
gregation" (ver. 5), *' all the children of Israel" (ver. 63 ) 
were assembled, and the king " blesseil" all the congre- 
gation (ver. 14, 55). (3.) There are, it is believeil, un- 
designed touches indicating the nomadic life of the wil- 
derness. The wood employed for the tabernacle is not 
the sycamore of the valleys nor the cedar of Lebanon, 
as afterwards in the Temple, but the shittim of the Si- 
naitic peninsula. See Si iittaii-tkkb; Shittim. The 
abundance of fine linen points to»Eg^'pt, the seal or dol- 
phin skins ("badgers" in the A.V., but see Gesenius, 
s. V. ^nn; to the shores of the Red Sea. See BAiHiKic 
The Levites are not to enter on their office till the age of 
thirty, as needing for their work as bearers a man's full 
strength (Numb, iv, 23, 30). Afterwards, when their 
duties are chiefly those of singers and gatekeepers, they 
were to begin at twenty (I Chron. xxiii, 24). Would 
a later history, again, have excluded the priestly tribe 
from all share in the structure of the tabernacle, and 
left it in the hands of mythical persons belonging to 
Judah, and to a tribe then so little prominent as that of 
Dan? (4.) There remains the strong Egyptian stamp 
impressed upon well-nigh every part of the tabernacle 
and its ritual, and implied in other incidents. See 
Kkazkn Sekpknt ; Lkvitk; Priest; Ukim ani> Thum- 
MiM. Whatever bearing this may have on our views 
of the things themselves, it points, beyond all doubt, to 
a time when the two nations had been brought into 
close contact, when not jewels of silver and gold only, 
but treasures of wisilom, art, knowledge, were "bor- 
rowed" by one people from the other. To what other 
period in the history before Samuel than that of the 
Exodus of the Pentateuch can we refer that intercourse ? 




When wag ll likely ibal » 

keeping it 
have iilopled 8< 

"B»"'« nfiglilh.rii.R 

with iliSlcull}' 

lions, w 

implinled ritual fnim  ayileoi 
M alien lo lU own/ The ficla which, when nriied by 
Spencer, «ith ot wiihuut a hiWile |iut]ioh, were de- 
niiunced >■ ilariiif* anil i1aiit;eTaua aud uuwitling, are 
nnw Men lo be wiLnenm tu the anliiguity uTthe religion 
or Israel, anil so to llie wbatanlial tnith of the MoMic 
hiMory. They are uted a> auch by Ihcolugiaiia who in 
variowi degreet enter Ihrir jiruleit againat the more 
ile«triiclive crilicistn of our dwii time (.Hengatenberg, 
Jigstl'iKilllif B-Hitio/Hatrii Stanley, Jnrui CAurcA, 
IcLi. \y). (0.) We may, for a moment, put an imagi- 
iiaiy cane. Let us suppove that the rCLiirils uf the Olil 
Teal. ha<I given us in 1 aud 2 Sam. a hiatuT}' like tbat 
-which men now aeek to subalitute for what ia actually 
given, bad represented Samuel aa the tint great preach- 
er or the worship or EUnhim, Gad, or aume later |>Tophet, 
as inlmducing for the tint time the name and uromhii) 
of Jehovah, and that the Ulil Test, began with thi» 
(Colenso, pt. ii, ch. xxi). Let ua then suppose that 
vitae old papyrus, fresbly discovered, alowly deciphered, 
gave us tlic whole or tlie greater part of what we now 
find in Exodus and Xumbera, that there was thus given 
an explanation both of the actual condition of the peo- 
ple and of the Eg}-ptian element so largely iatenninglrd 
Kith their rituaL Can we not imagine will) what jubi- 
lant zeal the bonki of Samuel would then have been 
"critically examined," what incoiuialeiiciea would have 
Jiecn detected in lhem,how eager luen woukl have keen 
:l had bail credit given him for a 

vork which w 

:he, b 

the founiler or the polity and 
labemacle on Ziuii, inatead of coming fresh from David'a 
creative mind, bad been preceded by the humbler tab- 
ernacle in the wilderuesa? 

The objectioD raised againat the Irulhruliiess of the 

entire congregatiun of 600,000 is aaid t« have been con- 
vened at the dour of this small sttuctnre (Lev. viii) is 
readily obviated by the natural interpretation that only 
the principal persons stood immediately near, while Ibe 
multitude easily vieweii the ceremonies from a conven- 
ient dblance iliiikt. The t:zv<iui of Iirail, p. III). 

VI. Liltrafart.—Reaulxt the commentaries on Exodus 
ad lor., see UHhr, WyNiMtt d. dmu. full, i, &6 sq. ; Lund, 
IHtjiiJ. lleiiiifliaiiir daiyrtttlll (liamb. 100.^, 17SS); 
Van Til, foBi«™(. A Tabenifir. Hot. i^ltoni. 17U ; abio 
in Ugulino, Tkttaur. \:,l. viii) : Cuiirad, De Tubmacali 
MottM tUractura rl Fij/ara (Offenbach, 1713); Laniy, 
JM Tabtnumlo fWerii <niris, IT*)); Tympe, Taber- 
Btieuli e ifoHUmtntii DtKiiptia (Jena, IT3I); Carpiov, 
Appiir.p.HBin.; Kelanl, .4 a/tf. Suit. i, 3-5 ; Scbacbt, 
AHimadr.aJJhii. AMiq.ii.iSl sq.: U'AquinC [Phil.], 
Du Tabemade (Paris, 1628-14); Ueioelii I/utiia- 
rwnM, ii, 97 sq.; llillii Macelhiura Sarni (Amii. 17M), 
\i. 339 si|.-, Ilavius, I>e tit qua rz Arahiii in unim 7*11- 
iermirHli/urniHl P/lila ( Vltra> i;a.1, ed. J. M. f^hrijckh, 
lips. 1765): Kecchiti, -,S:£an (Maiilua, 17T6); Vrie- 
nrael, IM AvUio adgli Tali'n'iin'li (France. 1745); 
Meyer, ^Ar/ilru'uH^, p. 262 aq.; Lanzi [Michelangelo], 
La SaCTU ScrUlara lUuilrala con Mamim. f'tnieo Ai- 
tiri fd. Kgiziani (Kuma, IKiT, fol.) ; Xeumauii, Mr ^Hfii- 
4ii(M(Uvl ha, 1861); Friederieh, SsmhA. d. mor. Sli/iihiille 
(Leips. ItMl); Kurtz, in tin Slud. n. Kiil. IKU, ii, 80b 
>q.i Riggeubach, Die mot. mifltiSae (Basel, IWS. 
11(67); Soltau, Vftli of Iht TabtntatU (Lan<L 1865); 
Paine, rA« T'airniudr.TVmp'i-.etc. (Host. 1861); Kitin, 
The Taberaade and ill Farmtvre (Lund. 1849): Kmp- 
aun, Tgp. Chura^tr of the labentacU (Edinb, 1862); 
Brown, Ike Tabernadt, etc. (iUd. 1871, 1873, Hvo). 

TADEBNAC1.E is a name given to certain chapels 
<« meeting-housea in England erected by llr. White- 
Held, and lo similar places of worabip reared by Robert 
Haldane for the accommodation of a few large congre- 
gations in Scotland, out uf which have chiefly been 

Stone Tabernacle at Kiniuie, Aberdeenshire, 
formeil the present cburcliea of Congregational dissent- 

Tubrnuirle is 


portions of churches, etc. : I. A niclie nr hovel fi>r an 
image. 2. An anibijr on the right side of ibe allar, nr 
behind it. for the reservation of tbe host, chrism, and 
oil for the aick. 3. A throne carried like a liner on ihe 
shoulders of Spanish priests In the proceiwiun of CorpHi 
Vkriili, and supporting the host. 4. A small lempla 
over the central part of an altar for the reaenaiion of 
tbe eucharist, contained in the pyx, anil uOcn decorated 
with a crown of three circlets. Its earliest form was a 
coffer of wood, or a little arched receptacle; ibrn it be- 
came a lower of gold, or of circular sha[ie, being a cas- 
ket for the chalice and palen, in fact a dbtfrium. In 
the 15th century Ihe tabernacle lH?caine a mafcnilicent 
piece of funiiliirc over or on Ibe left i-ide of the high-al- 
tar, with statues, towers, lidiage, bullrenirii. and superb 
work, aa at Greniilile, HI. John Maurjeniie, I^aii, Tour- 
nav, and XuremberK, the latter sixly-fonr foet high, aud 
ofwhiteslone. Sec t^^tiuiiiLt'H ; Dovk; Pvx. 

.Tabernaclea, tiik Fkant uf , 

great annual fesiivsls. the other Iv 

le third nl 

h the w 

before the Lord in ' 
celebration of Che 
in-gathering of all Ihe fruits of Ihe year, and in gen- 
eral import as well aa time corresponded to the modem 
Tiiniltii^viiig seasiMi. See Febtivai.. 

L Kamn and lArir 5^>lcariaR. — Thia festival is 
called-1. niseri in, Cha-j kot-Svkk£th ; Sept. io(trii 
atririiv, Ihf Fatiral a/ Tmli ; Va\g./eria lubenmculo- 
rHM,- A.V. (Ar /'n(t(a/7'i(irnHiWirj(2Cbron. viii, 13; 
F^ra iii, 4; Zech. xiv, 16, 18, 19); mnyomnia (John 
vii, 2; JosephuB, .-inf. viii, 4, 6); sinrMu (Pbib, Ik 
Srpl. $ 24); q irn|i'.> (Plutarch, Sympoi. ir, 6, 2); be- 
cause every laraclite waa commanded to live in taber- 
nodea during it* coulinuanc* (camp. Lev. uiii, 43). 


(Numb, xxix, 36-38). The sacrifices, therefore, were 
to be like those of the seventh new moon and the Great 
Day of Atonement. Being, however, attached as an 
octave to the Feast of Tabernacles, the Sabbatical rest 
and the holy convocation, which properly belong to the 
seventh day of the Feast of Tabernacles, are transferred 
to it, and hence the two festivals are frequently joined 
together and spoken of as one composed of eight days. 
There is only one instance on record of this festival be* 
ing celebrated between the entrance into the Promised 
Land and the Babylonian captivity (1 Kings viii, 2; 2 
Chron. vii, 8-10 with Neh. viii, 17). No trace of any 
exposition of the Pentateuchal enactments with regard 
to this festival is to be found till we come to the post- 
exilian period. 

2. The Period from the Return from Babylon to the 
Destruction of the Temple, — In the account of the first 
celebration of this festival after the return of the Jews 
from the Babylonian captivity, the concise Pentateuchal 
injunction is expanded. Not only are the localities 
specified in which these booths are to be erected, but 
additional plants are mentioned, and the use to be 
made of these plants is stated. The Jews, according to 
the command of Ezra, made themselves booths upon 
the roofs of houses, in the courts of their dwellings, in 
the courts of the sanctuary, in the street of the water- 
gate, and in the street of the gate of Ephraim, from the 
olive-branches, the pine-branches, the myrtle-branches, 
the palm-branches, and the branches of the thick trees, 
which they were told to gather, and dwelt in these 
booths seven days (Neh. viii, 16-18). The Sadducees of 
old, who are followed by the Karaites, took these boughs 
and the fruits to be identical with those mentioned in 
Lev. xxiii, 39, 40, and maintained that these were to be 
used for the construction and adornment of the booths 
or tabernacles. The Pharisees and the orthodox Jew- 
ish tradition, however, as we shall see hereafter, inter- 
preted this precept differently. 

When the Feast of Tabernacles, like all other festi- 
vals and precepts of the Mosaic law, began to l)e strictly 
and generally kept after the Babylonian captivity, un- 
der the spiritual guidance of the Great Synagogue, the 
Sanhedrim, and the doctors of the law = scribes, more 
minute definitions and more expanded applications of 
the concise Pentateuchal injunction were imperatively 
demanded, in order to secure uniformity of practice, as 
well as to infuse devotion and joy into the celebration 
thereof, both in the Temple and in the booths. Hence 
it was ordained that the tabernacle or booth (HSiD, suk- 
hah) must be a detached and temporary habitation, con- 
structed fur the sole purpose of living in it during this 
festival, and must not be used as a permanent dwelling. 
The interior of it must neither be higher than twenty 
cubits, nor lower than ten palms ; it must not have loss 
than three walls ; it must not be completely roofed in, 
or covered with any solid material, but must be thatched 
in such a manner as to admit the view of the skv and 
the stars; and the part open to the rays of the sun must 
not exceed in extent the part shaded by the cover. It 
must not be under a tree; neither must it be covered 
with a cloth, nor with anything which contracts defile- 
ment or does not derive its growth from the ground 
(Mishna, Sukhah, i, 1-ii, 7). The furniture of the huts 
was to be, according to most authorities, of the plainest 
description. There was to be nothing which was not 
fairly necessary. It would seem, however, that there 
was no strict rule on this point, and that there was a 
considerable difference according to the habits or cir- 
cumstances of the occupant (Carpzov, p. 415; Buxtorf, 
Syn, Jud, p. 461). (See curious figures of different 
forms of huts, and of the great lights of the Feast of 
Tabernacles, in Surenhuuius, Misrhnay vol. ii; also a 
lively description of some of the huts used by the Jews 
in modem times in />a Vie Juive en Alsace^ p. 170, etc.) 
Every Israelite is to constitute the tukk6h his regular 
domicile during the whole of the seven days of the fes- 

tival, while his house is only to be his occasional abode^ 
and he is only to quit the booth when it rains very 
heavily. Even a child, as soon as he ceases to be de- 
pendent upon his mother, must dwell in the booth ; and 
the only persons exempt from this duty are those de- 
puted on pious missions, invalids, nurses, women, and 
infants (Mishna, Stikkah^ ii, 8, 9). The orthodox rabbin» 
in the time of Christ would not eat any food which ex- 
ceeded in quantity the size of an egg out of the booth 
(ibid, ii, 6). 

The four species of vegetable productions to be used 
during prayer (Lev. xxiii, 39, 40) are the next distinc- 
tive feature of this festival, to which the ancient doctor» 
of the law before the time of Christ devoted much at- 
tention. These are — 1. " The fruits of the goodly treti* 
p"!?! ]^5 ■'IP). As the phrase goodly or splendid tret 
p"!!! yv) is too indefinite, and the frhit of such a tree 
may simply denote the fruit of any choice fruit-tree,, 
thus leavhig it very vague, the Hebrew canons, based 
upon one of the significations of ^*yr\ {to dweU, to rest ; 
see Rashi on Lev. xxiii^ 40), decreed that it means the 
fruits tchich permanentiy rest upon the tree — L e. the dt-^ 
ron, the paradise-apple (3ii*^r.K, ethrdg). Hence the 
rendering of Onkelos, the so-called Jerusalem Targum,. 
and the Syriac version of *nh by ethrdg {=KirptoVf 
Josephus, Ant, xiii, 13, 6), citron, Josephus elsewhere 
(ibid, iii, 10, 4) says that it was the fruit of the persea^. 
a tree said by Pliny to have been conveyed from Persia 
to Egypt (fJist, ffat, xv, 18), and which some have 
identified with the peach (Mcdus persica). The ethrdff 
must not be from an uncircumcised tree (Lev. xix, 23% 
nor from the unclean heave-offering (comp. Numb, xviii^ 
11, 12); it must not have a stain on the crown, nor be 
without the crown, peeled of its rind, perforated, or de- 
fective, else it is illegal (Mishna, Suki-ah, iii, 6, 6). 2. 
"Branches of palm-trees^' (C'^cn TDS). Accoirdinii^ 
to the Hebrew canons, it is the shoot of the palm-tree 
when budding, before the leaves are spread abroad, and 
while it is yet like a rod, and this is called luldb (^^b^b)^ 
which is the technical expression given in the Chaldee 
versions and in the Jewish writings for the Biblical phrase 
in question (Buxtorf, Lex, 7'n/m.coL 1143; Carpzov. Af^, 
Crit, p. 4 1 6 ; Drusi us. Not, M aj, in Lev. xxiii). The luldb 
must at least l)e three hands tall, and must be tied togeth- 
er with its own kind (Mishna, Svkkahj iii, 1, 8 ; Maimoni- 
des, lad JIa-Chezaka, Bilchoth Lulab, vii, 1). 8. " The 
bough of a thick tree^ (^35 y^p 5135). This ambiguous 
phrase is interpreted by the ancient canons to denote "the 
myrtle-branch (ClPI) whose leaves thickly cover the 
wood thereof: it must have three or more shoots around 
the stem on the same level of the stem, but if it has two 
shoots opposite each other on the same level, and the 
third shoot is above them, it is not thick, but is called 
(naiia mn5) a thin myrtle" (Mishna, Sukkah,Z2 b; 
Maimonides, ibicL vii, 2). This explanation accounts 
for the rendering of the Chaldee paraphrases of this 
phrase by hndds (Cirj), myrtle-branch. If the point of 
this myrtle-branch is broken off, or if its leaves are torn 
t»ff, or if it has more berries on it than leaves, it is illegal 
(Mishna, Sukkah, iii, 2). 4. « The tcillovs of the brook" 
(5H3 '^'Ziy=:satix helix) must be of that species the 
distinguishing marks of which are dark wood, and long 
leaves with smooth margin. If any one of these four 
kinds has been obtained by theft, or comes from a gruve 
devoted to idolatry, or from a town which has been 
enticed to idolatry (comp. Dcut. xiii, 12, etc.), it is illegal 
(ibifl, iii, 1-6). Their legality having been ascertained, 
the pahn, the myrtle, and the willow are bound up 
together into one bundle, denominated luldb. 

It has already been remarked that the Sadducees in 
and before the time of Christ maintained that the 
boughs and fruit here mentioned (viz. Lev. xxiii, 40) 
are to be used for the construction and adornmeDt of 


the booths, and that they appeal to Neh. viii, 15, 16 in for the wine was to the east and had a wider hole, so 
mi^iort of this view. This view has not only been es- that both might get empty at the same time. Into 
poiiued by the Karaite Jews, the successors of the Sad- these respective basins they simultaneously and slowly 
doceea [see Sai>ducbk], but is defended by bishop Pat- poured the water and the wine in such a manner that 
rick« Keil, and most modem Christian inteqireters. both were emptied at the same time upon the base of 
Against this, however, is to be urged that — (1.) The ob- the altar. To the priest who poured out the water the 
rious sense of the injunction (Lev. xxiii, 40) is that people called out, Raise thy hand! The reason for this 
these boughs are to be carried as symbols during the is that when Alexander Jannai, who officiatetl as priest, 
rejoicing, and that we should expect something more was charged with this duty, being a Sadducee and re- 
explicit than the single and simple word Dnnj^bl, and jecting the ordinances of the scribes, he poured the 
ye shaU tofa, had it been designed that theie" boughs ^«<'" «^^f »»», ^^f^*"^ "?V»T .'*"* ^"J"' whereupon 

should be employed for the construcdon of the booths. '!'^ ,^^^\ ^t*^! ^'""Ji"^ '^T '^'' vr "rT 
^ V ,«, - . vT ' ^. ^ i. .!_ A ^r • L 1 At this catastrophe, which nearly cost the hfe of the 
(2.)The/ntt<0':B)-asthemarginof the A.V.nghtly Maccab«an king, Alexander Jannai called for the as- 
has it, and not boughs, as it is in the text with which sjstance of the soldiers, when nearly six thousand Jews 
this injunction commenoes-could surely not be among perished in the Temple, and the altar was damaged, a 
the materials for the construction of the booths. (3.) The corner of it being broken off in the struggle which en- 
Uw aboat the booths is entirely separated from the J^^^^ (Josephu^ -4 »/. xiii, 13,5; Uishnu, Sukkah, iv,9; 
ordering of the fruit and boughs, as may be seen from a Gemara, ibid, 48 a; 51 a; Griitz, Gesckichte der Jiiden 
comparison of Uv. xxiu, 40 with ver. 42. (4.) The first pa ed. Leips. 1«63], iii, 1 12, 473 sq.). See Scribkb. 
day of this festival, as we have seen, was a holy convo- xi,e ceremonv of drawing the water was repeated ev- 
eation, on which all manner of work was interdicted. ^^ morning during the seven davs of the festival 
It is therefore agauist the sanctity of the day to sup- ^^ ^1,^ game time that the priesU went in procession 
pose that the command to take the fruit and the boughs ^ the pool of Siloam, another jubilant multitude of peo- 
on the first day meant that the Israelite are to oon- ,^ ^^„j j^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ Jerusalem called Mofsd 
struct with these plants the booths on this holy day. .^.^;„^ .. y^ abounded in willows. These willows 
(5.) The appeal to Neh. viii is beside the mark, inasmuch ^f ^ '^^» ^^'"^^ abounded in willows, i hese willows 
as different materials aie there mentioned-e. g. olive- ^^^y gathered with great rejoicing, earned them into 
branches and pine-branches— which were actually used the Temple amid the blasts of trumpets, and placed 
f(ir making the booths, while the kaddr fruit and the them at the altar in such a manner that their tops over- 
willow specified in the Pentateuchal injunction are hung and formed a sort of canopy (Mishna, iSuibtaA, iv, 
omitted. With the regulations about the tabernacles 5). The decorating process of the altar being finished, 
and the boughs or luldb before us, we can now continue the daily morning sacrifice was first offered, Mutapk 
the description of the mode in which thU festival was (rioi?2); then the additional or special sacrifice for this 
cdebfated in the Temple. festival prescribed in Numb, xxix, 12-38, which, on the 
Uik of Tishri was the Prfparatum Day (DT^ a-nr ^.^^ ^^^^ consisted of a burnt-offering of thirteen bul- 
r3=»opo<rc€wn)- The pilgrims came up to Jeruaa- ^^^^ ^^^ rams, and fourteen lambs, with the appropri- 
\etn on the day previous to the commencement of the ate meat- and drink-offering, ami a goat for a sin-offer- 
ftttivil, when they prepared everything necessary for ing, and then the peace-offerings, the vows, and the 
it»«tttemn observance. The priests proclaimed the ap- free-will offerings, which constituted the repast of the 
ptosch of the holy convocation on the eve of this day people (Jerusalem, Sukkah, \\ While these sacrifices 
by theblasu of trumpets. As on the Feasts of the Pass- were offereii the Levitea chanted the Great ilallel, as on 
over and Pentecost, the altar of the burnt-sacrifice was the feasts of the Passover and Pentecost. On this occa- 
detiued in the first night-watch (Mishna, Yonui, i, 8), sjon, however, each of the pilgrims held in his right hand 
«h1 the gates of the Temple, as well as those of the in- the luldb, or palm, to which were tied the twigs of myr- 
ner coon, were opened immediately after midnight for tie and willow as dcscribetl above, and the ethrOg, or 
tb« convenience of the priesU who resided in the city, citn>n, in his left, while these psalms were chanted; 
and for the people who filled the court before the cock and, during the chanting of Psa. cxviii. the pilgrims 
«*w to have their sacrifices and offerings duly exam- shook their palms three times— viz. at the singing of 
»n«l by the priesU {ibid, i, 8). When the first day of yer. 1, 25, and 29 (Mishna, iiukkah, iii, 9). When the 
Tibemicles happened on the Sabbath the people brought Musdph chant was finished the priests in procession 
ibeir [itlm-branches or luUibs on the 14th of Tishri to went round the altar once, exclaiming: Hosanna, O Je- 
the synagogue on the Temple mount, where the ser- hovah: give us help, O Jehovah, give prosperity! (Psa. 
^•nu of ^e synagogue (D''3Tn) defKwited them in a cxviii, 25). Thereupon the solemn benediction was 
8«Dery,whilethe&elrf6«of the elders of the svnagogue pronounced by the priests and the people dispersed, 

Wpi)Were placetl in a separate chamber,*as it was ^^'^ !}'\'^^„''''''\ ^^^^'^f^^^^^]^^ """^ l>«*"»;f"l -^ 

.«.;L.i. o. iV^ 11 . .u 1 .u thon. O altar! or "To Jehovah and thee, O ahar, we 

^theSabbatical laws to cany the palms on the ^j^e thanks!" cMishna,N/^X.iA, iv, 5; (;emara,i6,c/. 44 b, 

»^ from the booths of the respeaive pilgnms to 45^ y^^^^ „„^ ^f ^,^^. piigri^g then l)etor>k himself to 

iJf^^' ,..,., 1 i.i.h" res|>ective booth, there to enjoy his repast with the 

mo/Tukrt,^At daybreak of the first day of the j^^^jj^ j^,^ Btranger, the poor, and the fatheriess who 

I«iTil 1 pnest, accompanied by a jubilant procession ^j,are«l his hospitalitv. This practice explains the re- 

Md by a band of music, descended with a golden pitch- ^^^^^ „f ^,,^ evangelists (Matt, xxi, 8, 9, 15 : John xii, 

« tolding three logs W the pool of Siloam, and, having y^, 13). It is to be remarked that on the first <lav of 

njw u with water from the brook, he endeavore«l to ^^^ f^^^.j^.^i ^^.^.^. iHraolito carric.l about his IM, or 

'••^b the Temple in time to join his brother priests 

«wi (Mubna, J/irWoTA, 11, 6; Gemara, ^tiX^/A, 48 a). ,^^ ^.^.„^ ,„ ^.j^j^ j^,^ sick and comfort the mourners 

J\wichiDg the water-gate, he was welcomed by three (Mishna, Sukknh, 41 a ; Maimonides, lad J/a-Cfi.zaku, 

^ of the trumpet. He then ascended the steps j,^^,,„f^ i„iab. vii, 24 ). 

« the iltar with another priest who earned a pitcher n^th.^y^^fh of TiAn.-Thcf^c davs were half.h(, vs; 

^ Vine for the drink-offenng. The two priests turned . n 1 i/ w// / * v* ^il y <• / /W«-. 

toih.UA. *..i. w u * -1 1 • a thev were called t/ie muidle dai/s of the feshval (5*n 

"wwtof the altar where two silver basins were fix- / • .. / / 

•^with h(to at the bottom; the basin for the water ^^'^'^-t^^^^ovtyr)^ tiiq tO|f>nK', John vii, 14),or/Af lesM'r 

^ ki the watt and had a nanower hole, while the one festival {Y^p nri'S;. Any articles of food or raiment 


required for immediate use were allowed to be pur- ing rain which it was ardently desired might be blessed 

chased privately during these days, and work demand- to the people. Hence the remark that he who will not 

ed by the emergencies of the public service or required come up to the Feast of Tabernacles shall have no rain 

for the festival, the omission of which entailed loss or {Sukkah, 48, 51 ; Bosk ha'Shanah^ 16 ; TacmUk^ 2 a), 

injury, was permitted to be done. See Passover. (2.) The Jews seem to have regarded the rite as symbol- 

On the night of the 15th, and on the five succeeding ical of the water miraculously supplied to their fathers 

nights, the rejoicing of the drawing of water (nn«» ^">" '^e rock at Meribah. But they also gave to it a 

nSKIon n-^a) was celebrated in the court of the Tem. "«'« strictly spiritual signification^ It was re^ed 

, . ,, ^ ,, . rr^ , u 1 J • as tjrpical of the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, Hence 

pie in the foUowmg manner: The people assembled m ^^e remark : "It is ^ed the house of drawing the wa- 

krge masses in the court of the women at night after ^^^ y^^^ f^^ ^^i^^^ the Holy Spirit is drawn in 

the expiration of the first day of the festival The accordance with what is said in Isa. xii, 8, 'With joy 

women occupied the galleries, which were permanent shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation' " (Je- 

tixtures in the court (Mishna, Middoth^ ii, 15), while the rusalem Sukkah, v, 1). It is upon this explanation 

men occupied the space below. Four huge golden can- that our Saviour's remark is based (John vii, 37-39) in 

delabra were placed in the centre of the court ; each of allusion to this ceremony on this last day of the festival 

these candelabra had four golden basins and four lad- when it was performed for the last time. The two 

ders, on which stood four lads from the rising youths meanings are, of course, perfectly harmonious, as is 

of the priests with jars of oil wherewith they fed the shown by the use which Paul makes of the historical 

basins, while the cast-off garments of the priests were fact (1 Cor. x, 4) — ** they drank of that spiritual rock 

used as wicks. The lights of these candelabra illumi- that followed them : and that rock was Christ." 
nated the whole city. Around these lights pious and The mode in which the sacrifices were offered in the 

distinguished men danced before the people with light- middle days of the festival, the use of the palm and the 

ed fiambeaux in their hands, singing hymns and songs citron, the procession round the altar, etc, were simply 

of praise ; while the Levites, who were stationed on the a repetition of the first day of the festival, with this ex- 

fiflieen steps which led into the woman's court, and cor- ception, however, that the number of animals diminish- 

responded to the fifteen psalms of degrees = steps (Psa. ed daily, according to the prescription in Numb, xxix, 

cxx-cxxxiv), accompanied the songs with harps, psal- 12-38, and that the Lesser IlaUel was chanted by Le- 

teries, c>'mbals, and numberless musical instruments, vites instead of the Great HaUel (q. v.). A peculiarity 

The dancing, as well as the vocal and instrumental mu- connected with the sacrificial service of this festival 

sic, continued till daybreak. Some of these pious men must here be noticed. On all other festivals only those 

performed dexterous movements with their flambeaux of the twenty-four orders of the priests officiated upon 

while dancing for the amusement of the people. Thus whom the lot fell (comp. 1 Chron. xxiv, 7-19), but on 

it is related that R. Simon II (A.D. 80-50), son of Ga- the seven days of Tabernacles the whole of the twenty- 

maliel I, the teacher of the apostle Paul [see Educa- four orders officiated. On the first day the thirteen bol- 

tion], used to dance with eight torches in his han<ls, locks, two rams, and one goat were offered by sixteen 

which he alternately threw up in the air and caught orders, while the fourteen sheep were offered by the oth- 

again without their touching each other or falling to er eight. As there was one bullock less offered each of 

the ground {Tosiphta Sukkah, civ; Jerusalem, Suk- the seven days, one order of priests left each day the 

kahjVf 4; Babylon, ibid, 53 a). It is supposed that it sixteen orders who offered these bullocks and joined 

was the splendid light of this grand illumination which those who offered the fourteen lambs. Hence, " on the 

suggested the remark of our Saviour — " 1 am the light first day six of these orders offered two lambs each, and 

of the world" (John viii, 12). Towards the approach of the two other orders one lamb each. On the second 

day two priests stationed themselves, with trumpets in day five orders of the priests offered two lambs each, 

their hands, at the upper gate leading from the court and the four other orders one lamb each. On the third 

of the Israelites to the court of the women, and awaited day four orders offered two lambs each, and six orders 

the announcement of daybreak by the crowing of the one lamb each. On the fourth day three orders offered 

cock. As soon as the cock crew, they blew the trumpets two lambs each, and eight orders one lamb each. On 

three times and marched out the people of the Temple the fiflh day two orders offered two lambs each, and ten 

in such a manner that they had to descend the ten orrlers one lamb each. On the sixth day one order of- 

steps, where the two priests again blew the trumpets fered two lambs each, and twelve orders one lamb each; 

three times, and when they reached the lowest step in while on the seventh day, when the orders of priests 

the outer court they for the third time blew the trum- who sacrificed the bullocks had diminished to eight, 

pets three times. They continued to blow as they were fourteen orders offered one lamb each" (Mishna, Syh' 

marching across the court till they reached the eastern kah, v. 6). 

gate. Here they turned their faces westward towards 2\st ofTishri, — The seventh day, which was denom- 

thc Temple and said, "Our fathers once turned their inKi^d. the last day of the Feast of Tabemades(;l^^ Dl'' 

back to the sanctuary in this place, and their faces to jn bc5 ll^nxr!, Mishna, Sukkah, iv, 8), was especial- 

the east^ and worshipped the sun towards the east ly distinguished in the following mamier from the otb- 

(comp. Kzek. viii, 15, 16); but we lift up our eyes to ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ Musdph or snecial festival sac 

Jehovah." Thereupon they returned to the Temple, .^„^ ^f ;. ^ ..„ .. ^ «^^.*. ii *..«™I2:^« ^«^« 

, ., , 1 I. ^x^ u J ^ 1 ^ nfice of the day, the pnests in procession made seven 

while the people who were thus marched out went to -^-^^ ^„„a />,« -i*-- /:k:j ;„ ka ^k^.».. , « •v^ -^ 

, . .. 1. .. CI 1. r 1 ^L circuits round the altar (toicU iv, o), whereas on the nns 

their respective booths. Some, however, formed them- „^-„ j.„„ ^r .y,^ r^*:„.i „«i„ «1« «:««..:♦ «. j 

, . ^ , \. .^u *!. • ^ *. ^u ceding days of the festival only one circuit was made, 

selves into a procession, and went with the pnests to the _, °... '' .^«^«v ... , . ,. , 

pool of SUoam to fetch the water; while others return- ^he wiUows (na-l5) which surrounded the altar weie 

ed to the Temple, to be present at the morning sacrifice ^^^en so thoroughly shaken by the people that the leaves 

(Mishna, 5MitJfcaA,v, 2-4; Maimonides, /nd /r«-CA«wiitfl, lay thickly on the ground. The people also fetched 

Hdchoth Sukkah, viii, 12-15). The Talmud mainUins palm-branches and beat them to pieces at the side of 

that the ceremony of the drawing of water is anterior the altar (ibid, iv, 6). It is from this fact that the last 

to the Babylonian captivity, and that Isa. xii, 3 refers day of the festival obtained the names of the Da^f ^ 

to it {Sukkah, 48 b). Indeed, it is only on this suppo- Willows (iia^r D1^ ibid, iv, 1), the Great Hosasma Dof 

sition that the imagery in Is^ xii, 3 obtains its fuU ^^^^ ^^3 n^^^^n U^^), and the Brandi^tkraihing Daw 

force and significance. As to the import of this cere- ^ '^ ^9 

mony, ancient tradition furnishes two expUnations of it. (HT^^H Oian n^\ ibid, iv, 6). Herefeld suggests that 

(1.) Since the Feast of Tabernacles was the time of the the thrashing of the willows and palms may have been 

latter rain (Joel ii, 23), the drawing and pouring out of to symbolize that after the last verdure of the year had 

the water was regarded as qrmbolical of the forthcom- served for the adornment of the altar the trees might 


the following prayer : " Blessed art thou, O Jjord our 
God, King of the universe, who hast sanctified us with 
thy commandments, and hast enjoined us to take the 
palm-branch!" Thereupon each one turns his citron 
upside-down and waves his palm-branch three times 
towards the east, three limes towards the west, three 
times towards the south, and three times towards the 
north. The legate of the congregation pn)nounces the 
following benediction: "Blessed art thou, () Lord our 
God, King of the universe, who hast sanctilied us with 
thy commandments, and hast enjoined us to recite the 
llalleir and the HaUel ia chanted; when they come 
to Psa. cxviii, the waving of the palm-branch is repeal- 
ed at the first, tenth, and twenty-fifth verses, just as it 
was done in the Temple. Two scrolls of the law are 
then taken out of the ark ('jl'^K, H^'^r) and brought 
ou the platform (il^'^2), when the lessons for the first 
day of the festival are read out from the law — Lev. xxii, 
26-xxiii,44; and Numb, xxix, 12-16, as Afaphtir; and 
from the prophets, Zech. xiv, 1-21. See Haphtarah. 
After this the Musaph prayer is recited, which corre- 
sponds to the Musaph ox additional sacrifices in the 
Temple for this special festival. When the legate of the 
congregation in reciting the Musdph comes to the pas- 
sage where the expression priests (0*^3113) occurs, the 
Aaron ites and the Levites arise, and, after the latter 
have washed the hands of the former, the priests, with 
uplifted hands, pronounce the sacerdotal benediction 
(Numb, vi, 24-27) upon the congregation, who have 
their faces veiled with the Talith, See Fringe. The 
ark of the Lord is then placed in the centre of the syn- 
agogue, when the elders form themselves into a proces- 
sion headed by the legate, who carries the scroll of the 
law, and all the rest carry the palm-branches in their 
hands and walk round the ark once, repeating the IIo' 
saima, and waving the palms in commemoration of the 
procession round the altar in the Temple (Maimonides, 
lad lia-Chezaka, UUchoth Lulab, vii, 23). When the 
morning 8er\'ice is concluded, the people betake them- 
selves to their respective booths to partake of the fes- 
tive repast with the poor and the stranger. In the af- 
ternoon, about five or six o'clock, they again resort to 
the synagogue to recite the Afinchdh (nn313) prayer, 

answering to the daily evening sacrifice in the Temple. 
As s<M)n as darkness sets in or the stars appear, the sec- 
ond day of the festival commences, the Jews having 
doubled the days of holy convocation. The evening 
prayer as well as the practices for this evening resem- 
ble those of the first evening. 

The ritual for the second day in the morning, as well 
as the rites, with very few variations, is like that of 
the first day. The lesson, however, from the prophets 
is different, for on this day 1 Kings viii, 2-21 is read. 
After the afternoon ser\'ice of this tlay the middle days 
of the fcHtival begin, whi(rh last four days, when the 
ritual is like that of ordinary days, except that a few 
prayers bearing on this festival are occasionally inserted 
in the regular formuke, lessons from I he law are read on 
each day as s{>ecified in the article IIatiitarah, and 
the abovi'-nnrued procession goes round the ark. The 
seventh tlay, which is the Great Ilosarma (K33?^i2J^n 
TXZT^ ), is celebrated with peculiar solemnity, inasmuch 
as it is believed that on this day God decrees the weather, 
or rather the rain, for the future harvest (Mishna, Rosh 
ha-Shinuih, i, 2; Gemara. ibid.). On the evening pre- 
ceding Ihirt day every Israelite prepares for himself a 
small bunch of willows tied up with the bark of the 
palm; some of the pious .lews assemble either in the 
synagogue or in the iKwwhs to the Ixwik of Deuter- 
onomy, the Psalms, the Mishna, etc.. all nip;ht, and are 
immersed before the morning prayer. When the time 
of moniing ser\'ice arrives, numerous candles are lighted 
in the synagogue, and after the Shachrith (r^"^H^) — 
morning prayer, which is similar to that of the previous 

day, seven scrolls of the law arc taken out of the ark, 
and from one of them the lesson is read. The Mvsaph 
or additional prayer is then recited ; therenpon a pro- 
cession is formed, headed by the rabbi and the legate 
with the palms in their hands, and followed by those 
who carry the seven scrolls of the law. This procession 
goes seven times round the ark, which is placed in the 
middle of the synagogue, or round the reading-desk, 
reciting the Ilosannas, in accordance with the seven 
circuits around the altar which were performed in the 
Temple on this day, and waving their palms at certain 
expressions. The palms are then laid down, and ever\' 
one takes up his bunch of willows and beats off its leaves 
at a certain part of the liturgy, in accordance with the 
liealing off the leaves from the willows around the altar 
in the Temple, which took place on this day. On the 
evening of the seventh day the festival commences 
which concludes the whole cycle of festival (*^3"^7a^ 
ri12S9). It is a day of holy convocation, on which no 
manner of work is done, and is introduced by the A'm^- 
dush (ISI^p) = proclamation of its sanctity, given in the 
former part of this section. On the following morning 
the Jews resort to the synagogue, recite the morning 
prayer (H'^'^n^), as in the first two days of the Feast of 
Tabernacles, inserting, however, some prayers appropri- 
ate for this occasion. Thereupon the special lesson for 
the day is read, the Musaph or additional prayer is of- 
fered, and the priests pronounce the benediction in the 
manner already described. The people no longer take 
their meals m the booths on this day. On the evening 
of this day again another festival commences, called the 
Rejoicinf/ of the Law (Hlin nmaiS). After the re- 
citing of the Eighteen Ifenedictions, all the scrolls of the 
law are taken out of the ark, into which a lighted candle 
is placed. A procession is then formed of the distin- 
guished meml)ers, who are headed by the legate: they 
hold the scrolls in their hands, and go around the read- 
ing-desk ; the scn)lls are then put back into the ark, and 
only one is placed upon the <lesk, out of which is read 
the last chapter of Deuteronomy, and to the reading of 
which all persons present in the synagogue are called, 
including children. When the evening service is over 
the children leave the synagogue in procession^ carrying 
banners with sundry Hebrew inscriptions. 

On the following morning the Jews again resort to 
the synagogue, recite the HaUel after the Eighteen Ben- 
edictions, empty the ark of all its scrolls, put a lighted 
candle into it, form themselves into a procesaion, and 
with the scrolls in their hands, and amid jubilant songs, 
go round the reading-desk. This being over, the scrolls 
of the law are put back into the ark, and fn)m one of the 
two which are retained is read Dent, xxxiii, whereunto 
four persons are at first called, then all the little children 
are called as on the previous evenhig, and then again 
several grown-up people are called. The first of these 
is called the Bridegroom of the Law (TV^'^T. *\T'T\), and 
after the cantor who calls him up has addressed him in 
a somewhat lengthy Hebrew formula, the last verses of 
the Pentateuch are read; and when the reading of the 
law is thus finished all the people exclaim, ^^T^^be strong! 
which expression is printed at the end of everj' b<K>k in 
the Hebrew Bible as well as of everj* non-inspired He- 
brew work. After reading the last chapter of the law, 
the beginning of Genesis (i, 1-ii, B) is read, to which 
another one is called who is denominate<l the bridegroom 
of Genesis (r*^I2JX'^2 'm), and to whom again the 
cantor delivers a somewhat lengthy Hebrew formula; 
the Maphtir, consisting of Numb, xxix, 3&-xxXf 1, is 
then ren<l from another scroll; and with the recitation 
of the Mnmph, or additional special prayer for the fea- 
tival. the service is concluded. The rest of the day is 
spent in rejoieing and feasting. The design of this fes- 
tival is to celebrate the annual completion of the perusal 
of the Pentateuch, inasmuch as on this day the last 


tion of the law u read. Ilcncc the name of the festival, ' establiahment of the central 8pot of the national worship 
tJU Rejoicing of Fwuh in ff the Lair. in the Temple at Jerusulein. Hence it was evidently 

rV. Orif/in and Import of this Festival. — Like Pente- tittinf; that the Feaut of 'ralM.'rnacle» should l>e kept with 
<x»t, the Feast of Talieniacles oweu its origin to the an unwonte<l degree of ob»ervnnc<! at the dedication.of 
harvetst, which terminated at thi» time, and which the Solomon 8 Temple CI KingH viii, 2, Go; Jonephiia, AnU 
Jews in common with other nations of antii}uity ctle- viii, 4, 5), again after the rebuilding of the Temple by 
brateil aa a season of joy and thankfulncsn for the kindly Ezra (Neh. viii, 13-18), and a third time by JudaH Mao- 
fruit of the earth. This is undoubtiMlly implied in its caba>u9, when he had driven out the Syrians and re- 
very name, the Feast of Jntfuthfriufj, and is distinctly storetl the Temple to the worship of Jehovah (2 Mace 
declared in Rxod. xxiii, 16: ''Thou .shalt keep . . . the x, h-><), 

feast of ingathering in the end of the year when thou I V. Literature, — Maimonidcs, lad lia-Chezaka^ Ilil- 

hast gathere<l in thy labors out of the liehl" (comp. also choth Lulab; Meyer, l)e Temp, et Festis Ditbiis IJebrceo- 

Lev. xxiii, 39; Deut. xvi, 13). With tliis agricultural juin (l.'trecht, 17r>5), p. 317, etc.; Biihr, Symholik des 

origin, however, is associated a great historical event, ; J/^wawrAfn Cm//im (Heidelberg, 1830), ii, 624 8<|.,Gf»2 8q.; 

which the Jews are enjoined to remember during the }lcnMi\,nesrhichte des Voikes Israei {"SoTdhaaf^cu^^XiyJ}, 

'Celebration of thLs festival, and which imparted a second ii, 120 si)., 177 sq. ; The Jewish 7?i/M(f/, entitled Derek 

name to this feast — viz. '* Ye shall dwell in b(K>ths seven ' lla-Chajim (Vienna, 1850), p. 214 b sq., 205 8«|. ; Kcil, 

^iays . . . that your generations may know that 1 made ' Handbitrh der bUtiischen Archdoloffie (2d e<l. Frankfort- 

the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought on-the-Main, 1859), p. 412 s<i. ; Carpzov, App.Crit. p.4l4 ; 

them out of the land of Egypt" (l^ev. xxiii, 42, 43), | Ruxtorf, iS^/N. Juf/. c. xxi ; Keland, ^4 u<. iv, o ; LightfrNjttf 

whence its name, the. Feast of Booths or Tabernacles,- Temple tSertice^xvij und Fxerrit. in. /,2.S7;OxhOf 

The Feast of Tabernacles, therefore, like the Passover, has />ur. /^a6. 230; the treatise ^Sukkah^ in the Mishna, with 

a twofold signitlcance — viz. it has a reference both to the Surenhusius's S'otes ; H npfeld, De Fest. Ilebr. pt. ii ; comp. 

annual course of nature and to a great national event, the monogra[)hs I>e Libatxone Aqua in Fest. Tab. by 

As ut the reason for connecting this pre-eminently joy- ' Iken (in the Symbol, etc. [ Bremen, 1744], i, 160), Riel 

<mA festival of ingathering with the homeless dwelling ' (Vitemb. 1716), and Tresenrcuter (Alt. 1743), (rroddek, 

of the Israelites in booths in the wilderness, we prefer \ I)e Ceremotiia Palmm-um in Fest. Tab. (Lips. 1694-95, 

the one given by the ancient Jews to theories advanced I also in L'golino, vol. xviii) ; Dachs, on Unkkah^ in the 

by modem commentators. In the midst of their great ' Jerusalem (iemara (Utrecht, 1726) ; Tirsch, Dt TcAer^ 

juy— when their houses arc full of com, new wine, oil, nac, Feriis (Prag. s. 1. et an.). 

^\M Bnort thinK^ «n« he.r.» overrtow with re- Tab'ltha (T«/3.5ri ; Vulg. TabUha), ^ called 
j...o..,g-the h»el.te. m.ght fo^ tl.c Lord thcr (.od, ^^^^ (iopKa\), . female disciple of Joppa, " full of 

T u*K " ^■" K''^' ."•"" "* *"^"^/^ "' '""^ R«Kl work< amouK which that of making clothe, for 
am whKh have gotten them ih.»pr.«per.ty(Deut.>nn, J^^^ ;, ifi"^,, „enti..ncd (Acu ix, 3«-42). 

*"-\J° "^"^ ?*" *. "« »'**!'.«*'« A.D. 32. While Peter wa« at the neighboring town of 

<««™nded to quit their permanent and .he tered ho,«e Lyd.ia, Tabitha died, upon which the di^iple. at Joppa 

... ..j«.m m b.»th» at the time of harvest and .n the ^^^ ^ roc»age to the apostle, be^nng him to 

mukof generJ abundance, to be remmded thereby that ^^^ ,„ ^^^ ^.^'j;^ j^^ if i, ^^ ^Site evident 

W, were once homeless and wanderers in the wilder- f„„ ^^^ narrative whether they looked for any exercise 

rt !;!'^ u K*-' aH""" ■" '^ VT/r"' "', "'r^ of miraculous power on hU par^ or whether they simply 
..^yhmugh the Koodnew and fa.thfulne«. of the.r ^j^^^ ,„, yhristiau consolation under what Ihev re- 

nareiiiv Father, who fulhlled the promises made to „., . i «„ »k« «.»,«,^., ^.i.r»:».r <^«- »k^:» /'k..*/>i.. k..* 

ii_, • - » » . mi.- ., -11 garde<l as the common calamity of their Lnurcu; but 

Aiiciiurn, Isaac, and Jacob. This idea was still more . f. ^ ^. . .i ,^.«„.i„ .^•f„rr««.i .«. iTn^.a /..^» i±\ ..wi 

.U...I J /i .«. n t 1 • a^ X \ the miracle recently periormeu on /c<neas ( ver. «H ), aim 

<w\ei(»ned after the Rabylonian captivitv, when the ! ,» „ „ • „ :„ „ ' oo /;? xa? v . • N \ i««.i •« 

.,Mi.^. u ^1 u Mj' r t- t 1. , the expression in ver. 38 (f«Ac«i' «wc tiutavu lead to 

^ 1'k"" '"* k"'"'"* °^ '*"' ''"..*'" «*'*/.»•""• i the f»™er supposition. Upon his arrivid Peter found 
Th^^booih^ as we have «>en, were to be covered .n such ^^^ ,,^^^, ;^^ ^^ f„^ ^„ial, and Uid out in 

r.!l'"'!..".?K'^'"' ' * *''!r "^"' ^l T' ""■ -'V*:  «» "l'P«' chamber. iherc she was surn.unde.1 bv the re- 
w ™d« that the sojoaraers therem miRht be remm.led „; iJ..'^^ ,„j .^^ j„,^^„, „f h^, ^h„itv. After the ex- 

nm!!.^'!!. l'* ?r"l^' '^"; ''T''*' *''"'"u 'm' i a""!'!' «'f ""f S«viour in the house of .fairus (.Matt. ix. 
P»1«o» the harrjMt, the thii.pi of earth are ,K.r.shable .,5 ' j,„^ 40^ ..,>^^^^ ^^^^ ,„ f^,^,„ , f„, 

 ^^ '^ "\ ■■1!I"r. .K^V* If 'A* '?'^" "'•>■ 'l'^ the divine assiswnce, and then commanded Tal.iiha to 
Ktiiiaiiwi ordained that the book of Ecclesiastcs should . •„„ /„.„„ 111..1, .. ai . i ..i.« ,.::: ka\ «i.„ ,....,.,»i 
Lj . .k* • r • I 1 ansc (comp. Mark v, 41; Luke viii. o4). ?>nc oi)cnctl 

won this joyoualestival. . I her eves and sat up, and then, bv the ai»wtle, 

The ongin of the teast of Tabernacles is by some 1 „^ f^^ ,,„ „„„^,f ^hi, great miracle, 'as we are fur- 

««»w«l with Sukkoth the first of the ^^^, ^^,^^ ^„^, ,„ extraonlinurv effect in .loppa, and 

iwdto OD their march out of Egypt , and the h..t, , ^.^ ,„„ ,;^^,,,i„„ „f c»..vcr;io..» there (Acts ix, 

«re taken, not to commemorate the tents m the wilder- j.,^ ^^ Pktkr. 

"^ but the leafv booths (ir?<iU.v*M) in which thev lodged ',!,,' *,,„,,., „ ,.. _. ^ ... 

f^nhelast time before they entered the desert. The . ^^^ "'»™« "^ "Tabitha' (Xr^SJ) is the Aramaic 
'^wtwoold thus call to mind the transition from settled ' form answering to the llebn^w n*2X, tsebiyah, a "fe- 
^ noQudic life (Stanley, A'tnm' <iw</ /'ci/M/tw, Appendix, male gazelle," the gazelle being regarded in the East, 
^ j^' I among lioth Jews and Arabs, as a st-andard of lieautv — 

irv r'^."'' *" ^**" ^®"' * ''^^"^ ^"' ^^^ original equal- j,, j^j^tl, the word "^SS properlv means '' l>eautv." Luke 

'ly 01 all the members of the chosen race. All, during i . ,, ,^ „ ''l t* T • i . rlu 

ilv»iir..L 1 • I- .1 • u I--. . iM r • • gives ''Dorcas as the dreek equivalent of the name. 

*'*eweek,poor and rich, the inhabitant ahke of the pal- ,. .. , „ , * , , , . . ^ ««„ 

•^aiKl the hovel, lived in huts which, in strictness, were I ►^^'"^^"ly w« *»"«» <^«P«"C >» the Nept. rondcrmg of ■'n^ 
*" I* of the plainest and most ordinarj- materials and »« T)eut. xii, 15, 22; 2 Sam. ii, 18; Prov. vi, 5. It has 
****niction. From this point of view the Israelite I l>^c» inferred from the occurrence of the two names that 
^'''•I'l be reminded with still greater edification of the Tabitha was a HelleniMt (nee Whitby, ad he). This, 
IKiiloug and toilsome march of his forefathers through j however, does not follow, even if we supfHisc that the 
*7* deiert, when the nation seemed to l>e more imme- two names were actually borne by her. as it would seem 
7*^ dependent on (iod for fnod, shelter, and protec- to have btjcn the practice even of the Hebrew Jews at 
^ vhile the completed har\'est stored up for the this pfrirxl to have a (icntile name in addition to their 
^^^1^ winter set before him the benefits he had de- ' Jewish name. Hut it is by no means clear from the 
'^froin the poaaession of the land flowing with milk language of Luke that Tabitha actually lM>re the name 
^ booey which had been of old promised to his race. ' of Dorcas. All he tells us is that the name of Tabitha 
^ the calminating-pmnt of this blessing was the ; means " gazelle" (oopra^), ami for the benefit of bis 


Gentile rcadcn be aftcrwtrdn ipeikB of hir by ihc Gretk 
equirmlent. At the ume lime it is very po«aib1e th«t 
she iDiy h»ve been knoim by botb namen; and we 
Inrn rrom Jeaephug ( War, iv, 3, fi) that the nime of 
Uorcu vu not unknown in Falealine. Amonc tlie 
Greek) «I»o, la we gather ftum Lucretius (iv, 1 154), it 
waa a l«nn of endearment. Other eiamplea of the uK 
of tbe name will be found in Wettatein, ad toe Set 

Table la the rendering in the A. V. uauallj- of inM, 
(jlufcjlmi (New Test. rpairi^Tn, likewiae invariably nu 
tntnidated, except Luke xix, 23 ["lank"]; Acta xvi, 
B4 ["meat"]), so called from being atendfd {ThV; 
comp. Homer, Od. x, 37; and >pe Pu. Ixix, 23), and 
denoting etpeciallv  table apread with food (Judg. i, 
T; 1 Sam. xn, 29, 34; 1 Kings v, 7; x, 6; Job xxxvi, 
16; N'eh. v, 17); but apoken likewiae of the UilJe of 
ihac-bnad (we below), and likewise of the Itctutmaa 
prepared before idola (laa. xIt, II ; Bee Schumann, JJt 
Lrclitlenau in .fiicro Cud. [lips. 1789]). For the " l»- 
bles" of stone on which the Decalogue was engraved, 
see below. The woni 3QO, madb,  ditran (q. v.), is 
once rendered "at uble" (Cant, i, 18). 8ee SittIso. 

Little is known as to the form of tables among tbe 
Hebrews; but, as in other Oriental nations, they were 
probably not high. In Exod. xxv, S3, indeed, the table 
fur the shew-bread is deMribed at a cubit and a half in 
height) but the table of Herod'a temple, aa de|Hc(eil on 
the arch of Titus at Rome, is only half a cubit high. 
Probably the uble of the ancient Hebrews differed li ' 

D that of tb 

neiy, a piei 

It tbe 
1 of the better 
cUsees, is to bring a pnlygonal stool (^tuni), about four- 
teen inches high, into the comiDon sitling-room for 
meals. Upon this is placed a iray {fnigik) of basket- 
work or of metal, generally copper, on which the food 
is arranged. These two pieces of furniture together 
compose the table (^^f'ral>). The bread lies upon the 
mat beneath the tray, and a cruse of water atanda near 
by, from which all drink as they have need. On formal 
occauons, this is held in the hand by a servant, who 
waits upon the guenta. Around this atool and tray the 
guesta gather, lutting on the Hoof (Thonson, Land and 
Book, i, ltK)> See Eatiw 

incient Egyptians, the table was mnch 
the same as that of the present day in Egypt, a small 
stool, Bupportiiig a round tray, on which the duhes are 
placed (see I.ane, .\fod. Ky. i.'lAO); but it dilTered ^m 
this in having its cireular summit fixed on a pillar, nr 
leg. which was often in the form of a man. generally a 
captive, who supported the slab upon his head, the 
whole being of stone or some hard wood. Un tbis the 

»ere placed, together with loaves of bread, aome- 
uf which were not unlike those of the present dsy in 
Egypt, Hat and round, as our crumpets. Ulhen bail the 
fom of roUa or cakes, sprinkled with aeeda. The table 
was not generally covered with any linen, but, like ihe- 
(ireek table, was washed with a sponge, or napkin, after 
the dishes were removed, anil polished by the aen-anta, 
when the company had retired; though an instance 

those which bore offerings in honor of tbe dead. One 
or two guests generally sat a 
mention of peiaona seated in 
has been supposed (he tables 
shape ; as may have been tbe case when the brethren at 
Joseph " tat before him, the first-born according to hi* 
birthright, and tbe youngest according to bis youlb," 
Joseph eating alone at another table where "they set 
on for him by himself." But even if round, they might 
still sit according to rank, one place being always ilie 

ble of Kgypt (Wilkinson, due. KgyplX I79> See KiNt. 

The tables of the ancient Assyrians, aa delineated 
upon the monuments, were often of a 
highly unmmenlal character (Lavard, 
Xiamk. ii, 236 ; Balls, Siarr ' 
Itttt). See Banqikt. 

tor tbe Iridmum of the It 
period, see Ai^cubatiox ; Sup. „ 

Other Greek words than rpoirija //^ 

above (which likewise denotes occa- // )\ 

Hnnally a broker's counter [see MoB- /J ul 
EV-citA.NUKii], not to mention ova- /f Ml 
ctiffoi, etc., often rendered "ait at ta- ^^ <3 

ble" J, which are translated " table" in Ancient Asayrtav 
the A. V. in a different sense, are ; Table. 

icXii-F, (Mark vli, 4), a kif (aa elsewhere rendered), or 
couch used for eating, i. e. tbe frtcfuiium above noticed ; 
and wXdE (S Cor. tii, 3 ; Heb. ix, 4), a tabltl for inacijp- 
linn; more fully nvanfioi'.atBri/Bv-toUe (Luke i,6B). 
See Table of tiik Law. 

TABLE {rn\ ti„(h, a laUet, whether of atone [as 
below], wood ["board," Exod. xxvii, 8, etc], nr for 
writing on [Isa. xxx.S; Hab. viii, 9; Prov. iii. 3]) or 
TtiK Law (only plur. in tbe phrases " tables of sionc" 
[igst rni, E^od. xxlv, n-, xxxl, 18; or TTi^X \ 
xxxiv, I, 4], and " tables of the covenant" | Dent! ix, 9, 
l.i|or"ofthe testimony" [Exod. xxxi, 18]). such aailHWe 
thai were given to Mnaes upon MoautlSinai. being writ- 
len liy Ihe Hiiger of Gnd, and containing the Decalogue, 
or Ten Commandments of the Jaw. as they are rehearsed 
in Exoil. XX. llany idle questions hsve beon started 
abiiut these tables: about their matter, ihvir fi.rm, their 
nnmlier. who wnile them, and what they contained. 
Tlie wonis which intimate that Ihe tablea were written 
by the finger of God, some understainl Mmply and liter- 
ally: others, of the ministry of an angel; and ntheta 
explain merely in signify an order of j^od lu Horn to 
write them. The expresHon, however, in Scripture al- 
ways signifies the immediate Divine agency. Sea WaK 


ther, De DuaJbus TahuUs Lapideis (Regiom. 1679); Mi- rrjc frpo^iffeu>c), one of the pieces of furniture in the 
chadia, De Tab, Feed, PriorOms (Yitemb. 1719). Mosaic tabernacle (Exod. xxv, 23 sq. ; xxxvii, 10 sq.), 
TABLE, the name given to the supreme ecdesiasti- »" Solomon's Temple (1 Kings vii, 48; comp. 2 Chron. 
cai court of the Waldensian Church (q. v.). ^**^» *^)» »" *^ restoration by Zerubbabel (1 Mace, i,^ 
TABLE, Credencic, a smaU side-t.ble, commonly ^>' "iJ*" Henxi's reconstruction of that edifice (Jose- 
placed on the south side of the altar, for the altar breads, P*'"^ ^"'"' '**» ^' ^} . \ *^ Z'* ^**« *>"^.' «P«rtment 
emeu of wine and water, offertory dish, service-books, ^' ^f^ f*^ ?"" )^^. "K*!' ***"*^ ""^ north side, and waa 
lavabu dish, and other things necessary for the solemn "*^* of acacm (shittim) wood, two cubits long, ono 
or low celebration of the holy eucharist. See Cub- broad, and one and a half high, and covered with Umi- 
iiLNCK-TABLE. MB of gold. Acconling to the Mishna {Aferutch, xi, 5),^ 
" ^„, „ ,, , m._ T J. ut , « . it was ten handbreadihs long and five wide ; other tra- 
TABLE, Holy. 1. The Lord s toble or altar. 2. A ditions make it twelve handbreadths long and six wide, 
frontal to an altar ; e. g. one given to Glastonbury in The top of the leaf of this Uble was encircled bv a bor- 
10<1, made of gold, silver, and ivory, and one at St. . . .^. ,.. . ,, „ • , 
Alban's in the 12th centurv. 3. The mensa. the upper der or nm (\T, a crown or trr.aM) of gold. The frame 
stone altar-sUb. 4. Pensilis, containing the names of ^^}^^ '»!>*«» immediately below the leaf, was encircled 
lienefactors, registers of miracles, a list of indulgences, ^»'^ • P*«ce of wood of about four inches in breadth,. 
and the course of oflSciants, oflUciating clergy at the around the edge of which was a rim or border (H'l^Sipp,. 
Imure, and celebranU of masses. a margin) similar to that around the leaf. A little low- 
TABLE OF Commandments, a representation of er down, but at equal distances from the top of the ta- 
the two tables of stone on which the Commandments ble, there were four rings of gold fastened to the legs,. 
were graven, ordered by a post-Reformation canon to through which staves covered with gold were inserted 
be placed on the east wall of the church or chancel. for the purpose of carrying it (Exod. xxv, 23-2H ; xxxvii,. 
TABLE OF Drjrees, a formal list of relationships, ^^^^>' J^? description of Josephus, which is quite mi- 
both by blood and affinity, within which degrees the "."^» ^»"*^« '" f ^^'J'! P*rt»c"l«" (^^- »>» 6,6). These 
Church of England authoritatively prohibits marriage, ""f ^^'^ not found m the table which was afterward* 
This Uble, usuaUy printed at the end of the Anglican ™*^? '^'^ ^^« Temple, nor indeed in any of the sacred 
Prayer-book, is ordered to be hung up in a promi- f«™»t"re» where they had previously been, except in the 
neni pUce in the nave of everv church or chai)el, by "^ ""l ^^^ covenant. Twelve unleavened loaves were 
the authoriiv of various visil'ation articles, especial- pl*cedupon this table, which were sprinkled with frank- 
Iv those of krchbishop Parker in 1568. See Affin- jncense (the Sept, adds salt; Lev. xxiv,7). The num- 
i^y ber twelve represented the twelve tribes, and was not 
' __ „ , ^ _ ,. ^ . , diminished after the defection of ten of the tribes from 
TABLE OF (MOVABLE) Feasts, a list of movable t^e worship of iM in his sanctuarv, because the cove- 
ftsiivals prefixed to the Book of Common Prayer for „.nj ^^^^ ^j.^ ^^ns of Abraham was not formallv abro- 
the guidance and instruction of both clergy and Uity. g^ted, and because there were still many true Israelites- 
TABLE of Lessons. A tabular arrangement of among the aposutiziiig tribes. The twelve loaves were 
•'^pture lections for matins and evensong, daily ar- also a constant record against them, and ser\-ed as a 
ranged throughout the year. This Uble was first drawn standing testimonial that their proper place was before 
up in 1549, altered in the revision of 1661, and again the forsaken altar of Jehovah (see Philo, Opp, ii, 151 ; 
amended by Cim vocation in 1870. Clem. Alex. Strom, vi, 279). 

TABLE OF THE Lord, a phrase Uken from Scripture, Wine also was placed upon the table of shew-bread in 

n«ed to designate the holy uble, or alur, of the Chris- bowls, some larger, riirj?, and some smaller, hSbs; 

tiwi Church (I Cor. x, 21). In the Okl Test, the words also in vessels that were covered, mirp, and in cups,. 

t«hl* and altar appear to have been applied indiflTerently nn-spsa, which were probably eraplov^' in pouring in 

w>i ^t*"*^ tl"^ ^^I^^ ^"'.^^\ ^r^^ other terms .^^ ^^'j ^„^ ,j,^ ^-^^ f„,^ ^^^ ^[^^^ ^^^^ ^^ .^ 

^nichhave been used to designate the Lords Uble, it _ , . vu *• r^ n .u *< . i-» 

•« obvious to mention the wor^'alur" as havmg b;.n Sr^'^^J^heTa^^^^^^^ A V t'-slts." W 

«» ecnploved: it is a term, however, which, though it "f ' "'*^ ^^^^ appear m the A. > . as sjKions. Some 

"My essiiy be borrowed in a figurative sense from the «^ ^^^^ ^^re perhaps for incense (nsm^ ■>=-'T2, Mish- 

•ncient Scriptures, is neither found in the New Test, in na,y«m«,v,l). See generally Exod. xxv, 29, 30; xxxvii^ 

the seoK now referred to, nor has it the sanction of the 10-16 ; xl, 4, 24 ; Lev. xxiv, 5-9 ; Numb, iv, 7. 
Church. In the first Prayer-book of king Edward VI, The fate of the original table of shew-bread is un- 

pablisbed in 1549, which may be considered as a con- known. It was probably transferred by David (if it 

nmin^iinl^ between the Missal and our present Prayer- then still existed) to his tem[Mjrary sanctuary on Mt. 

^'the word "altar** occurs in the Communion Scr- ZJ«n» *"** thence by Solomon to his sumptuous Temple, 

^ice at least three times: but in the service of 1552 (the With the other articles of sacred furniture, it was car- 

■^"^ Prayer-book of Edward VI) it is in every in- "<^ *^ay ^X ^^c Babylonians, and possibly in like man- 

«*nce struck out; and if another expression is used in ner restored after the Captivity. Antiochus Epiphanes 

I*)*** of it, that expression is The Lord's Table, This despoiled the second Temple of this as well as of its 

^"^'ontttance is the more worthy of remark, because other treasures (1 Mace, i, 23), and hence on the Mac- 

J'jweter in the older of these books the phrase " God's cabaean restoration a new one was made (iv, 49). Ac- 

?*"^waiadopted as descriptive of" the Lord's Table" cording to Josephus, it was reconstructed in a most 

W «u allowed to remain. See Altar. elaborate and costly manner at the ox[>en»e of Ptolemy 

TABLE or PBOTHisis. See Crki.khce-table. Phn.dcl,,l.u« M»J. xii, 2, where the .lescriptmn i» 

•ji.|v_ ver\' detaiUMi). 1 he same liisr(»naii again deHoru»e8- 

ABLE OF Srcrets, a piece of paper placed at the mvrv bricflv the Hrro<lian Mhew-bread table, which waa 

thT^i- "^ ^ ^^^ "^^'^ '^ conuining the part of carried awiv hv the Komans ( IVar, vii, 5, 5). and wa» 

e service the priest is to say whUe turned to the alUr, deposited hv Vespasian in his newlv erected Temple <,f 

^^ he need not turn to look on his book. This is Peace at Rome (iV/tV/. vii, 5. 7). wh'erc it Kurvived the 

'"^J^pon pasteboard or thin wood, and richly framed, burning of that building under Commodus (Herodian, i, 

we, Encjfdop. ThhAogique^ a. v. 14)^ a„d in the mi.idlc (.f the 6lh centurj' was Uken by 

"^AfiLE OP Shew-bread (D'^aon "{T^'C.tabieofthe ^^« Vandals under Genseric to Africa (Cedren. Com- 

/oreiL Vn»k •-. T M^«k»iMi»« IJ^Vw* /j.1 /- sL P*""^' i, 346). It is said to have been rescued bv Ikli- 

/""^iWombu IV, 7; r.3150n \n^TC. table of the ar- '^ . /* n c.»n\ ^ .. * /^>. ^ .- i *. 

^^ f » ..--.-- »-:v» *f santis (A.l). 520), and sent to ConsUntinople, whence 

"^w»^ 1 ChrtNU xzviii, 16 ; "man in^Trn, the pure it was finally remitted to Jerusalem (Procopius, VandaL 

'^iUr. zzir, 6; 2 Cbron. xiii, 11 ; Sept i| TpdviZa zi, 9). The only authentic representation of this in- 

tcrestiiig article extant i> that upon tbe arch or Tilui 
at Rome [«e Shew-brrai>], which wu cirefullv delir- 
«al«d HDil described by Kebuid (Ar SpolUt Trmpli [Fr. 
«d Kh. I7I6J, c. l>-9) when il K«m9 Co hive been in 
-abetter stale oT preMrvaliuD Ihan at present. See, gen- 
erally, Schlicbter, i>c Jfeuu facierum (llil.lTSS^ also 
in UKDlino, Thaaur. x) ; WiuiuN MuaU. Saer. 1, 336 ; 
Caipzor, A/giar. Crit. p. 278 ; Biihr, b'smbat. d. mo: Cul- 
(HI, i,4Sfi; Vrieilerich, tlliflikiiUt, p. ITO ; 
Keil,r™i;W*o/.p.l09; Paine, FAf T^lb,^^a^^c und Hr 
Ttmplc (Bum. 1861), p. 11; Neumann, IHe Sti/UhUlle, 
-etc (Lei|iB. tWl), p. 185; Rigi^nbach, Die moA Sliftt- 
jlufte(Itawl.llt6T),|>.3T; SuUau,l'eHelin/llu:Tabenia- 
iife (Lund. 1K:3), p. 17-38, See Tabkrsacle ; TKSirLB. 
TABLE OF SirrcESHiON. A liat of [he xicceaHtrs at 
St. Peler made by Euwbiai. He icknowiedKed that 
fliere was grpat difficulty in procuring infnnnation, and 
tii* accouni appevi to hai'e l>een compiled chiefly from 
re)inrta or tradition!. OrbiaSdelily he hu Riven proof, 
liv leaving vacanciea in hii eonjeclural lint, when he liad 
im ]i||!ht M guide him. TbeK vacanciea were subw- 
-qiipnllv Ailed up liv Nicephnru>,Calliiitu>,anil Simon the 
Moiaphras[(«ea Elliott, Oe/t«Mfton./«onia«uw, p. 49M). 

Table-tomb, a tomb Bhaped like a lable nr altar, 
«rected over a grave or place of interment. Set Tomb. 

Tabla-tunilnE. Sco SprBiTL'Ai.isu. 

Tablet i« the inaccurate rendering in (be A. V. of 
two HeU words dsBignaCing some kind of femalf! nma- 
■nent: I. n'T, kum& (ao called, accnrdinjc to (icKn., 
from ibt gMular form ; but, according to Fllrot. a /oclW 

otclasp! Stpt. iintMma tai iripi^j£«i, Vulg. jfeifrniia, 
in Eitod, xixv, 32; J^irX.ino.'. muntmuta, in Numb, 
xxxi, 60), probably dropi hung like beada in a atiing 
around the neck nr arm, u described by ancient au- 
thors on Arabia (Diod, Sic. iii, 44, 50 ; Strabo, xvi, !77). 
i. ^Si? '?3, biitteji' haa-Hr'i>hah, hoota of Ike toul 
(laa. lii, 20, Sept. ^oirvXioi. Vulg. til/aiioriola), L t.prr- 
/HBK-iortfcsofeaaencescirsraelliHK-salUkept in locketa 
aoapeiided about the person. See Urnambst. 

TABLET, ftlKHORiAi. A tablet placed on the floor 
of a church or cluisiei, inscribed with a legend in mem- 
ory of some peraon deceased. 

TABLET, MuRAU A Uhlet on wbich an inscription 
bas been placed, affixed to Ihe wall of a church or cloister. 

Ta'bor (Heb. Tabor', lisri, a momd), tbe name 
of ihree spiiu in Palestine, all closely related lo each 
other, if nut imleeilacLunllv identical. See also Aznotu- 
Tabor j Chihloth-Tahoh. 

1. Hoi'ST Tabor (Sept. TaiS^Wfj [v. r. Tafiii], 
Spot Bajiiip, ftafftip, but ri 'Iraffipiov in Jer. and 
Hosea.andin Josephua [.4^l^T,6,8; (Car, iv, 1,1, etc], 
whohasalBo'ArnpfJviHoi'.asin Polybius, v,70,6; Vulg. 
Thabor), a mountain ptl, Judg. iv, 6, 13, H, elsewheti! 
without this epithet. Josh, xix, 22, Judg. viii, IS; F«a. 
Ixxxix, 12; Jct. xlvi, IS, Hod. r, 1), one of the most 
inWreaiing and remarkable of the single mountains in 
Paleuine. It was a Rsbbinic saying (and showa the 
Jewish estimate of the attractions of the locality) that 
the Temple ought of right to have been built here, bat 
was required by an expreaa revelation to be oeeted on 
Mount Moriah. 




tion, and appropriates as his own the language of the 
psalmist (Ixxxix, 11, 12) — 

*' The heavens are thine, the earth also is thine ; 
The world and the fulness thereof^ thou hast founded 

The north and the south thou hast created them ; 
Tabor and Uermon shall rejoice in thy name." 

2. Hiatory, — Tabor is not expressly mentioned in the 
New Test., but makes a prominent 6gure in the Old. 
The book of Joshua (xix, 22) names it as the boundary 
between Issachar and Zebulon (see ver. 12). Barak, at 
the command of Deborah, assembled his forces on Ta- 
bor, and, on the arrival of the opportune moment, de- 
scended thence with *' ten thousand men after him" into 
the plain, and conquered Sisera on the banks of the 
Kishon (Judg. iv, 6-15). The brothers of Gideon, each 
of whom " resembled the children of a king,'* were mur- 
dered here by Zebah and Zalmunna (viii, 18, 19). Some 
writers, after Herder and others, think that Tabor is in- 
tended when it is said of Issachar and Zebulon in Deut, 
xxxiii, 19, that "they shall call the people unto the 
mountain ; there they shall offer sacrifices of righteous- 
ness." Stanley, who holds this view {Sinai and PaleS' 
tinef p. 351), remarks that he was struck with the as- 
pect of the open glades on the summit as specially fitted 
for the convocation of festive assemblies, and could well 
believe that in some remote age it may have been a 
sanctuary of the northern tribes, if not of the whole na- 
tion. The prophet in Hos. v, 1 reproaches the priests 
and royal family with having " been a snare on Mizpah 
and a net spread upon Tabor." The charge against 
them probably is that they had set up idols and prac- 
ticed heathenish rites on the high places which were 
usually selected for such worship. The comparison in 
Jer. xlvi, 18, " As Tabor is among the mountains and 
Carmel by the sea," imports apparently that those 
heights were proverbial for their couspicuousness, beau- 
ty, and strength. 

After the olosc of Old-Test, histor}*^. Tabor continued 
to be a strong fortress. In the year B.C. 218, Antiochus 
the Great got possession of it by stratAgem and strength- 
ened its fortifications. The town existed on the sum- 
mit in New-Test, times, but the defences had fallen into 
decay, and Josephus caused them to be rebuilt ( War^ 
iv, 1, 8). 

3. Present Cofiditton. — Dr. Robinson (Bibl. RfS. ii, 353) 
has thus described the ruins which are to be seen at pres- 
ent on the summit of Tabor : " All around the top are 
the foundations of a thick wall built of large stones, 
some of which are bevelled, showing that the entire 
wall was perhaps originally of that character. In sev- 
eral parts are the remains of towers and bastions. The 
chief remains are upon the ledge of rocks on the south 
of the little basin, and especially towards its eastern 
end; here are, in indiscriminate confusion, walls and 
arches and foundations, apparently of dwelling-houses, 
as well as other buildings, some of hewn, and some of 
large bevelled stones. The walls and traces of a fortress 
are seen here, and farther west al<»ng the southern brow, 
of which one tall piiinted arch of a Saracenic gateway 
is still standing, and bears the name of Bab el-Hawa, 
* Gate of the Wind.' Connected with it are loopholes, 
and others are seen near by. These latter fortifications 
belong to the sera of the Crusades; but the large bevel- 
led stones we refer to a style of architecture not later 
than the times of the Romans, before which |H!riod, in- 
(ieed, a town and fortress already existed on Mount Ta- 
bor. In the days of the Crusaders, too, and earlier, there 
were here churches and monasteries. The summit has 
many cisterns, now mostly dry." The same wrjtcr found 
the thermometer here, 10 A.M. (June 18), at 98^ Fahr., 
at sunrise at 64^, and at sunset at 74^. The Latin 
Christians have now an altar here, at which their 
priests from Nazareth perform an annual mass. The 
Greeks al<K> have a chapel, where, on certain festivals, 
they assemble for the celebration of religious rites. 
Stanley, in his Xolicti of Localities Visited with the 

Prince of WaleSy remarks, " The fortress, of which the 
ruins crown the summit, had evidently four gateways^ 
like those by which the great Roman camps of our owd 
country were entered. By one of these gateways my 
attention was called to an Arabic inscription, said to be 
the only one on the mountain." It records the build- 
ing or rebuilding of " thb blessed fortress" by the order 
of the sultan Abu-Bekr on his return from the East 
A.U. 607. In 1873 the monks began the construction 
of a convent on the north-east brow of the mountain. 

4. Traditional Importance, — In the monastic ages^ 
Tabor, in consequence partly of a belief that it was the 
scene of the Saviour's transfiguration, was crowded with 
hermits. It was one of the shrines from the earliest 
period which pilgrims to the Holy Land regarded as 
a sacred duty to honor with their presence and their 
prayers. Jerome, in his Itinerary of Paula, writes^ 
" Scandebat montem Thabor, in quo transfiguratus est 
Dominus; aspiciebat procul Hermon et Hermonim et 
campos latissimos Galihese ( Jesreel ), in quibus Sisarft 
prostratus est. Torrens Cison qui mediam planitiem 
dividebat, et oppidum juxta, Naim, monstrabantur.'^ 
This idea that our Saviour was transfigured on Tabor 
prevailed extensively among the early Christians (see 
Robmson, BibL Res, ii, 358 sq.), who adopted legends of 
this nature, and often reappears still in popular religious 
works. If one might choose a place which he would 
deem peculiarly fitting for so sublime a transaction,, 
there is certainlv none which would so entirelv satisfy 
our feelings in this respect as the lofty, majestic, beauti- 
ful Tabor. It has been thought difficult, however, ta 
acquiesce in the correctness of this opinion. The sum- 
mit of Tabor appears to have been occupied by a town 
as early as the time when the Israelites took possession 
of the country (Josh, xix, 22). Indeed, such a strong 
position would scarcely l>e left unoccupied in those 
stormy times of Syria's history. Accordingly, as above 
seen, it is susceptible of proof fn»m the Old Test., and 
from later history, that a fortress or town existed oa 
Tabor from verj' early times down to B.C. 60 or 53; 
and, as Josephus says that he strengthened the fortifica- 
tions of a city there, about A.D. 60, it is certain that 
Tabor must have been inhabited during the intervening 
period, that is, in the days of Christ (comp. Polybius, v, 
70, 6; Josephus, AfU, xiv, 6, 3; H ar, ii, 20, 1 ; iv, 1, 8; 
^"if'^i § 37 J. But as in the account of the transfigura- 
tion It is said that Jesus took his disciples ** up into a 
high mountain apart and was transfigured before them'^ 
(Matt, xvii, 1, 2), we must understand that he brought 
them to the summit of the mountain, where they were 
alone by themselves {kot iciav). Yet it is not proba- 
ble that the whole mountain was cnrcupied by edifices, 
and it is quite possible that a solitary spo^ might have 
been found amid its groves, where the scene could have 
taken place unobserved. The event has, indeed, t>een 
referre<l by many to Mount Hermon, on the ground 
that our Lord's miracle imme<liately preceding was at 
Coisarea - Philippi ; but the interval of a whole week 
("six days," Matt, xvii, 1, Mark ix, 2, "eight days," 
Luke ix, 28) decidedly favors the idea of a considerable 
journey in the inter\'al. See Tr.\n»fic;uration. 

Some Church traditions have given also to Tabor the 
honor of being Melchizedek*s hill, from which he came 
forth to greet Abraham, 9o that here is another king's 
dale, rivalling that at Gerizim, if tradition is to be fol- 
lowed. The whole legend will be found at full length 
in Athanasius {Opp, ii, 7 [Colon. 1686]). That father 
tells us that Salem, the mother of Melchizedek, ordered 
him to go to Tabor. He went, and remained seven 
years in the wood naked, till his back became like a 
snail's shell. 

The mountain has been visited and described bv raul- 
titudes of travellers, especially ( in addition to those 
named above) Russegger {Reis, iii, 258), Hasselquist 
( Voyaffe, p. 179), Volney ( Voyoffe^ ii, 272), Schubert 
{Morgenl. iii, 175), Burckhardt {Syria, p. 332), Stephens 
{Travels, ii, 317), Nugent [lord] {Lands, etc., ii, 198); 


•M (bo Rdud, Fulic^. p. 334; Hacked, lUutlr. nf 
Scrift. p. 304; Tbomaon, La»d niid Bo-J.; u. 13fi; I'ui- 
««. Ilai¥&. p. 401 ; lUdeker, Palal. p. 364 ; Ki Jgaway, 
Tit Lonfi Land, p. »7l. 

3. Tb* Plain (or rather Oak) ok TAiwn ( yt^X 
"lisB ! Stpt. 4 IfiVt en/Jiip ( Vulg. Qiiiniu Th-ib-r) 
it Bwiilioned only in 1 Sim. x. 3 u one of Ibe poiiiu in 
Oat bomeirard journey of Saul a[k«t hia aiioiiitinK by 
Samuel. Ii vu the next ala^ in the JiHiniey aftet 
-KKhel't sepulchre at Zeliah." Bui, unfurtunatoly, 
like HI many nf the other iipiit« nameil in this intcratt- 
ias passage, the position or the Oak ol Tahor has nut 
yet bwn flxeii. See SaVU Ewalil aeenu lo coiiBider 
it certain {gewia) that Tabor and Deborah are merely 
lUJiemit mudei of pronouuciiig the same name, and he 
ucsnlinglT iilentifiea the oak of Tabur with the tree 
mder vrbicli Dehurah, Uachel'g nurse, nas buried 
<<ien. XXXV. 8). and that agiiii with the palm un- 
der which Deborab the pruphelesis delivered her 
oncies (lirtdt. i, itW); ii, 483: iii- 23). and this 
again with the Oak of Ihc old Prophet near Dcth- 
«1 (ibid, iii, 441). But this, tbnuKh most ingcn- 
iuui, can uoly be received aa a conjecture, and the 
pudtiun on which it would land us — "between 
Rimah and Bethel' (Judg. ir, A)— is b>o lar bom 
Rachel's sepulchre to fall in with the conditions 
<i( ibe Darrative of Said's journey, M h)n|C as we 
IhU that to be the traditional sepulchre near 
BHhlehem. We ean only detcrniine that it lay 
amewbere between Bethleheui and Bethel, but 
wbvitieceived the epithet ■' Tabor" it is imiiosaihle Ui 
discw-er. Yet we aee from the names ChisluCh-Talior 
■nd .^innth-Tabar that the mountain gave adjunct tt- 
iltn> tH places at a considerable distance. See Zelxak. 
3. liieCiTr ofTabok (Sept. Ha^Jup v.r. Oa;c(t(a: 
rul){. Tkabor) is mentioned in the lints of 1 Chrtni. vi 
an a dty nf the Heraiile I.evites. in the tribe of Zebn- 
liiu (ver.TT). The c»lahif[ue of Uvilical cities in Josh. 

VBT. H, 35). But the list of the lawns uf Zebulun (ch. 

^x) oauins the name of Ciiisuiti[-Taiioii {ver. 12). 

'' >a tbenfoiv possible either thai this last name is sb- 

lueriiied intoTahor by the chronicler, ot (which is U-» 
^^k\ Ihal by the time lhe« latur ]i>ts were compiled 
"' itetiiitts had established themselves on the aaoreil 
""^(aio, and that the place in c)ue>tioii is Mount Tabor. 
. ^bmlta*, a section of the Hussites, the other be- 
'^ l>no-R as the Calixtines. The Taboriles were >u 
^Hl fmm the fortified city of Tabor, erected nn a 
J^ntain, in the circle of Bechin, in U.,hemia, which 

r^ Wn consecrated bv the He Id-preaching of lluan. 

/« senile and pious mind of that martyr never could 

VT" *nlicipal«l, far less approved, the terrible revenge 
""^h his Bohemian adherents (onk upon Ihe cm- 

?"°*. Ibe empire, and Ibe clergy, in one of the most 
""^rul and bk»dy wan ever known. The Hussites 
?"**>««») their vengeance after the death of king 

T^ceslsiu, Aug. IG. Mia, by the destniclirm of the 

H'^ts ud „„nka were murdered. John /iskV. a Bo- 
~'"<«ii knight, formed a numerouis well-mnuntiHl, and 
'"'^■Miitpd army, which built Tabor, as above dcKrilied, 
'vndi^red it an impregnable depot and place ofde- 
Imc^ He was called Zitka nf tht Cup, beciitse one 
■^*t point for which the HuBtiUs contendeil was tlic 
f* "fthe cup bv the laity in the aacramenu At bis 
h V**' '° '^^ ^''^ immense masa of people whiim he 
Cnlleoted fell to pieces; but under Procopius, who 
"'^'^^f^Vried Ziska as general, the Huvite* again rillinl, 
■"■' ^neil decisive victories over the imiierial armies 
'? Ma? and 1431. Alter this, aa all parties were de- 
^""a* nf coming to t«rms of peace, the Council of Basle 
'"'"poaed, and  compromise was made ; but hostilities 
•e>iD tnke out in 1431, when the Taborites gained  
^pletc Tietory. Owing, however, to the treacbeiy 
Dm tbcy had aided in ascending Ihe 


throne, they were much weakened; and from this lime 
they alMtainrd from warfare, and maintained their dis- 
piiten with the Catholiea only in llie del ilierat ions oT 
the rliet and in theological controvernial writings, by 
means of which their creed ai"<niired a purity ai ' 

y resjiects to the 

I'rolVHiant contewions of the Itith 
menis were gradually made on their religious freedom, 
and Ihey eoniinued to suffer until I hey gnduslly merged 
into the IloiitMiAN Bkkthrkn (q. v.). See Ueaezyna, 
in Udwig, Kriiq. M.fH. vi, 14^, ISfi; ^Eneas Svlvius, 
Hill. Huhrm. episl. 130. 

Tabret (a contraction arfiiii>re/,for"taboring" [see 
Tahkk]) ia the rendering in the A. V. of the two kin- 
dred words qn, lopk (lien, xixi, 27; 1 Sam. x, 5; 
xviii, 6; Isa. v, 12; xxiv, 8; xxx, Si; Jer. xxzi, 4; 

lustminents of the Drum kind. 

Eiek. xxTiii, 13; elsewhere "timbrel"} and nsn, n!- 
pkrlh (.lob xvii, 6), which both mean a musical instru- 
ment of ilie ifr««, kimi (from 7017, to bnil). Thu sort 

■ical and sacreil scenes, especially un fesiii 
Sec Mt'HK:Ai. iNHTHt'MENTS. EHpecially has tnat 
of the drum known as the /•imhuiinn' lieen in vo 
particularly for female peiibrmers. See Timrrei. 

Tsmhonrhic Plajers {from Hercnlanenm). 
Tab'rlmotl (Heb. riibrimmm', la^n^, .flt 

the reign of Asa (1 Kings xv, IS). H.C ante 028, 
The name is in hoimr of the -Syrian god ( comp. the 
analogous fuims 'I'lihiet, Tobiah, and the Phcpiiician 
Tabaram [Cesenius, df-m. nirit. p. 456]). See Kix- 

TmbDlK ClerlcSnim, the catalogue of the cleqy 
so called by Augustine. 

Tabfila Dei, a Latin term for the Table of tik 
Lord (q. v.). 

TabtllB BttOharUtln, the Christian altar. 



peace h« given 
lo the riilhful ill 
medMcval limea. 

Taohasfa. See BArxisit. 

Taohe (C^p, lira; 8«p(. apiait; Viilg. 
Jibuld). The word Ihiu readered occun oaly in tlie 
description of the atnictmr of the tabemade and ira 
flttinsa (Exod. ixri, 6, 11,83; xxxv, Jl; xxxvi, lit; 

the amall hwki b; which a curtain ia suspended to the 
rings Hhereon it hangs, or connecleil vertically, aa in 
the caw of the viil nf the Holy of Holie«, with the 
loops or aoolher curtain. The history of (he English 
word i> philolngically iiileiesting, as preaenting points 
of contact wiib man; different languages. The tiaelic 
and Breloii branches of the Celtic family gite lac, or 

ing appears in the aUactare, ilaecarr, of Italian ; in the 
iiOacker, iUadur, of French. On the other hand, in 
the 'a* of Oulch, and the Zadx of German, we have a 
word of like sound and kindred meaniDg. Our Anglo- 
Saxon laccon and English bifc; (to leizeaa with a hook?) 
•re probably connected with it. In later nse the word 
has slightly altered both its fonn and meaning, and the 
tack is no longer a hook, but a small flat-headed nail 
(comp. Uiei, Roimm. WOrUrb, s. v. " Tacco"). 

The philological relations of the Hebrew word are 
likewise intereuing. It comes from the obscure mot 
Of Ui hinit, which occurs ouly iu Isa. xlvi, I (" atoop- 
eth," 8epL miviTpifSq ) Vulg. amtriluM m) as a ayno- 
nym of S^3 {" boweth down") in the parallel hemistich, 
and ia therelure understood by tietenius and Fursl to aij;:- 
nify fo &md;or by Mllhlau lo bt mwnd (tike inj). The 
only derivatives, besides the proper name Kinu (0"p, 
Xeh. vii, 47) or Krroi (0^)3, Ezra ii, 441, are the term in 
question and ^6^!^, tariol, the imUr (occurriiiK only in ' 

the actual attempt at reconatruc- 
Biiy one familiar with tent archi- 



bila wide and twenty-eighl cubits The Tabernacle -Cur- 
lang,irihey were spreadthuacom- mliie" ns Joined Iit 
billed over the ridge-pole, the sut- the "loops' anii 

.„ w™. ,b.m whi.b u,« ::i-s;i,Kr';:;s 

hook* formed o 


rell U 

lied u 

' PO*'- 

stretched lengthwise of the building- 
(as [heir close correspondence in length would indicate), 
the Joint ahm would have been in the same direction, i. e. 
at right angles with the line of the rail; if croeawise of 
the building (as both Kiggenbach and Fergiisson sup- 
pose), then the line of the suture and that of the "vail" 
could otily have coindded on the supposition that the 
entire extra ten cubits' breadth of the rmbroiderrd " cur- 
tains" was thrown outside the rear of the etlifice. where 
it would be utterly uselen and exposied lo Ihe weath- 
er. Nor could the requireruenlsufthetext cited be met 
by using these colored sheets singly in this manner: not 
longitudinally for the same reason as before ; nut traiv- 
ventely, for then their breadth would not cover both the 

(b.) The goats' - hair sheets, if comUned br such  
contrivance as an S bmik, would be equally impractica- 
ble : placed longitudinally on the ridge (as their length 
wouhl emphatically indicate by this second repetition 
of the thirty cubita), they would certainly leak inlnler- 
ably at the joint, unless this were brought exactly at 
the peak, which the odd number uf the "cnriainj'" in 
this act (in prevents I plscrd trsuHvenely, even in Ibe 

joints" wiih the suture in the sheets under them, they 
mutt (as a corollary IVom the atiave combinaliun of Ihe 
latter) have had th«r extra width (fourteen cubits) 
pn>jn:t whiilly beyond the rear of the building, leaving 
iHilhitig f<n a *- porch" (which Fe^^uaaon imagines). 

(r.) Ill any case it would have been a bad arrange- 
ment to make the suture in either set of roof canvas 
come exactly over so choice a piece of di*per>' as the 
drip must have been apprehended. 

il liiii 


Natnrnl type (*) of tlie "inchB" oi 
(S) In I^ "niikle" or tnroN (I 

As the loopi are explicitly stated to have lireii in the 
flraftr of tlie curtains, the "taches," if meant as hiKihs 
tu join Ihrm ed|;ewiiie, would present the appearance in 
ihe annexed cut, which is substantially the rc|>rr»ejita- 
tion of those interpreters who have adopted thin idea. 
Now, to say nothing for the prcnent of the gap thus left 
in the roof, we timl that these "taches," being exactly 
fifty for each si'l of "curtains," boar no special numeri- 
cal relation tu the general size of the cuitnins them- 
selves, the allies Mijuineri Ix^iig in one case thiny and 
in the other twcnty-ciuht ciildta luiigj whereas all tlie 
other numlien and dimriiHoiHi about the buihliug have 
definite pmportions to each other. Kur, if the sixth or 
extra breadth of tin- goaiA'-lialr cloth was sewed in the 
ordinal}- wsy like ihr other five, can we divine any 
good reason for re-airincc to this singular method of 
joining the remaining wivages. 

Ill sto[i a leak) would not have been provided — 
nothing; of Kergiinson's idea that Ihe fheep-skin and liir 
robe* may have been for ihe piirTyiae of covering the 
joint! In short. Ihe l>are fact of leaving such a crack 
ill the rcHif would have been an irremediable blunder, 
which it is strnii);e Ihat a profewional architect Hhnnld 
make. On Itiggeii I inch's theory of a flat touS, alt Ihe 
rain would ineviljilJy have poureil through this crevice 
directly upim the vail. Jehovah platiiwd better thap 
this, we may be sure. See Tabkknai'UC 

Tachmaa. See Ntgiit-hawk. 

Tacb'monite (llcb. |wiIhout the art] TacUv- 

vi; Vulg. Hi/irMfunjiHUa). "The Tachmonite thai nt 
in Ihe seal," chieramong David's captains (3 Sam. xxiii, 
N), is in I Chmn. xi, tl ealleil " Jashobcam a Maclimu- 
nite," or, as the margin gi%-e» it, '-son of Haihttioni," 
The Oneva vcrnnii has in S Sam. xxiii, 8,  He (hat 
sate in the suate of wi»edome,bdne chicreofthe princes, 
wasAditioorEziii,"nvBiding"Tachmonite''aii an ad- 
ji-ctive derived from DSn, ehiikSn, "wise," and in this 
derivation following Kimchi. Kennicott tua ahown. 


with much appearance of probability, that the words ' no other known city, either in the desert or not in the 

ni»a 30^ yotA* hasfukibetk, " he that sat in the 1 ilesert, which can lay claim to the name of Tadmor. 

seir'are I corruption of Jashobeam, the true name of ^ ?• //«^ory.--As above state«l, Taclmor was built by 

tteheio, and that the mistake arose from an em»r of 1 Solomon probably with the view of securing an inter- 

„ . 1 1 • _. 1 M^w^.. r .u est m and command over the CTcat caravan traffic from 

the tranaenber. who carelesslv inserted PulSa from the , ^, .^ ^ ., >.«!.* u* u i u i » ur u i • 

^^^^ ' - Tw r  •■ ' ^**® Kaat, similar to that which he had establihhed m 

f>rerioua verse where it occurs. He further considers 
** Tachmoni** a corruption of the appellation in Chroni- 
cles, " son of Hachmoni,** which was the family or local 
ximme of Jashobeam. ** The name here in Samuel was 

respect of the trade between Syria and Egypt. See 
this idea developed in Kitto's Pictorial Bible- (note on 
2 Chron. viii, 4), where it is shown at some length that 
the presence of water in this small oasis mu»t early have 

Jit first "^StSSrin, the article T\ at the beginning having made this a station for caravans cmiing west through 
been corrupted into a H; for the word "p in Chronicles ' the desert; and this circumstance probably dictaUil to- 
ss re^ularlv supplied in Samuel bv that article" {IHuert, ! Solomon the imporunce of founding here a garrim^n 
p. «2). Therefore he concludes " Jashobeam the Hach- ; town, which would entiUe him— in return fur the pro- 
-monite'' to have been the Uue reading. Joaephua {Ant, l tection he could give from the jlepreilationsof the Arabs, 
-vii, 12, 4) calls him 'letrffa/ioc vioq 'Axifiaiov, which ' «»<l for offering an intcrrac<liate station where the fac- 
favors Kennicott's emendation. In these oorrectiona i tors of the West might meet ilie merchants of the East 
X«l iCommeHt, ad loc) concurs See Hachmoki; — 1<> a certain regulating power, and perhaps to some 


Tackling is the rendering in the A. V. of ffcev^, 

dues, to which they would tind it more convenient to 
submit than to change the line of route. It is even 

*«««a*iiB « «.,: rc«uc»«K "' "- «: '. - ««-/. p^^iwe that the Phcenicians, who took much interest 

■*fnich occurs only m Acts xxvii, 19, meaning the spars, : ^. . . _* * * i • T i «. * u i ^t ^ 

Y^ / - 1, r • /r • A* r in this important trade, ponited out to Solomon the ad- 

mofK chains, etc, of a vessels furniture (as m Diod. ^ u- u u i i • u: * — • u* j • <• _- 

^v' ^- ■„  2 , ... ,, T%\ u " a a . vantage which he and his subjects might denve from 

Wc. xiv. /9; so of household movables, Polvb. ii, 6, 6; ^, ^j* i »• ., „„^ ^^ •^*; „ !#• u u„ k,.;i i:..„ - e -.: 

* _,' , . . . - ft- .» !• • • < 1 1 the regulation and protection of it bv building a forti- 
etjuipage, Xenoph. A nab, iv, 7, 27; Herodian, vi, 4, 11 ; '^ ^ - " 

warlike apparatus, Diod. Sic. xi, 71). See Ship. 

tied town in the quarter where it was exposed to the 
greatest danger. A most im|>ortant indication in favor 

Tacqaet, Asdrew, a Jesuit of Antwerp, known for of these conjectures is found in the fact that all our in- 
hin skill in the mathematical sciences, died in 1660. ! formation concerning Palmvra from heathen writers de- 
lie published, among other things, a good treatise on : scribes it as a city of merchants, who sold to the West- 
artronomy, an edition of Euclid, etc The prejudices eni nations the products of India and Arabia, and who 

iiC the times seem to have prevented him from more ef- 
fectually defending the system of Copernicus. His col- 
lected works were published at Antwerp (1669, 1707, 

7ad'mor (Ileh. Tadmor', '^b'lri, prob. city of 

palmu [see below] ; Sept. OiCfiup v. r. OoiSfiop ; Vulg. 

J*c]/«mra), a city ^ in the wilderness*' which Solomon is 

were so enricheil by the traffic that the place became 
proverbial for luxury and wealth and for the expensive 
habits of its citizens. 

We do not again read of Tadmor in Scripture, nor is 
it likely that the Hebrews retained possession of it long 
after the death of Solomon. No other source acquaints 
us with the subsequent history of the place, till it reap- 

rtdd to have built (1 Chron. viii, 4). In the neariv par- P«*" »« ^^e account of Pliny (//«/. Xat, v, 24) as a con- 

aiWl psaage (1 Kings ix, 18), where the phrase «*in the i siderablc town, which, along with its territory, formed 

\»nd'' is tdded to the description, indicating that this, \ «« independent sUte between the Roman and Parthian 

Uke the associated cities, was within Solomon's legiti- , empires. Afterwards it was mentioned by Appian (iJe 

mate jurisdiction, the reading "Tadmor" is adopted in ^^'''^- ^''»'*- ^'» ^)' »* reference to a still eariier |)erio<l of 

t^ A.V. from the Keri, or margin ; the Kethib, or text, ' ^Jrae, in connection with a design of Mark Antony to 

h« n-n, Tamdr (Sept. Bep/iri^ v. r. eafi,iwfr, Vulg. »^^»»" ^''7']^; P*»"^f' '^ , The inhabitants are said 
/w-.- \ u- L u Ti I 11 I. • 7 1 L;... I I to have withdrawn themselves and their effects to a 

' atfliiro), which should probablv be pointed "i^D, bv ^ ... .^ « u- *^„ i *k« ^....i... ^^ 

' -  -' • Btrong })osition on the Kuphrates, and the cavalrv en- 

oinrraction f.,r "niS-in, or in imitation of the original terotlan empty city. In the 2d century it seems to 
■^T?. the pa//A-tree (see Keil, Comment. a<l loc.\ S4ie ' have been beautifictl by the emperor Hadrian, as may be 
'^ADi. The name wouhl seem to indicate an abundance ; inferred from a statement of Stcphanus of Byzantium 
<>i iUte-|MlroB anciently in that vicinity, although they as to the name of the city having been changed to 
*n Karce in iu present neglected state. Hatlri<inopolis (s. v. TloX/ivpa). In the beginning of 

!• Cliuncal Identification, — There is no reasonable the Hd centiir}' it became a Roman colony under Car- 
^bt that this city is the same as the one known to I acalla (A.D. 211-217), and received the jus Italicum. 
w Greeks and Romans and to modem Kurope by the Fmm thin |>eri<>d the influence and wealth of Palmyra 
"■n>«,in some form or other, of Palmyra (ira\/it;/)a, rapidly increaHci!. Th(»ugh nominally subject to Rome, 
lIaX/i{|[>^, Palmira\ The identity of the two cities re- ! it had a government of its own, and was ruled by its 
'^8 fiwn the following circumstances: (1.) The same . own lawn. The public affairs were directe<l by a senate 
^ V 8{)ecially mentione<l by Josephus {A nt, viii, 6, 1) chosen by the people ; and most of its public monuments 
^ hetring in his time the name of Tadmor among the I were built, as the inscriptions show, by *' the senate and 
'^TTi«n8,,nil Palmyra among the (Ireeks; and Jerome, peopU*." For nearly a centurj' and a half this pro8|)er- 
'*) Im Latin translation of^ the Old Test., translates ity <rontinued, and it was only checked at length by the 
ifclinor by Palmira (2 Chron. viii, 4). (2.) The modem pride it generated. 

i^kc name of Palmyra is substantially the same as The story «>f the unfortunate Valerian is well known. 
5[j^ Hebrew wi^nl, being TVufmur, or Tafhmur. (3.) Reing captured by the Persians, his unworthy wn did 
^M Word Tadmor has neariy the same meaning as Pal- not use a single effort to release him fmm the hands of 
wyri, signifying probably the "City of Palms," fn)m his conquerors. Odeuathus, one of the citizens of Pal- 

**■'• a palm ; and this is confirmeil by the Arabic myra, nrvenged the wrongs of the fallen emperor, and 
^'>nl fur Palma, a Spanish town on the (luadalquivir, vindicated the majesty of Rome. He marched against 
• i»«?h i<< gjid if^ Y)e called Tadmlr (see (rescniiis. in his the Persians, t<Mik the province of Mesojiotaniia. and de- 
'*«'Hfni*,p.345). (4.) The name Tadmor, or Ta<lmor, fie<l Sapor U'neath the walls of Ctesiphon (A.D. 200). 
ajtuilly n^jpjjpj as the name of the city in Aramaic and The services thus rendered to Rome were so great that 
»w«k inscriptions which have been found thero. (5.) Odenathus was ass(»ciated in the sovereignty with (lal- 

.pChrcmiclea, the city is mentioned as having been lienus (A.D. 2ft-l). He enjoyed his dignity but a short 
7^, ^Solomon after his conquest of llamath-Zobah, peri<Mi, biding niunlered by his nephew at a bantpiet in 
*^ It is named in conjunction with ''all the store-cities the city of Kmesa only three years afterwards. His 
*^ he built in Hamath." This accords fully with reign was l)rief. but brilliant. Not only wa«* Sapor con- 
w atnation of Palmyra [see Hamatii] ; an<l there is quored and Valerian n-venged, but Syrian rebels and 



the northern b»rbiritns, who no* began (1 


«,relL thefo 


nsnor — Zenobis, his wi( 
jinil Pslmyii will «]w«ys be Msooiaieil ao long at hinto- 
n- rcmiins. The virtue, the wixlam, itiil (he heroic 
■|)iric or this extraurdinary womui hive Belilom been 
equalled. At first the wu content with the title of 
regent during the minority of hor son VabalUtus, but 
unfortunately inibition prompted her to •dopt the high- 
aounding title of "Queen of the Eut." She soon add- 
ed Egypt U> her pa«es«oni in Syria, Aria Minor, and 
Menputamia, and ruled over it during a period of five 
year*. In A,D, 271 the emperor Aurelian turned his 
arms againU her, and having defeated her in a pitched 
battle near Aniioch and in another at Emeaa, he drove her 
back upon her desert home. He then marched his vet> 
«riiis acrosfl the parched plain and invested Palmyra, 
which capitulated aftei a brief struggle. Kenobia at> 
tempted to escape, but was captured on the banks of the 
Euphrates, and brought back to the presence of the con- 
queror. She was taken to Rome, and there, covered 
with ber jewels and bound by fetters of gold, she was 
led along in front of the triumphant Aurelian. Zeno- 
ia deserved a better fate. If common humanity did 


honorable, though fallen, foe, the memory of her hus- 
band's victories and of tiis services rendered to the State 
might have saved her from the indignity of appearing 
before a mob in chains. 

Aurelian look Talmyra in A.D. '^73, and led in it a 
■mall garrison, but soon after his departure the people 
rose and massacriH) them. On hearing of this the em- 
peror returned, pillaged the city, and put the inhabi- 
tants to the sword. It was soon repaired by the orders 
" the conqueror, and the Temph 

I coalinued to be inhabited until the downfall of tbe Ro- 
msn empire. There is a fragment of a building with  
I Latin inscription bearing the name of Diocletian ; and 
; there are existing walls of the ciiy of the age of the em- 
I peror Justinian, together with the remains of  costly 
' aqueduct which he built. It eventually became the seat 
J of a bishop, but never recovered any importance. When 
I the successors of Mohammed extended their conquests 
I beyond the confines of Arabia, Palmyra was one of tbe 
j list places which became subject to the caliphs. In the 
year 659 a battle was here fought between the caliphs 
Ali and Moawiyah, and won by the fonner. In 7M it 
WIS still so strongly fonilied that it took the caliph 
Merwan seven montba to reduce it, the rebel Solyman 
[ having shut himself up in it. 

From this period Palmyra seems Id have gradually 
' fallen into decay. Denjamtn of Tudela, who was theie 
' towards the end of the 12th century, speaks of it aa 
I "Thadmor in the desert, built by Solomon of eqnalljr 
large stones [with Baalbec]. This city is sunonnded 
by a wall, and stands in the desert, far from any inhab- 
I ited place It is four days' journey from Baalath [Baal- 
bee], and conuins 3000 wariike Jews, who are at wai 
! with the Cbristians and with the Arabian subject* of 
their neighbors the Uohammedana.'' 
this statement, it miy be remarked 
of Palmyra attest the pKS- 
:iBt nourishing period, and 

ven objects of public honor. 

that the existing 




that they, in 


the general 




vered it 

years later, under the reign of Diocletian, the walls of 
city were rebuilL It appears fhim an inscription In 
■e assisteii tbe emperor Alexander Severus in his wars 
liusi the Persiana; and there are proofs of iu having 

pense conducted a caravan to Palmyra. This was in 
A.D, 268, not long before the lime of Zenobia, who, ac- 
cording to some writers, wis of Jewish extraction. Irby 
and Mangles (Travehip. 273) also noticed a Uebnw in- 
scription on the architiave of the great colonnide, but 
give no copy of it, nor say what it expreeeed. The 
latest bistorical notice of Tadsmr which we have been 
able to find is, that it was plundered in 1400 bv the 
army of Timur B^ (Tamerlane), when 200,000 sheep 

if Ike Balos of Palmyra. 

Dugh thoe tiilla tha 
icw. Th« thnuundi 

a mJEe aiHt  half, pre- 

iiub a slightly 

p. !M), Kpralu uf TidriHir u mcnly  village, but mlv- ••! Curinlhian CDlumns of icI 

nlic* i>f incinit art anJ oiacnitivcnce wrre gcarcdy Mut an a|>|)earanct:iii'hicli ti 

kmura in Eurupe till t.>wanla ihe cln« of Ihp 17th ™i'- , forest. Tlic »iic on wliirh 

IDTy. la tlie year 1678 aome EnglliJi merchanU at ; rlevatecl alxivc the level of the Minnuiiiliiig 

Aleppii rewlveii lu verify by actual inspectiun llie re- cirvarufLTcnce of abnul ten milcH, which the Arab* be- 

(■n-ti cuueeruing theae ruin* whiuh exiw«l in that place. : lieve In ciniiciilc with Ihe extent of the ancient city,** 

'I'hu expediiion icaa anfurtutiale, fur Ibey were pluu- ' Ihey Hnil andent renuitia whenever they ilig witJiiB 

drTvd cif everrthiii); hy the Arab*, and returned with this apace. There arc, iiulec * ...... 

circnmference ; Init Ihii wag 
a dcao^te 

ir olijvci anaec»ni|>1i>)ied. A aecniiU expeilitiun, in , more than three n 

l<:i*l, hull belter auvceH; but Ihe aceiiunhi which were . |iniliaLly built by Juin 

laun^ht back received liille creilil, as it xeemnl itnliiie- )iail hut its ancient in 

ly that a city whit-h. acconliii); la their rvpnrt, must iiiaec, and when il was cnnaetiueutly ilcNtable to cuii- 
hare been ao magniticent, should have been erectnl in ! liact ita bounds, so as tn ineliulc only the moie valuable 
the midst of-lescrla. When, hi>wercr,in the year 17ri3, portion. VnliiFywellilcscribcM the general asjiect which 
Hubert WwhI published the viewaand |ilanB which hail , these ruins present: "In tbe s|)ace covered liy these 
tinn taken with great accunicy on the spot two yearn ruins we mnnetiniea Bnd a palace of which nothing i«- 
befure Iry Dawhius, tha Inith of the earlier accounts mains but the court and walb; sometinws  temple 
could nn kHigi-r be doubted j and it appcaml I hat nei- wliosc pcrislyle is half thrown down; and now a pur- 
ther (treece nor Italy cnuld cxhiliil. anticjuities which, I tico, a gallery', or triumphal iirh. Here stand sniupa 
ill pcnnt of splendor, could rival those of I'almyra. Krom of columns, whose aytnmelry is desiruyed by the fkll 

"' ' " of many ufihem; there wc sec Ihem rangvd in rows of 

such Irngib that, Nmilnr lu rows of trees, they deceive 
the Kiglit.aiid assume the apjioarAiice of continued walls. 
If from this striking scene we cast oiir ej-cs u|ion the 
il between ground, another, almost as variiHl. presents itself — on 
' It I all sides we bvliolil nothing but subvened shafts ; some 
1- whole, olhers shattered lo jiiecHi or dislocated in their 
II, I joints; and on whicli uilc soever we huk, the eaitb 
X ; is Kirewii with vasl stnnei^ half buried ; with broken 
ntablature*. muiiliteil friezes, diaiigurrii relief clFamd 
ciiiiiistit of numbers of peasanls' mud-huts, clustered lo- . anilptures, violateil tombs, and altars ilefllcd by dust." 
t^cther around the relics of the great Temple of the Sun. I The colunnailc and individual temples are inll-rior in 
The ruiiia cover a sandy plain sireichiiig atuig the bcauly and mnjeely to those which may be seen else- 
Lases of a range of mountains calkil Jcbcl llrlaes, run- I where — such, for cxamjilc, as tlie ranbeiion anrl the 
niiig nearly north ami south, dividing Ihc great desert remains <if the temple of .lupiier at Athens; and there 
trim the desert plnins extemling westwaril towanls Dn- is evidently no one leinjilc n(iial lu Ihc Temple of the 
inaMus and the north 'if Syria. The lower emiuencra Sun at Hanlliec, wliiirh, as built Imlh at about Ihe same 
■if these mountains, bnrilering the ruins, are covered with i periul of lime and in the same onler uf architi'CtuTe, 
iiumeniiiH sulitaiy square lowers, the tinnba uf Ihe an- i sui^cMa itnrlT hmm naturally as an diject of ctnnpari- 
<-ient ['alinyrciKs. in which areliHind memorials idmiUr son. But the bnig liiiea id' Curinthlau columns at I'al- 
ti> tliiwe uf KgypL They are aeea to a great diolance, i myra, as seen at a ilistnnce, are peculiarly im^iotingi 
and have a striking effect in this ilescrt suliturle. Itc- | and in their general effect and a[)parent vadlncu, they 

that time 

il hai frei|uenlly lieen 


sd by tr 

and it is > 

now readilv accenibie 


cantels from IJamascua. Its ruin 

e oheii 

scribed and 

1 driincaled. 

8. PrtK 

at fttm-HM.— Tartmor 


tbe KnphF 

al» and Uamath, to t 

he BO 


city, in a 

>f Ihe desert. 

till found in the ganl 

ens ai 

round II 

. uf the ui 



Df McBopoUmia anil BabylnnU, and among wbkh it 

r, lu which the most 
I ihe iiDprena of laler 

riiilhian nnlet of pil- 
All the buililinga lo 
'e probably erected in 


the Ut«r buildings belong to ibe 

lara was prefeireil to any ulbcr. 

which these column* belongeil wi 

tbe^dsnilSd centuries ar<iur sra. many inKnptiona 

are nf later date ; but nc> inscripllnii earlier than the 3d 

century seems yet (o liare been iliscnvcrcd. 

Tiie Temple of the Sun is llie niMil remarkabla and 
magnificent ruin oT I'almjTa, The conrt by which it 
was eudosed WIS 179 feet wiuaie, within which a double 
row of eolumns was couiinued all niuiBl. They were 
890 in number, of which about sixty still remain stand- 
ing. Ill Ihe middle of the court stood (he lemple, an 
oblung (|uadrangulaT building sumiundnl with odunuis, 
of wliich about twenty slill eicist, tbi«.gh without e^i- 
tals, of which they have been |iliindere<l, pmbalily be- 
cause tbey were composed of metal. In the inlerior. at 
the south enil,iB now the humble moaiiue of the village. 

A little beyond the temple bcginn [be great culmi- 
nade, which runs nearly from east to west; it isof great 
length, and very bpaiilifui. The columns are in good 
pmporttiin and eKucUmC preservation ; eacli sbaft con- 
nsling of three ctiunes of atone admirably jointed, with 
a bracket fm a bust or sliliie interiKued between the 
second and tliird. In iheir presciil naked condition, 
these brackets are unsightly; yet when they were sui^ 
mounted by slatnea the elTect must have been extreme- 
ly gTsint 

The necropolis of ratmyni lies half an hour north- 
west of the Temple of the Sun, in the Waily eUKebflr, 
the ravine thnnigh which we made our approach to the 
city. The lomb^ which are very numerous and ex- 
tcemelv inlentsling, are almost all of them towen, Iwo, 
three, four, and in one iimtanCc five stories high. The 
lumbof jBmb]ichus,itKnliancdby Wwid.isnuw dread- 
fully dilapidated, its stairs crumbled away, and the 
floor of the fourth story entirely gone. Ic is Ave sto- 
ries high, and was built in the third year of the Chris- 
tian sra. That of Manaiua is peculiarly interesting, 
and in some respects, indeed, the most curious building 


in wonderful preservafion, and its: 
description will afliird simie idea of Ihe uthem. as ihey 
e almnst all built on Ihe same plan, though far leiM. 
nulifuL It is a lofty square u.wcr. alHiut tifieen feet 
tiie side, lessuning by three courses of slonelike sle|» 
about a third of its beigbl. An inncripiion in honor 
the deceBSe<l u engraved on  tablet over Ihe door- 
ly. The principal apartment is lined with four Co- 
ritilbian pi1ast«rs on each siile, wilh recesses between 
I mummies; each recess divided into Are tiers 
.■es, only one of which retains its position. The 
PalmyrencB buried their dead in the Egyptian, 
■nd Wooil found in one of the tombs a mum- 
ill respects similar to those in the land of Ihe 

ufAorifv«._Tbe origin^ sources for Ihe hisioiy 
of Palmyra may he seen in ibe .Scfiplora Hulnritr A «- 
gvtit, Tttgialit Tyramd, vol. xiv ; IHrat Aurrliautu. 
 Katropai; ix, 10, II, 12. In A,D. 1696 
Abraham Seller published a most instructive work, en- 
titled The AnIiquUkt a/ I'alnnini, oiBinimiig Ihe llit- 
' "V "/"'*' Cilg mil ill JCmprrori, which contains eev- 
ral ijreek inscriptions, will) iranblalions and explana- 
tions. Uesenius published an account oTlhe Palmvrene 
inscriptions at Rome and Oxford in hia if-rtHmrjiin 
SeriptHra l.uigHirgtie I'kauiea, g !&. The best work on 
the ruins of Palmyra is sliiJ Mobert Wood's splendid fi.- 
lio, eiuilled Tkf Bvint nf Palmyra, etc. (Lond. 175.1V 
Verv good accounts of tiiem mav also he seen in Irbv 
and'MMigles,rrarfi(v Kichter, WatlfiAnm! Addisoi'i. 
Damaeat rmd Palmyra. The last work contains  
good history of the place; for which, see also Rumh- 
mUller's fiiU titog., translated by the Rev. N. Slorren ; 
and, in particular, Cellarius, IHMierl. dt Imp. Palmfmo- 
(leaa). Gibbon, in eh. xi of the I>tclmf ami F,itt, has- 
given an account of Palmyra with his usual vigor and 

slate of Ihe niins, see Poner, llandbimli for Syria urn 
Palmlmf, p. biSt~bV»: Beaufort, K-^gjUiim Stpuliknt 
etc., vol. i ; and BHdeker, S^ria, p. 523. Besides Wood' 
great work, excellent views of Ibe place have been pub 
lished by Cassas in his Vtigaye. Pillomgve de hi ^yrie 
and Uter by Laborde in his f'oyape m Orifnl. Reci-nil; 
photographs have been taken by various artists, and ai 

and remarkable place is thus made accessible to th< 


UK, D.I>., an Episcopal n 

Taft. Gko 
bom at Mend' 
uate of Brown University^ in the class of tSlS." He 
pursued his theological sludiea under the dinrlioo nf 
the Rev. Dr. Crocker, rector of St. John's Church, Prov- 
ideirce, R. I., and was onlaineil a deacon bv bishoji (Iris- 
wold, March ;, itW, and a presbyter, Sept. 2, 1K19. He 
became rector of St. Paul's Church in Pawlncket, R. I.. 
in October, 1820, cnnlinuing for a time lo leach in a 
school in I'rovidence with which he bad been connected 
for several years. Such double service not being atto- 
gelher satit^sclnry Ui his bishop, be gave a gentle hint 
to the parish of Si. Paul's that "he had nol ordained 
their minister to keep school;" and he thenceforth de- 
voted himself with great leal and success to his work 
as a minister of the (inspel until his rtealh, which oc- 
curred at PawCiickel. Dec. 11, 1869. His ministiy was 
a little over fifty years in duration. (J. C. S.) 

Taggart, Bamuel, a I'resbyterian minister, was 
born at Londonderry, N. II., March 24, 17:>4. lie grad- 
uated at Dartmouth College in lii4, was licensed ta 
preach by Ihe Presbytery of Boston June 1, 1776, and 
was on< si lied ami installed paslorof the Church at Cole- 
mine. Hampshire C«., Mass., Feb. 19, I7TT. He was  
member of C->iigresa from 1803 to lfll7. He died April 
25,lM'>.'i. Mr.Taggart possessed  mind of great strength 
and vigor. He published several theological ireailH-s, 
aermons, orations, political speeches, etc. (1800-19). See 
Spcague, AimaU of the Amr. Pulpil, iii, 377; AUibone, 


It may be observed that the Carapa, rd ^rfmroirtdai mentary on Eoclesiaatea, in a horoiletico-philoflophical 
the fixed garrison of lonians and Carians established style (Venice, 1599) : — D'4n 01"^B PSIp, L e. ex- 
by Psammetichus I, may possibly have been at Daph- ^^^^ f^^^ Yiia commentary on the Psalms, published 

"*• with Penini's work, nntn YZl\ « the tongues of gold** 

Tah'pends (Heb. Tachpenoft', 0''38nri, evidently ^^^^^^ 1599)^ The Ma of hU complete commentary on 

of EgyptUn origin, but uncertain in its signification the Psalms is to be found in the libraries of Paris and 

[see Tahpanhes]; Sept. BtKn/^ivfic v. r. BiKifiiya; Oxford i—D-^nnO onb, "the bread of sacredness," in 

Vulg. T-apAn^*), a proper name of an Eg>'ptian queen, ^^^j^^ ^^ p^,,^ i 17 . commenUrj- on Daniel and 

hhe «;as wife of the Pharaoh who received Hadad the ^^^ g^,^ Megilloth, viz. the Song of Songs, Ruth, Lam. 

Edomite, and who gave him her sister in mamage (1 ^ . t. , • \ ^ r« *u /uj wjaov t -. 

Kings xi, 18-20). B.C. cir. 1000. In the Sept. th^ lat- entaUons, Ecclesiastes^ and Esther (ibid. 1608). Inits 

ter is called the elder sister of Thekemina, and in the P'^**"^ f*>"" ^^'' ^ '"^ "^"^^ ^T")' ^"«°**°'t *^^ ^*" 

addition to ch. xu Shishak (Susakim) is said to have ^**^* commentanes on three books, and MhS. of the 

given Ano, the elder sister of Thekemina his wife, to entire commentaries are still exUnt:— ST^K *l'Kn, a 

Jeroboam. It is obvious that this and the earlier state- commentary on Job, extant :— n^d G*^pOB, i. e. ques- 

ment are irrecouciUble, even if the evidence from the tions and decisions (ibid. 1622). See FUrst, BibL Ju<L 

probable repetition of an elder sisUr be set aside, and -y 4^2; De Rossi, IHzionario Storico, p. 814 (Germ, 

it is scarcely necessary to add that the name of Shi- ^^^j ^ steinschneider, Catalo^us Libr, Hebr, in BibL 

shak^j chief or only wife, KaraAmat, does not support ^^ coL 1533; Kitto, Cyi^p. s. v.; Finn, Sq>hardim, 

the Sept, addition. See Shishak. There is therefore ^^^ (B. P.) ^ ^ *^ ' -^ 

but one Tahpenes or Thekemina. At the time to which _ * 

the narrative refers there were probabl v two, if not three, Tajus, SAMUK^ bwhop of Saragossa, lived m the 

lines ruUng in Egvpt-the Tanites oi the twenty-first 7th century. In the year 646 he went to Rome at the 

^Ivnastv in the loWer country ; the high-priest kings command of king Chmdaswmth, and with the sanction 

at Thebes, but possibly they were of the same line ; and ©f the seventh Council of Toledo, for the sake of bring- 

I>erhap8 one of the last/«ii«Jcm/j» of the Rameses familv. "'R *>"ck the long-missed Erposttio tn Hiobum s. Mora- 

To the Tanitic line, as apparently then the most pow- ^«"'»» *»^- ^'^'^v* "^ Gregory 1. According to tradition, 

crfiil, and as holding the territorv nearest Palestine, the *>« ^«» ^^^^^'^ »» * ^"»<*" ^*»« P^«c« "^'^^^ »^ ^»» ^'^'^' 

IMiaraoh in question, as weU as the father-in-law of <ien- Tajus was also present at the eighth and ninth 

.Si.l.,m(m, probably belonged. If Manetho's list be councils of Toledo. Besides an Epigtola ad Eugenium 

correct, he may be conjectured to have been Psusennes. Toletanum epvicopum, he also wrote Sentmtiarum lib. v 

.Sic Pmakaoh, 9. No name that has anv near resem- (Migne, PatroL vol Ixxx), containing extracts from 

1. lance to either Tahpenes or Thekemina' has yet been Gregory's work on («) God, creation, creature, govern- 

Jound among those of the period (see Lepsius, ^d»^ ment of the world; (6) incarnation. Church, Church 

Inch), government; (c) moral life, virtues ; (d) sins and vices; 

■n t./ u /IT u 'n 1 /- M«.M«. • r^ • i (0 s^oners, prince of this worfd, Aiitichrist, judgment, 

Tah'rea (Heb. Tachre «, ?"nnn, curmififf [Gesenius], ^^demnation. Wherever Gregorv faUed hii, he sup- 

or ^fiiyht [FUrst] ; Sept, 9apa v. r. iiapa\ ; A ulg. Tha- ^n^d hU work from Augustine's writings. The work is 

rart), third named of the four s<m8 of Micah, Jonathan's preceded by a Prof ado ad Quiricum Barcinonenstm 

grandson (1 Chron. ix, 41); called in the parallel pas- /!:pMccpum,*to whom the work is dedicated, together with 

sage (viii, 35) Tarka (q. v.). B.C. post 1037. the Resporuio Quirici. See Reffensburger Conrfrsatims' 

Tah'tim-Hod'shi {llch,Tachiim'Chod»ki\n^r\nV\ I-exikon, s. v.; Theologitches Utdvertal-Lexikan, b,v, 

••pHH, lit. lotnlanda my month ; Sept. Bcr/3a(r(uv »/ itrriv '"* '^ 

Na/3a<Tai v. r. i^awv adatrai; Vulg. in/eriora JJodsi), Talapolns, priests or friars of the SUmese and 

a region (V1X, " land") mentioned as one of the pUces ®^^«' ^"**»*" nations. They reside in monasteries under 

• •* I I i" "u 1 • u* r «t 1 J r T 1 the superintendence of a superior, whom thev call a 

visited bv Joab during his census of the land of Israel, „ ^ /i i-u • ur . .u ^' % i. 

V.., , , ,? . .« « • «x .^ Sanerat, Celibacy is obligator>' upon them, and a breach 

between Gilead and Dan-jaan (2 Sam. xxiv, 6). fUrst ^^ ^^^^^j j^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^„; J^^ ^^ ^l,^^ .^ i^^^^ 

{HambcorUrb. i 380) proposes to separate the "Land ^.^^ ^^^^^ ^hev peribrm penance for such of the pco- 
of the lachtim from Mlodshi," and to read the latter j^ ^ them "for it; are ver^' hospitable to stran- 

as Harsht-lhe people of Harosheth (comp. Judg. iv, ^,,^ ^^^j^j j„ ^^^j^ ^^,,^g ^f ^^^^j^^. ^^^^ ^^ 

2). rhemus restores the ^xt of the Sept, to read - the ^j^ ^^^^j^ Talapoins, who live according to rules simi- 
Laiid of Bashan, which is Edrei. This in itself is fea- ,„ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^j,^ ^^„^ The residences of the Tala- 
sible, although it IS certainly very difficult to connect it j„^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ,j,^ ^^ ^j,^ ^^^^ .^^ ^^,_ 
with the Hebrew Lwald (Oej^ch iii, 20/) proiK>8es to ,^,„ ^,^^ ^^^^^^^ j^^^.j ^^j^l^, ^^,^^ entrances ai*id 
read //ennon for H»d8hi; and (n-st^nius (Jhemur p. ornamental roofs. 
4oO a) (Ii8mi!>j)e8 the passage with a rtx pro ttano haben- 
dum. There is a district called the Ard et-Tahta, to Talbot, Peter, a Roman Catholic divine, was the 
the east-northeaHt of Damascus, which recalls the old ^^ ^^^^ir WiUiam Talbot, and was bom in the county 
name— but there is nothing to show that anv Israelite "<* Dublin in 1620. He entered the society of Jesuits in 
was living so far from the Holv Land in the time of i Portugal in 1635; and after studying philosophy and di- 
David. It seems probable from the connection that | vinity, went into holy orders at Rome, whence he re- 
the whole is a proper name, descriptive, however, of , turned to Portugal, and afterwards to Antwerp, where 
the plivsical as|>ect of the region to which it was given, i *»e read lectures on moral theology. He is supposed to 
The ro'ute taken bv the king's messengers was tirst east- i ^ ^^^ Person who, in 1656, reconciled Charles II, then 
ward to Moab; then northward through Gilead; then , «^ Cologne, to the popish religion; and Charles Is re- 
from Gilead to "the land of Tahtim-Hodshi," to Dan- PO^e^ ^^ ^a^e sent him to Madrid to inform the 
jaan and Zidon. "The land of Tahtim-Hodshi" was court of Spam of his conversion. Sent to England in 
thus manifcstlv a section of the up|>er valley of the Jor- ' ^*»e interest of the Romish Church, he paid court to 
dan, probably that now called A rd el-Uuleh, lying deep I Cromwell, whose funeral he attended as a mounjer. In 
down at the western base of Hermon. I ^^^^ P^Pe Clement IX disjMjnsed with his vows as Je»- 

Taitazak or Tavtazak Ioskph a Snaniah Tew '"'^ *"^ advanced him to the titular archbishopric of 
TaitaaaK or TaytaaalL. Joseph, a bpamsh Je^, \ j^^j^^j^ ,j^ immediately began to persecute those of 
belonged to hose 800,000 exiles who had to leave their | j^j, ^^^^^ ^^,^ j,^^, ^i iJ.^^ Jj,^.^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^. 

country m 1492. W ith his father and brothers, he set- , quarrelled with Plunket, the titular primate ; and when 
tied at Salonica, where he wrote qOl*^ P"^1B, " the the popish plot was discovered in England in 1678, he 
fniitful bough of Joseph" (after Gen. xlix, 22), a com- | was imprisoned in Dublin Castle on suspicion of being 


^fMinsfldJ (Hid Newark, lie entered Pelerhoutic,Cani- 

of Suffulk, remuved In MiKdilen College, of wbich lie 
afttnrBrda became fell»w, neiiiur felkiH', and preriileiir. 
In 1648 he wu nnlained at Uidilon in the PreHbyicriui 
fiirro, and in 1652 became milium ofSt. Mary's, Shrewii- 
hury. At the Kettoraliun. nnt wisbing (o be m-onliiiii- 
ed,'hewaBejecKil,«id in 1673 relumed tu Shrembury, 
and became pasluriifa Diweoling coDgregatirm tberc. 
He died April 11, 1708, and was buried in St. Hary'e, 
Khrewsbiirv, He published, Vtetc oJ'Umrmal lluloty 
to 1700 (Loiid. 17110, fuL) :—«*ort Hitlory of Sckiim 
<170&, Svo):— Cimjuirrartniu on S. GiinKvm^i Aruofr. 
.See Chalmers, Bto5.Wrf,s.T,-, AllibvDe, Dkt. of Jiril. 
and A mer. A vlhort, >. r. 

Talleyrand (he PiKi(-.oHi>). Alezandr* An- 
g^lique, a noted French prrlare, was bom in Paris, 
Oculii, 1736, and after a course af educatjun at the Col- 
lege de la Kleche, the Seminary or St. Sulpice, and un- 
der the directiiHi of abbe Buurlier, became nne of the 
almoners of the king. later viear-genetal orVenluu,and 
<in 1762) abbot of Uard (diocese of Amiens). Having 
been cliueen cooiljutor of the archbishnp of Rbeims, he 
was consecrated at Kume, Sept. 26, 1766, under the title 
of arelihishopof Troyanople iapartibai. He succeeded 
to the archblBhopric oT Kheima Oct. 27, 1777, and was 
vtty active in improving his diocese, as well as in pub- 
lic and ecclesiastical functions, sharing the varied furi- 
onesoftbe Church and State during the stormy periiHl 
oTthe French Kevolution, Afler having been a refugee 
at Aix-la-Chapelle, Itrussels, and other places, be was 
recalled in 1803, and on July 28 was made canliiial. and 
on Aug. 8 following bish<^ of Paris, where he died, Oct. 
20, IH21, See Hocfer, .Vour. Hi«</. Grain*, a. v. 

Talleyrand (he ri!Riuoiti>). IBlie, a French prel- 
ate, was bom at I'urijpieux in 1^01, and was educated 
Tut the priesthood at the school of St. Kront in that 
town. He became succnaivelj- archdeacon ot Piiri- 
gueux, dean of Kichmond (diocese of Vork), ablint of 
Chancehu, and (Uet. 10, 1324) lHshu]i of Limoges, al- 
and in 132** he was iransUled to the ace ofAuxerre, 
though he continued to reside at Oudan, engaged in lit- 
erary studies, tie wu created cardinal May 22, 1331, 
and thenceforth liecame active in piddic alliiirs, in 

He died at Avignon, Jan. 17, 1864, leaving a vast fort- 
une. See Hocfer, A'uur. Hing. Grnii-att, s. v. 

TalllB. TooMAH, a celebrated F.nglish musician, 
flourished about the middle of the 16lh century. Un- 
der t|ueen Elizabeth he became genileman of the royal 
chapel and organist. Alibongh he was a diligent 

wr at Ihc works nf other men, his rompositioni are so 
truly oripnal that ho may justly be said In lie (he 
faltter of the cathedral style. Nolwiihstanding his 
MipiHiseil attachment to Ihe Idimish relipon. it seema 
IhatTallb aecommiidatBd himHelli 


in fiiur parts, with (he preces, responses, luid litany, 
Tallis composed many anthems. He died Nov. 'it, 
1585, and was buried in the parish church of Green- 
wich, in Kent. 

Talmage, Sauifkl KENsEnr, D.D., a Preabvierian 
divine,wasbomattiamerville, N.J.. Dec. 1I,I7M. He 
graduated at the College of New Jersey in 1820; taught 
in an academy for two years: was tutor in the College 
of New Jersey for three yearn, employing his leisure 
hours in studying theology privately ; was licensed and 
orduned an evangelist in 1835 by I'be Newton Presby- 
tery; labored as a missionary at Hamburg and other 
points in Edgefield DiBtric^ S. C, for one year ; in 1827 
was a colleague with the Kev. S. S. Da\-ii, D.U., in sup- 
plying tlie First Presbyterian Church at Augusta, Ga. ; 
in 1K28 became pastor of the AugusU Church ; in 1836 
was elected professor of languages in Oglethorpe Uni- 
venuty.which chair he held until 1840, when he was 
elected president of the institution, where he continued 
to labor until 1862, when his health failed. He died 
Sept. 2,1866. Dr. Talmage wai> an able minister, a fine 
scholar, and a successful instructor. See Wilson, Prcib. 
Hill. Almanac, 1866, p. 36.1. 

Tal'mal (Heb. TiW;*!*', ir^n./Brmtwd [Geseni- 
us ] or bold [Fllrst, who comp. HoXo/inioc, Josephus. 
.4Rf.xiv,8,l: Bop-SoXofioToc, Matt. X. S] ; Sept. SoX- 
fill. HoX^i, etXnfio'i', eoXofiol, etc.; Vulg. Tliolmai or 

bv the Judabites (Judg. I 
10). Uai618. llbasbeen 
thought that tbese peopli 
are depicted on the Egyp' 

light -complexioned race. 
In the birroglypbic tnscrip- 

miiAa, which may be Ihe 
Egyptian rendering of the 

l1 Talm. 

LijipoKd Egyptian Fiirare 

introduced at the Kefun 

^me.1 n 

iim. Willi (liis 
KngUsli liturgy 
it prn]ier to be 

»un);, vii. the two morning services— the i 
hcnding Ihe Venile t>Hflmh$, Tt Drum, i 
Im; and the other, which is part of the communion 
otHce, csMiMSting of the Kgiit Kitivm, KUnt Crrrd, 

the Uagnjfical and A'urc IHrnillii. He alwi set 
musical notes to the preces and response*, ami cnm- 
poseil that litany which for its excellence is •iing 
on solemn senjces in all places where Ihe choral 
service is performed. The services of Tallis contain 
also chanu for the I'tnilf fxubanui and the Crt«l 
«/ Si. Athanaiin), two of which are published in 
Dr. Boyce's Calhtdral Mnfie, vol. i. BeM.lei Ihe of- 
doea above mentioned, constituting what are now 
termed the morning, communion, and evening servii:es. 

lowing fur the inlerchangi 

slant in all languages. Tli< 
Bgureisfrom a picture nni 
wall of Ihe tomb of Aime- 
nepthah I, supposed to 

Talmai, one of the son 
Anak ( Itunon, Exa. 
/lirrnt/ljfph ica). 

2, Non of Ammihud and king ofGeehur 
3;xiii,37; 1 Chnm. iii,2). aC. 1045. V 
Maaehah was one of the wives of David am 
Absalom. He was )>rolial>lv apctlvchieflain dependent 
nn David, and his wild retreat in Il^shan afforded a shel- 
ter to his grandson after the assassination of Amnon. 
See llAvni. 

Tal'mon fllcli. Tiilnum', 'i^W^, opprator ; Sept. 
TfX/iui' and TiXa/iiv v. r. TiXfirit', ToX/iui', TtXn^tii'; 
Vnlg. Trinum). the head of a family of door-keepers in 
the Temple, " the porters fur the camps of the auns of 
l<vi"(l Chron.ix,l7; Neh.xi,19). U.C.IOlIt. Some 
of his descetwlanla returned with Zerubbabel (Eari ii, 
42 : Neb. vii, 45), and were employed in their heredi- 
lary nfflcc in the days ofNehemiah and Eira (Neb. xii, 
25), for the proper names in this passage must be con- 

sidered ai 

I of fa 

Talmnd (IITsV^. Ialm«d. dodrmt; from Itt^. ■• to 
teach"). The Talmud, "that wonderful nmnuin^t of 
human industry, human wisdom, and human rollv' 
(Milman), is the work which embodies Ihe canonical 
and civil laws of the .tews. Ii consists of a Mishiia 
(q. V.) as text, and a voluminous collection ofntinmen- 




or " injuries,*^ treats of the laws of property (movable as 
well as immovable) and of commerce ; the tifth, Koda- 
shim (p'^^lp)f or " consecrations,'* treats of sacri6ces 
and their laws; the sixth, Tahardth [or rather TohO' 
rdthi (m"ini3), or " purifications," treats of the laws of 
pureness, legal cleanness, and that both positively and 
negatively. The initial letters of these titles combined, 
for the sake of memor^^', give the technical word Zemdn 
neket (I3p3 I'OI), "a time accepted." 

The regulations thus generally classified are further 
arranged under a multitude of subsidiary topics, each 
Seder^ or order, being divided into a number of tracts or 

treatises, called Massiktoth (rinSDTS), and these were 

again subdivided into Perakim (O^p^^D), chapters. 
The latter again are divided or broken up into para- 
graphs. Altogether there are 63 M(usiktMh^ with 525 
chapters and 4187 paragraphs, in the Mishna. The 
whole is called Shns (O^), after the initials of n^^ 
C^^IO, i. e. the six orders. Since a general analj'sis of 
the contents of the Mishna has already been given under 
the art. Mishna (q. v.), we must refer the reader to it, 
while a more minute analysis will be given farther on. 

R. Judah's Mishna, however, did not contain all Mid- 
rashim. Many others existed, which are contained in 
part in the Siphra on I^viticus, Siphre on Numbers 
and Deuteronomy, Mechilta on Exodus (see the art. 
MiDRASii), the Mishnas made by individual teachers 
for the use of their pupils, with the addition to the ofli- 
cial Mishna collected by R. Chiya and his contempora- 
ries. All the Halakoth of this sort, which were ex- 

tra-Mishnaic, were called Boraifhat (mn'^''13; Heb. 
maiS'^n) or ToMphtas (ninBDin). As has been 

stated, R. Judah the Holy collected the great mass 
of traditions in the work called Mishna ; but even this 
copious work could not satisfy, for the length of time, 
the zeal of the rabbins for the law, for all casuistr\' is 
endless in its details. There were a great multitude of all 
kinds of possibilities which were treated in the Mishna, 
and yet, again, each single sentence left open divers pos-. 
sibilities, divers doubts, and considerations not yet fin- 
ished. Thus it was an inner necessity of the matter that 
the text of the Mishna should again become the point 
of learned discussion. Partly by means of logic (that is. 
Rabbinical), partly with the help of the traditional mat- 
ter, which had not yet been inclu<lcd in the Mishna, all 
open questions were now discussed. This task was car- 
ried out by the Amoraim, or (remarical doctors, whose 
V€i^ nnffular illustrations, opinions, and doctrines were 
subsequently to form the Gemaras, i. e. the Palestinian 
and Rabylonian : a body of men charged with being the 
most learned and elaborate triflers that ever brought 
discredit upon the republic of letters — 

•• For mystic Icnrnlng, wondrous able 
III mngic, talisman, and cabal— 
Dcep-i>i^hted in intelligences, 
Ideas, atonic, iiifliiencei>." 

With unexampled assiduity did they seek after or in- 
vent obscurities and ambiguities, which continually fur- 
nished pret4>xts for new expositions and illustrations, 
the art of clouding texts in themselves clear having 
proved ever less difficult than that of elucidating pas- 
sages the words or the sense of which might be really 
involved in obscurity. 

** Hence comment nfrer comment, ?pnn ns fine 
As bloated spiders draw the flimsy line !'* 

The two main schools where this casuistic treatment of 
the Mishnic text was exercised were that at Tiberias, in 
Palestine, and that at Sora (q. v.), in Babylonia, whither 
Abba Areka, called " Rab" (q. v.), a pupil of R. Judah, 
had brought the Mishna. In these and other schools 
(as Nahardea, Sipporis, Pumbaditha [q. v.], and Jabne 
or Jamnia), the thread of casuistry was twisted over 
and over again, and the matter of traditions of the law 
^hus took greater and greater dimensions. Abandoning 

the Scripture text, to illustrate and to explain which tb* 
doctors and wise men of the schools had hitherto la- 
bored, successive generations of Gemarici now devoted 
their whole attention to the exposition of the text of 
the Mishna ; and the industry and cavillation were such 
that expositions, illustrations, and commentaries multi* 
plied with amazing rapidity and to so portentous a 
degree that they eventually swelled into a monstrous- 
chaotic mass, which was dignified by the name of 
Gemara, M"it33 (supplement or complement) ^ and this, to- 
gether with the Mishna, was called "Talmud." Not- 
withstanding the uncertain pateniity of this incongru^ 
ous body of opinions, there were not wanting those who- 
gave a preference to the Gemara over the Mishna, and 
even over the " written law." It was said by some that 
the "written law" was like water, the Mishna like wine,, 
and the Gemara like hippocras, or spiced wine. The 
*' words of the scribes," said those supporters of the Ge- 
mara, are lovely above the " words of the law," for the 
" words of the law" are weiyhty and liyht, but the " worda 
of the scribes" are all weighty. 

It was by R. Jochanan, rector of the Academy of Ti- 
berias, that the minor chaos of comments and facetin 
began to be collected ; and these, being added to the 
Mishna, were termed the Paltstiman Talmud^ or Tal- 
mud Jeruskabnit i. e. Jerusalem Talmud. This Talmud^ 
which was completed at Tiberias about A.D. 350, only 
contains four orders, viz., Zeraim, MSid, Nashim, and 
Nezikin, together with the treatise Niddah and some oth- 
er fragmentary portions. From the schools of Babylo- 
nia, also, a similar collection was in after-times maiie ;. 
but, as, upon the desolation of I*alestine, the study of 
the law was chiefly prosecuted in Babylon, the colleges 
there were far more numerous, and far more ingenious 
and prolific were the imaginations of the Babylonian 
professors. To collect and methodize all the disputa- 
tions, interpretations, elucidations, commentaries, and 
conceits of the Babylonian Gemarici was consequently 
a labor neither of one man nor of a single age. The 
first attempt was made (A.D. 367) by R. Ashe, elected 
at the age of fourteen to be rector of the school of Sora 
(q. V. ), a t«acher described as eminently pious and 
learned. R. Ash& labored during sixty years upon the 
rank, unwieldy work, and, after arranging thirty -five 
books, died in 427, leaving the completion to his suc- 
cessors. For 100 years longer did rabbi after rabbi, 
with undiminished zeal, successively continue this un- 
profitable application, until at length, afler the lapse of 
123 years (about A.D. 5r)0), rabbi Abina, the sixth in- 
succession to Ash^, gave the finishing stroke to thb 
second Talmud. Denominated, from the name of the 
province in which it was first compiled, the Babylordan 
Talmudf this second T